Palm oil wastes are the chief biomass resources in ASEAN states. Malaya is the universe ‘s 2nd largest palm oil manufacturer and largest exporter. It is stated that until June 2009, there had been 406 palm oil Millss in Malaysia with a entire capacity of 92.78 million tones of FFB per annum. TAN, H. T. , LEE, K. T. & A ; MOHAMED
In Malaysia and Indonesia, which is being the two chief largest palm oil bring forthing states in the universe, there were about 30 M ton and 8.2 M ton of palm oil wastes ( empty fruit clump ( EFB ) , fiber, pail oil shell ) generated severally in twelvemonth 2000 and to provide for the quickly spread outing of nutrient and fabrication industries. Table 1 ( below ) shows the proximate and ultimate analyses of palm oil shell, fibre and EFB based on Yang, H, et al 2006 analysis.
YANG, H. , et Al. 2006
Table 2 below show the biomass constituents, their measure available in ( million tones ) , their Calories values ( kJ/kg ) and possible exergy generated.
( Table 2 ) SHUIT, S. H. , TAN, K. T. , LEE, K. T. & A ; KAMARUDDIN, A. H. 2009
In general, the processing of FFB in palm oil Millss besides generates other biomass residues such as palm meat, fibre and shell. FFB comprises 21 % of palm oil, 7 % of thenar meats, fibre, shell and 23 % of EFB. TAN, H. T. , LEE, K. T. & A ; MOHAMED
As mentioned above, the Empty fruit clump EBF, Palm oil factory wastewater ( POME ) , Palm kernel shell ( PKS ) , fibre and shell will be foregrounding and emphasise as portion of the handiness of palm oil biomass wastes.
( I ) Empty fruit clump EBF
Picture 1: Empty Fruit Bunch ( EFB )
Empty fruit clump is the major constituent of all solid wastes. Large measures of EFB are available from treating the fresh fruit clump ( FFB ) in palm oil Millss. EFB ‘s are the residuary clump followed by remotion of fruits from FFB in a thrasher.
Based on Table 1 above, by and large from EFB has lower heating value of 18.96 MJ/kg. On dry solid footing, it contains 18.1 wt % of lignin, 59.7wt % cellulose and 22.1wt % hemicellulose. Furthermore, the ultimate analysis of EFB indicated the content of C to be 48.79 % , hydrogen 7.33 % , sulfur 0.68 % , and oxygen 36.30 % .
TAN, H. T. , LEE, K. T. & A ; MOHAMED
From oil thenar biomass, EFB found to be used to bring forth steam for processing activities and for bring forthing electricity. However, a few countermeasures has to be taken into consideration before the direct use of EFB, among those are cut downing the size of the EFB utilizing casting machines, and deceasing the EFB as it contains wet as shown in tabular array 1 which is about 8.75 wt % which is comparatively higher compared to all three ( 3 ) biomass waste. Hence EFB is used in agricultural activities such for vegetive growing as it helps to retain wet and returns organic affair to the dirt and found to be a really good fertiliser / dirt conditioner.
However, due to the “ white fume ” job, from incineration of EFB to be used as ash for agricultural intent, the activity of incineration is discouraged. The “ white fume ” is chiefly contributed from the presence of high wet content of the EFB. YUSOFF, S. 2006
( two ) Palm oil factory wastewater ( POME )
Palm oil factory wastewater is besides another thenar oil biomass waste and besides the major beginning of effluent coevals from palm oil factory is viz. sterilizer condensate, hydrocyclone waste, and centrifuge sludge. The POME is found to be rich in organic C with a biochemical O demand value higher than 20 g/L and N content around 0.2 and 0.5 g/L as ammonium hydroxide N and entire N. SUMATHI, S. , CHAI, S. P. & A ; MOHAMED, A. R. 2008
Palm oil factory wastewater is besides converted into fertilisers and used for agricultural intents. Table 3 below shows the features of palm oil factory which can be used to bring forth bio-gas through anaerobiotic handling system in which the methane is extracted as a beginning of energy. SUMATHI, S. , CHAI, S. P. & A ; MOHAMED, A. R. 2008
Table 3: – Features of palm oil factory
( three ) Palm Kernel Cake ( PKC ) , shell and fibre.
Palm Kernel is obtained from palm fruitlet after the remotion of mesocarp and shell. It can be divided into two ( 2 ) classs which are Palm Kernel Cake and Palm Kernel Shell ( PKS )
Palm Kernel Cake ( PKC )
Palm meats bar is a byproduct from the meat extraction procedure. It is used as a natural stuff for animate being provender, particularly for cowss provender. It has a higher energy content amounting about 18900 kJ/kg with less moisure about 3 % content as shown in Table 4.
Table 4: Types and sum of biomass
The Use of Palm Oil As Biofuel and Biodiesel
Picture 2: Palm Kernel Picture 2: Palm Kernel Cake ( PKC )
The PKC is obtained from two ( 2 ) phases of oil extraction from the thenar fruit. The primary phase is done by extraction of palm oil from the pericarp part of the fruit from the crushed meat. The extraction of oil from the crushed meats so consequences in the production of PKC as byproduct which comprises of conventional mechanical screwpress method and solvent extraction method that consequences id the dissolver extracted type. Palm Kernel Cake ( PKC ) as a Addendum for
Fattening and Dairy Cattle in Malaysia
Palm Kernel Shell ( PKS )
PKS is an energy intensive substance and most hard waste to break up. Palm meat shell is the waste meat shell from Crude Palm Oil ( CPO ) processing. The wet content is found to be 15 – 20 % soap, with a higher heating value of 4,900 ( Kcal/kg ) and lower heating value of 4,480 ( Kcal/kg ) . Hence it is used for biomass fuel production as a replacing for fossil fuel. PALM & A ; PALM OIL PRODUCTS
Due to the feature of PKS with high heating value compared to other bio mass fuels and in footings of recycled waste affair as fuel, PKS is used widely used as fuels to bring forth heat for boilers or furnace in industries such as in the fabrication works, mills, etc.
At present, there are 110,550 dozenss of PKS available yearly. With the heating value of palm meats shell about 17.4MJ/kg, it is widely used chiefly in power coevals industries due to high demand from population growing. PRASERTSAN, S. & A ; PRASERTSAN, P. 1996.
Based on the statement above, it shows that PKS along with the other thenar oil based biomass, being a renewable biomass has great application potency in many industries as highlighted above. Numerous R & A ; D have been carried out to develop different applications of thenar based biomass by Malayan Palm Oil Board ( MPOB ) , SIRIM, Forest Research Institute of Malaysia ( FRIM ) and other private companies.
Picture 4: Fiber
Oil thenar fibre is non-hazardous biodegradable stuff extracted from oil thenar ‘s empty fruit clump ( EFB ) through decortation procedure. The oil thenar fibre is light and can absorb a batch of H2O without jelling. It has the capablenesss of defying utmost temperatures and wet conditions.
In footings of the handiness of oil thenar fibre, Malaysia produces 50 % of the universe ‘s palm oil and has 3 million hectares of the trees under cultivation. Oil Palm Fiber based on table 2, it shows that there are about 9.6 million tones produced merely for the oil thenar fibres.
Based on table 4, fibres moisture content is about 37 % with Calories value of 19,068 kJ/kg, which fibres can besides be used as fuels. Addition to that, EFB fibres can besides be used for shock absorber make fulling stuff by adding adhering agent such as ulterior latex. PRASERTSAN, S. & A ; PRASERTSAN, P. 1996.
The oil thenar fibres are besides used by maker to do assorted fiber composite such furniture, substructures, mattress, eroding control and besides landscape gardening.