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Using waste from palm oil tree is one of the green engineering applications. Green merchandise derive from works will diminish the chemical use and certified ‘halal ‘ . Bio-solid cleansing agent from dodecanoic acid in bio-oil from EPFB was produce, prove the belongingss and comparison to commercial cleansing agent. Samples were fluctuation of mole ratios of NaOH to dodecanoic acid. Cold procedure of fatty acerb saponication with base was the best method. The dodecanoic acid reacts with NaOH solution at 40-50A°C until an emulsion was formed. Others ingredients were added at this point ( moisturizer, bar-hardening, deodourant, aroma oil, filler, and antioxidants ) . pH value, floging ability, eroding rate, biodegradability, and cleaning ability was trial for every sample and comparison to commercial merchandise. This bio-solid cleansing agent have pH of 9.08, somewhat lower lathering ability, lower eroding rate ( 3.2g/min ) , high biodegradability ( 60 % ) , and same cleansing ability as the commercial cleansing agent.

Keywords: bio-solid cleansing agent, dodecanoic acid, bio-oil, green engineering, biodegradability.

1.0 Introduction

In recent decennaries, the universe has struggled with deficits of fossil fuels, pollution, and increased planetary energy demands due to fast population growing, fast technological developments, and higher life criterions. These factors have led to universe population passage, migration, hungriness, environmental ( particularly air and H2O pollution ) jobs, deteriorating wellness and disease, terrorist act, energy and natural resources concerns, and wars. Besides, jobs with energy supply and usage are related non merely to planetary agitation, but besides to such environmental concerns as air pollution, acerb precipitation, ozone depletion, forest devastation, and the emanation of radioactive substances. These issues must be taken into consideration at the same time if human it is to accomplish a bright energy hereafter with minimum environmental impact.

Numerous surveies conducted on the green stuff merchandises are published in assorted scientific diaries. A survey carried out in the United State on 2002 found a batch of chances and challenges of sustainable bio-composites from renewable resources in the green stuffs universe [ 1 ] . Another recent survey in Canada proved that development of byproducts from industrial waste is concerned, has possibly ne’er been diametrically opposed to the environmental involvement of society. Indeed, market establishments, such as does found in Victorian England, seemed to hold proven effectual at concentrating makers ‘ long term economic and environmental benefits [ 2 ] .

In this survey, the functional group that will be utility utilizing functional group in bio-oil is fatty acid. In bio-oil, fatty acid exists in a certain per centum. From catalytic pyrolysis of empty fruit Bunches, country per centum of dodecanoic acid is 1.61 per centum and tetradecanoic acid is 0.76 per centum [ 3 ] . In slow pyrolysis, dodecanoic acid has 30.92 per centum relation and tetradecanoic acid has 4.87 per centum comparative [ 4 ] . Acids are found to be 2.32 per centum utilizing catalytic procedure of empty fruit clump [ 5 ] . In rice chaff pyrolysis, the bio-oil produces has formic acid with 7.69 weight per centum [ 6 ] . Bio-oil production from fast pyrolysis of waste furniture sawdust in a i¬‚uidized bed has acetic acid with 13.7 percent country [ 7 ] . Saponii¬?ed, thenar, olive, rapeseed and Castor oils were pyrolysed ( at 750 a-¦C for 20 s ) by pyrolysis gas chromatography output fatty acerb constituent [ 8 ] .

Soap is chemically defined as the base salt of fatty acids. In general idiom, the term “ soap ” has taken on a more functional definition, by which any cleaning agent, irrespective of its chemical science, is considered as soap. Soap is manufactured by the saponification procedure, by which triglycerides ( fats and oils ) or fatty acids are transformed into the corresponding base salt mixtures of fatty acids. There are three ways to green goodss soap. The first reaction is direct impersonal fat saponification ( Equation 1 ) . Oils and fats are straight saponified with base in a poached or semiboiled boiler procedure.


CHOOC C11H23 + 3NaOH a†’ 3 C11H23COONa + CHOH ( Equation 1 )


The resulting mixture of soap and glycerol is treated with salt to precipitate the soap, which is so separated from the glycerin solution, washed, and dried. The 2nd reaction that will be use in this survey is fatty acerb saponification ( Equation2 ) . The fatty acid distillations are neutralized.

C11H23 COOH + NaOH a†’ C11H23 COONa + H2O ( Equation 2 )

The soap bases obtained by the above two procedures have a fatty acerb contents of 63 to 75 % . They are so continuously dried to a concluding mass of 78 to 80 % fatty acerb content. These procedures account for more than 95 % of universe soap production. The 3rd method, which is seldom usage is fatty acerb methyl ester saponification.

C11H23COOCH3 + NaOH a†’ C11H23COONa + CH3OH ( Equation 3 )

The methyl esters are obtained by catalytic transesterification of triglycerides with methyl alcohol or direct catalytic esterification of fatty acids with methyl alcohol. The terminal merchandise of this procedure has higher fatty acid content, at the disbursal of a more dearly-won procedure. For economic every bit good as for toxicology and ecology grounds, the procedure must be carried out in certain equipment with recycling of methyl alcohol [ 9 ] .

In this survey, we will be utilizing the 2nd method to replace fatty acid with dodecanoic acid because the byproduct is H2O and safe to be done in the lab. For the first method, the triglycerides can non be obtained straight from bio-oil. For the 3rd method, even thought the methyl ester is available constituent in bio-oil, the byproduct obtained is methanol. The experiment must be done in certain equipment which is non available in the lab. Methanol is besides extremely toxic and flammable which can be a hazard during the experiment.

The coveted benefits of the finished soap merchandise are governed by a professional choice of appropriate surfactant cleansing natural stuffs ( in this instance soap ) and of fabrication procedure and by the matrimony between the two [ 9 ] . In this survey, the parametric quantities that will be tested were pH value, floging ability, eroding rate after manus lavation, and biodegradability.


2.1 Reagents and solutions

Dodecanoic acid was obtained from pyrolysis of empty thenar fruit clump ( EPFB ) . NaOH pellet was dilute in H2O for different ratios to dodecanoic acid to be reacts as base. Others ingredients were glycerin as moisturizer, Na chloride for saloon hardening, triclosan for deodourant, aroma oil ( rose ) , filler ( amylum ) , and dye for coloring.

2.2 Experimental process

2.2.1 Cleaning Agent Production

Table 1: Sample of Dodecanoic Acid


Moles Ratios of to NaOH Dodecanoic Acid

Mass of NaOH

( g ) in 100mL of H2O

Mass of Dodecanoic Acid

( g )





















Table 2: Ingredient in Cleaning Agent


Mass Percentage ( % )

Mass/ Volume



55.575 g

Moisturizer ( Glycerin )


3.000 milliliter

Bar-hardening ( NaCl )


1.308 g

Deodorant ( Triclosan )


0.654 g

Aroma oil



Filler ( amylum )


2.615 g

This process was obtained from “ Preparation of Soap ” [ 10 ] .10g of NaOH pellets was diluted in 100 milliliter of distilled H2O in a 150mL beaker. The mixture of NaOH pellets and H2O were stirred, until the solution was clear. The sample of dodecanoic acid was prepared in a 250ml beaker. The beaker was so placed on the hot home base with low heat and with occasional stirring until the temperature rises between 40-50oC. The dodecanoic acid was removed from the hot home base and the NaOH solution was added to the sample with uninterrupted stirring. The sample and NaOH mixture was stirred continuously until an emulsion was formed. The mixture was let cool with occasional stirring until an emulsion, which does non divide, was formed. Others ingredients was added at this point ( Refer Table 2 ) . The emulsion was poured into a mold for the reaction to run. The cleansing agent was left to age for approximately two yearss. The experiment was repeated for different moles of NaOH.

2.2.2 Cleaning Agent Properties Testing Determination of pH

pH metre ( bench-top ) was used to mensurate the cleansing agent pH. The pH metre was foremost calibrated. The criterion runing process was as in Instruction Manual HI 8417 – Hello 8519 – Hello 8520 – Hello 8521 Microprocessor Bench-Top pH Meters. 0.5g of the cleansing agent sample was placed into a trial tubing. Forceps was used to manage the cleansing agent sample until the pH has been determined. 10 milliliter of distilled H2O was added to the trial tubing and stopple the trial tubing. The trial tubing was shacked to fade out the cleansing agent in the H2O. The pH of the solutions were determined and recorded. The trial was repeated for Sample B, C, D, E, X, and Y. Lathering Ability

Procedure obtained from “ Preparation of Soap ” [ 10 ] province that 0.5g of the cleansing agent sample was placed into a trial tubing. 10 milliliter of distilled H2O was added to the trial tubing and stopple the trial tubing. The trial tubing was shacked smartly for 25 times. Observations of the lathering abilities were recorded. Test tubing were allowed to sit until the liquid below the cleansing agent bubbles appear clear ( about one minute ) . The volume of soapsuds formed was recorded. The trial was repeated for Sample B, C, D, E, X, and Y. Erosion from Hand Washing

This process was obtained from Ginn et al [ 11 ] . The cleansing agent bars was weighed before the experiment. The cleansing agent was used to rinse custodies for 1 minute. The cleansing agent was allowed to dry at room temperature for 24 hour and reweighed. The difference of cleansing agent weight before and after rinsing was recorded. The trial was repeated for Sample B, C, D, E, X, and Y. Biodegradability

The biodegradability of green cleaning agent was compared to commercial cleansing agent. The samples were capable to the proving guidelines prepared by the Organization of Economic and Cooperative Development of the United Nations ( OECD 301D closed bottle trial ) method over 28 yearss. Samples were prepared by fade outing 5 g of cleansing agent into 150 milliliter of distilled H2O. The cleansing agent solution was so added with 150ml waste H2O sample into the BOD bottle. Dissolved O metre ( Model YSI 58 ) was used to enter the dissolved O ( DO ) . The metre was foremost calibrated utilizing concentrated air. The initial DO was recorded for every bottle. Final DO was recorded for every four twenty-four hours until twenty-four hours 28. BOD was calculated utilizing this expression:

( Equation 4 )

Biodegradability per centum was determined utilizing:

( Equation 5 )

ThOD ( theoretical O demand ) was defined as the deliberate sum ofA oxygenA required toA oxidizeA a compound to its concluding oxidization merchandises. Cleaning Ability

Handss with soil and cookery oils were washed with H2O. If the soil and oil did non come off, the cleansing ability trial was preceded. Wash hands with green cleaning agent for approximately 1 minute. Observation was recorded. The experiment was repeated utilizing commercial cleansing agent.


3.1 Cleaning Agent Production

Five samples of bio-solid cleansing agent were produced in this experiment. Table 3 shows the cleansing agent that had been produced. Merely Sample A and Sample B appeared in solid signifier. Sample C, D, and E appeared as sludge. The ground is because soap could non organize at lower pH. Soap exists as alkali substance and the lower pH will do the soap appear as sludge. Harmonizing to U.S Patent 4,100,097 [ 12 ] , normal alkali metal soap has a pH about 10 ; it is non possible to supply a saloon which depends chiefly on soap for its cleansing action and which besides provide an acid or impersonal pH. Acid or impersonal saloon can merely be practical world with the coming of man-made detergents. The pH trial and floging ability trial was run to all sample but the other trials was merely run to Sample A, B, X, and Y. Sample X and Y were sample from commercial cleansing agent.

Table 3: Cleaning Agent Sample Produce







Cleaning Agent




sample 4.jpg

sample 5.jpg


Solid signifier

Solim signifier

Sludge with small H2O

Sludge with some H2O

Sludge with a batch of H2O

3.2 pH Trial

Figure 1 shows the consequences of pH values for Sample A, B, C, D, E, X, and Y that had been prepared. Increasing the concentration of NaOH will increase the pH value. The higher pH at higher mole of NaOH was due to the presence of unreacted NaOH in the mixture. Cleaning agent produced from the higher mole of NaOH gave the higher pH value. This consequence obtained is the same with consequence of Awang et. al [ 13 ] . Awang stated that increasing the mole ratio of NaOH to dihydroxystearic acid ( DHSA ) decreased Entire Fatty Matter ( TFM ) , while pH and free acerb alkalinity increased. Cleaning agent Sample A and B appear as solid cleansing agent, and were used for farther analysis.

Figure 1: pH value for cleaning agent samples

3.3 Lathering Ability

Foam is an of import facet of detergent merchandises and wetting agents were chiefly responsible for its coevals. One of import belongings is the foam coevals. The factors that affect this belongings were the concentration of hardness ions [ 14 ] . A common misconception is that soap increases the H2O ‘s surface tenseness, soap really does the antonym, diminishing it to about one third the surface tenseness of pure H2O [ 15 ] .In Figure 2, all the foam volumes increased bit by bit with the increasing ratio of base added. Commercial cleansing agent, Sample X has the higher froth volume which was 32 milliliter. Sample Y has 2nd highest froth volume which was 27 milliliter. The lowest froth volume was produce by Sample E which merely 3 milliliter. The highest lathering ability for bio-solid cleansing agent was Sample B which posses about the same froth volume with commercial cleansing agent Sample Y.

Figure 2: Foam volume ( milliliter ) versus sample

3.4 Erosion from Hand rinsing

Figure 3 show the consequence for eroding by existent manus rinsing. The lowest eroding rate is Sample B which is about 3.2 g /min. This is good because the cleansing agent can last longer. Commercial cleansing agent X has the highest eroding rate ; the cleansing agent will non be really permanent. From the old consequence discussed, Sample X has the highest froth volume. The froth was high therefore the eroding rate for the cleansing agent is high excessively. Customer may be happy to utilize cleaning agent with tonss of froths but they will hold to purchase more cleansing agent in a twelvemonth. This will increase the cost. For bio-solid cleansing agent, it has much lower eroding rate instead than commercial cleansing agent. Therefore, client will salvage more money.

Figure 3: Erosion rate ( g/min ) for each sample

3.5 Biodegradability

The biodegradability of bio-solid cleansing agent green goods ( Sample A and B ) were compared to commercial cleansing agent ( Sample X and Y ) and DHSA cleansing agent ( typical green bio-solid cleansing agent ) from Awang et al. , [ 13 ] . The samples were capable to the OECD 301D closed bottle trial method over 28 yearss. Mentioning to Figure 4, sample A, B and DHSA bio-solid cleansing agent degraded more than 60 % but commercial cleansing agent ( Sample X and Y ) merely 30 % . Therefore, the latter is non readily biodegradable. Biodegradability of bio-solid cleansing agent was proven higher than the commercial cleansing agent. This is a really good determination because it means that the bio-solid cleansing agent is safe for the environment. Higher biodegradability means that the substance will non remain long in the waste H2O. Commercial cleansing agent takes longer times to biodegrade and will foul the H2O.

Figure 4: Biodegradability Percentage ( % ) V Dayss

3.6 Cleaning Ability

The soiled manus was tested by rinsing utilizing tap H2O. When the soil did non come off, it was wash utilizing cleaning agent sample. The bio-solid cleansing agent posses the same cleansing ability compared to commercial cleansing agent as seen in Figure 5a and Figure 5b. The hydrophilic belongingss of cleansing agent are the factor that the soil comes away. The hydrophobic terminal of a soap avoids H2O, so the hydrophobic terminals of many soap molecules will roll up together with their hydrophilic caputs indicating out in to the aqueous solution, and their hydrophobic dress suits clustered together in a small hydrophobic microenvironment. This bunch is called a micelle, and these small balls frequently surround a atom of lubricating oil or soil, therefore keeping the hydrophobic nucleus of the micelle [ 16 ] .


Figure 5a: Cleaning ability of commercial Figure 5b: Cleaning ability of bio-solid

cleaning agent cleansing agent

3.7 Costing

Bio-solid cleansing agent production is somewhat expensive than normal cleansing agent production because it involve a new engineering. The monetary value may cut down after some times. From Table 4, monetary value per saloon of bio-solid cleansing agent from this experiment is RM1.35. If the production is run on a bigger graduated table, the monetary value will besides be reduced. Since this survey merely involved little production of soap, it is rather expensive.

Table 4: Costing of bio-solid cleansing agent production

Chemicals Name

Battalion Size

Price per battalion ( RM )

Amount usage per bio-solid cleansing agent

Price per cleansing agent ( RM )




7.500 g





3.000 milliliter





1.308 g





0.654 g





2.615 g


Dodecanoic Acid





Essential Oil



0.01 milliliter





0.05 milliliter



RM 1.35

4.0 Decision

The bio-sold cleansing agent from dodecanoic acerb saponification was synthesized. The cleansing agent was sodium dodecanoate. Sample B was the best sample that posse a good belongingss of a bio-solid cleansing agent. The bio-solid cleansing agent has somewhat lower pH instead than commercial soap. The pH of Sample B was 9.08 lower than both commercial cleansing agent sample ( 9.93 and 10.20 ) . The lathering ability was somewhat lower than commercial cleansing agent. The highest lathering ability for bio-solid cleansing agent was Sample B which posses about the same froth volume ( 26ml ) with commercial cleansing agent Sample Y. Erosion rate after manus rinsing were higher than commercial cleansing agent which was 3.2 g/min of rinsing. Biodegradability of bio-solid cleansing agent was more than 60 % which was higher than commercial cleansing agent ( 30 % ) . The per centum of dodecanoic acid in this cleansing agent is 80 % of its entire mass. The consequences were sufficiently assuring to justify farther probe.

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