The fluvial fields of Bihar, in east India, has been recognized as a H2O excess province ; but, perennial inundations and drouth, along with microbic and metalloid pollution and taints, pose a great challenge to get by with the increasing demand for clean H2O. Of these, the most terrible wellness jeopardy beginning is groundwater taint by arsenic ( As ) , soon detected in 20 out of 38 territories of Bihar. Over 42 % of the entire province population falls below the poorness line, thereby restricting the province ‘s option to agricultural intensification with expanded irrigation installations. Bihar ‘s agro-based economic system has a predomination of dullard well irrigation covering 55.3 % of its irrigated country. Bihar Ground Water Irrigation Scheme ( BIGWIS ) aims to supply irrigation to 9.28 hundred thousands hectare of agricultural land of the State by put ining 4.64 lakh units of private shallow tubing Wellss dig Wellss with pump sets over a period of 3 old ages end by 2011-12. Its ambitious Million Shallow Tubewell plan ( MSTP ) is an of import constituent in the Particular Plan for Bihar under the tenth. and 11th. Five Year programs ( Dept. of Agriculture, Bihar, 2010 ) . Rice is the most of import nutrient harvest in Bihar. Due to the process of its cultivation, As contaminated irrigation H2O leads to arsenic accretion in the dirts. So the harvest cultivation takes topographic point in As-contaminated dirts under anaerobiotic conditions, at which As is extremely available for works consumption ( Meharg, 2004 ) . Hence, dietetic consumption of As poses a serious wellness menace to all consumers of the rice grown in the affected countries.
The aims of this preliminary research in the province of Bihar, hence, were to analyze and uncover the position of As taint in rice harvests, puting accent in the locally grown, normally consumed rice assortments ; to analyze the impact of As accretion on works growing ; to place rice assortments with minimal consumption of As by the grain as a portion of the As extenuation scheme ; and, to bring forth preliminary informations of the spacial extent of As toxicity in the nutrient concatenation of the province.
Basic information on deepness of dullard Wellss, periods of their usage, and pH values of the irrigation bore good H2O samples collected at beginning were obtained from the field and tested for As content by standard APHA method ( APHA, 1989 ) . Upon laboratory verification of presence of As in irrigation H2O, dirt and rice works samples from selected As hot spots, pot experiments were undertaken on six locally produced rice assortments ( PNR-381, Turantha, Saroj, Sugandha, Sarna and Katarni ) . Thereafter, H2O, dirt and works samples, collected from the field and of the pot experiments, were tested for As content.
The dirt samples were dried and tested for arsenic content by standard APHA method. The works samples were besides likewise dried and grounded and tested for As content by the same process.
Consequences and Discussions
The mean deepness of contaminated dullard Wellss varied from 80 pess in north Bihar Plains up to 200 pess in south Bihar. There was important spacial fluctuation of As concentration among rice Fieldss Irrigation H2O samples collected from 7 territories registered As contents of between 10.7 µg/l ( Gaya ) to 168 µg/l. ( Bhojpur and Khagaria ) with pH values changing from 6.8 to 7.3 at beginning. This indicated of the reasonably cut downing anaerobiotic environment of the groundwater, as addition in pH value consequence in oxidization of the arsenic compounds.
The dirt samples collected from the works root deepnesss had 3-4 µg/l of arsenic, while the As consumption by rice workss and seeds were & A ; gt ; 10 µg/l. In all field samples a general tendency of higher concentration of As in rice workss was noted as compared to arsenic in the dirt. In Sangeetbaitha, in Kahalgaon Block, Bhagalpur District, the irrigation bore good ( 100 pess deepness ) had 102 µg/l, the root dirt sample had 4 µg/g and mature Paddy works 13.6 µg/g of As. This suggests bio-accumulation of As by rice works. Besides oxidising conditions may account for its lesser concentration in the dirt.
Table. Arsenic accretion in selected local rice species under pot experiments.
Provided As As accretion in
Conc. ( µg/L ) Local Rice Varieties ( µg/g )
Turantha PNR-381 Sarna Katarni
Control 0.010 0.010 0.003 0.002
50 0.013 0.028 0.045 0.023
500 0.136 0.042 0.055 0.052
1000 0.349 0.131 0.039 0.165
1500 0.122 0.150 0.033 0.044
2000 0.077 0.101 0.017 0.030
5000 0.065 0.050 0.012 0.007
In pot experiments, the responses of rates of As consumption, works growing and visual aspect for different assortments were varied. Of the six assortments, Saroj and Sugandha were arsenic resistant. Sarna is the lowest hyperaccumulator of As. The other species registered extremums of As consumption with provided As concentration of 1000 – 1500 µg/L. Thereafter, there were disconnected lessenings in arsenic accretion, being negligible in Sarna and Katarni at the provided arsenic solution of 5000 µg/l. The consequences are declarative of possible inhibited As absorbing mechanism at higher concentrations.
In all pot experiments, exuberant works growing was observed in provided concentration up to 1500 µg/l. Thereafter, with increasing concentrations of As solution the works growings were retarded with gradual greensickness at foliage borders, which indicated toxic effects of As accretion. Previous pot surveies ( Jahiruddin et al. , 2004 ) showed that higher As concentration in irrigation H2O ( 0.1 to 2.0 mg/L ) resulted in lower output of a local rice assortment ( BR-29 ) . Absence of seed formation at higher degrees of provided As concentration was besides noted. Harmonizing to Rahman ( 2007 ) this is declarative of Straighthead disease, a physiological upset of rice ( Oryza sativa L. ) characterized by asepsis of the florates/spikelets taking to cut down grain output ; There is a direct correlativity of addition of dirt arsenic concentration with the badness of Straighthead in rice workss ( Rahman, et Al, 2007 )
This is the first confirmatory survey of arsenic infiltration in the nutrient concatenation of Bihar. The development of cultivars that assimilate less As, or curtail As translocation to fruits/seeds would take to decreased dietetic exposure to As ( Meharg and Hartley-Whitaker, 2002 ) , as found in the experiments on Saroj and Sugandha rice assortments.
Since rice is the basic nutrient, any inauspicious effects on seed content of rice due to arsenic contaminated irrigation H2O would merely heighten the malnutrition job more so in Bihar where over 42 % of the population live below the poorness line.
The physiology of As consumption and keeping by different assortments of rice grown in Bihar need to be investigated farther. Surveies are besides required to understand the mechanism behind the enhanced works growing of these rice assortments against an mean arsenic toxicity of 0.05µg/g to 0.50 µg/g.