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Zeolites are groups of compounds which produce H2O when they are heated. They have a 3-dimensional crystalline construction which contains O, aluminum and Si. Zeolites are normally used to sublimate H2O and excess N from air hence increasing the sum of O content there is in the ambiance

Zeolites contain little pores or pits in its construction which enable them to move as good host molecules. This allows it to interchange cations such as Na+ , K+ , Ca2+ in its pores. This alone belongings allows many applications of Zeolites some of which are ; taking ammonium ions from waste watercourses, intervention of sewerages, commanding bad smell, usage as accelerators and usage in agribusiness.

There are channels within the molecule which screen molecules which are of a certain size. Any molecule which is excessively big to go through through the channel at the given parametric quantities are excluded, therefore this forms a ‘molecular screen ‘ .

Purpose: The purpose of this experiment was to analyze and indentify the constructions of Zeolites utilizing Xray pulverization diffraction [ 2 ]

Experimental

The x-ray pulverization diffraction form for Zeolites X and Y were collected utilizing the same process.

Sample readying

The Zeolite sample was crushed to pulverize in a pestal and howitzer. The resulting mixture was so sieved to do certain the pulverization was of regular grain size. The sample holder was cleaned and dried utilizing H2O followed by methyl alcohol. The powdery zeolite was poured into the sample holder ( covering the indenture ) . A microscope slide was drawn across the surface of the pulverization so that it formed a smooth surface.

Data aggregation

The sample holder was placed in the sample modifier of the Brucka D8 diffractometer and so locked into topographic point ( push and so keep ) . The door is so closed. The Personal computer is used to command the diffractometer. The XRD ace is opened on the computing machine and this sets the parametric quantities for informations. The scope was set between 5-40 ( this is normal ) .The measure size = 0.04 ( the smaller the measure size the more accurate the information ) .Time per measure = 2 seconds. This showed it is traveling to take 29 proceedingss to finish the rhythm. The file was so saved and closed.

Now the XRD commanding officer was opened and so Clicked on ‘jobs ‘ & gt ; ‘create occupations ‘ . The Zeolite X was placed in place 1. And Zeolite Y was placed in place 2. The parametric quantity file was opened once more and a natural file was generated ( this must be called the same name as the sample ID ) . The instrument was started and began to roll up informations.

Datas Analysis

Even though the sample was powder it is still a crystalline sample as it has order to it, it is non formless. The pulverization form gave extremums. Once the informations had been collected the informations rating programme EVA was used to treat the information. The peak list was obtained and imported to Excel. Plots of the two experimental forms were besides obtained.

Results & A ; treatment

2-Theta A°

Theta A°

Theta 2

Sin2 Theta A°

Ratio

Common Multiplier

Miller Index

a

6.276

3.138

0.002999581

0.002999577

1

3

1

1

1

24.37971879

10.122

5.061

0.007802386

0.007802306

2.601135887

8

2

2

0

24.37971879

11.89

5.945

0.010766101

0.010765893

3.589137536

11

3

1

1

24.37971879

13.555

6.7775

0.013992451

0.013991994

4.664656341

14

3

2

1

24.37971879

15.599

7.7995

0.018530548

0.018529487

6.177367552

19

3

3

1

24.37971879

18.568

9.284

0.026255784

0.026252768

8.752157757

26

5

1

0

24.37971879

20.245

10.1225

0.031212626

0.031207558

10.40398756

31

4

3

2

24.37971879

22.664

11.332

0.03911721

0.039107234

13.03758469

39

6

1

1

24.37971879

23.521

11.7605

0.04213144

0.042118977

14.04164066

42

5

4

1

24.37971879

26.863

13.4315

0.054954564

0.054926908

18.31155343

55

6

4

2

24.37971879

29.426

14.713

0.065941255

0.065893477

21.96759232

66

8

1

1

24.37971879

30.49

15.245

0.070796142

0.070737017

23.58233378

71

8

2

2

24.37971879

31.148

15.574

0.073884796

0.073817592

24.60933672

74

7

5

0

24.37971879

32.201

16.1005

0.078964786

0.078882748

26.29796054

79

8

3

2

24.37971879

33.823

16.9115

0.082653663

0.082559585

27.52374578

83

9

1

1

24.37971879

Zeolite Ten

2-Theta A°

Theta A°

Theta2

Sin2 Theta A°

Ratio

Common Ratio

Miller Index

a

6.209

3.1045

0.002935878

0.002935874

1

3

1

1

1

24.64279438

10.155

5.0775

0.007853344

0.007853263

2.674931688

8

2

2

0

24.64279438

11.874

5.937

0.010737145

0.010736939

3.657152317

11

3

1

1

24.64279438

15.642

7.821

0.018632851

0.018631773

6.34624358

19

3

3

1

24.64279438

18.706

9.353

0.026647508

0.026644355

9.075441569

27

5

1

1

24.64279438

20.375

10.1875

0.031614767

0.0316095

10.76663997

32

5

2

2

24.64279438

22.786

11.393

0.039539478

0.039529176

13.46419286

40

6

2

0

24.64279438

23.643

11.8215

0.042569633

0.042556777

14.49543628

43

5

3

3

24.64279438

25.015

12.5075

0.047653605

0.047635571

16.22534483

49

7

0

0

24.64279438

25.769

12.8845

0.050569642

0.050548091

17.21738999

52

6

4

0

24.64279438

27.062

13.531

0.055771782

0.055742874

18.98680611

57

7

2

2

24.64279438

27.78

13.89

0.058770478

0.058736652

20.00652917

59

7

3

1

24.43258711

29.624

14.812

0.066831644

0.066781904

22.74685506

68

8

2

0

24.64279438

30.72

15.36

0.071868266

0.071806415

24.45827388

73

8

3

0

24.64279438

31.412

15.706

0.075142549

0.075071854

25.57052852

77

8

3

2

24.64279438

Zeolite Y

Looking at the information generated, the construction of Zeolites X and Y are both Faujasites ( FAU ) . This can be confirmed by comparing the experimental cell dimensions for zeolite Ten and zeolite Y which are 24.379 and 24.643 Amstrongs severally, with the literature value of 24.3 [ 3 ]

Faujasites contain big pits which are perpendicular to one another. The pits contain coops which are connected through hexangular prisms. Faujasites are used for catalytic snap which are convert crude oil petroleum fractions ( with high boiling points ) to more valuable merchandises such as gasolene and Diesel.

Because there is no 7 nowadays as a value in the common multiplier column, this verifies that both Zeolites X and Y are face centred molecules.

Decision

In order for the construction of the unknown compounds to be determined accurately, the unit cell dimensions must besides be determined accurately and therefore finely ground pulverization must be used.

In this experiment we have established that the values calculated signify that both molecules are face centred and are both Faujasites. However the experimental values differ somewhat from the literature values and this can be because of a figure of grounds. The sample may non hold been ground into all right atoms, it may non hold been assorted exhaustively or it can besides be because there are experimental mistakes from the machinery or other setup. Besides there may be some reading mistakes which cause the consequences to be inaccurate. In future it is of import to guarantee that all setup is cleaned exhaustively before usage and that attending to the smallest item is paid to guarantee better consequences are obtained.

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