An approaching tendency in scientific research is the turning inclination of houses prosecuting in several coincident confederations with different spouses ( Wassmer, 2010 ) . Through these inter-organizational relationships, houses get entree to resources and are able to make competitory advantage ( Dyer & A ; Singh, 1998 ) . In footings of confederations with different spouses much attending is paid for the construct of portfolio diverseness ( Bruyaka, 2009 ; Duysters & A ; Lokshin, 2007 ) , which refers to “ the assortment of a house ‘s external links with different spouses ” ( Bruyaka, 2009, p. 2 ) .
In this research on confederation portfolio diverseness the focal point will be on the result, a house ‘s advanced public presentation. Cohen and Levinthal ( 1990:128 ) argue that the ability to work external cognition is a critical constituent of advanced public presentation.
Today, houses from a broad scope of industries execute about the full production procedure through some signifier of external coaction ( Powell et al. , 1996 ) . Collaboration is performed through strategic confederations between houses, where an confederation is defined as “ a state of affairs wherein two or more houses unite to prosecute a set of agreed-upon ends, in which they portion the benefits ; and in accomplishing these ends, spouse houses independently control over the public presentation of assigned undertakings and contribute on an on-going footing in one or more cardinal strategic countries ” ( Yoshino and Rangan, 1995:5, in Chen and Chen, 2002:1008 ) .
Alliances can be established with scientific establishments or other companies, among
them possible rivals, at a national and/or an international degree.
In the literature two types of invention are distinguished, viz. incremental and extremist invention. In this research the focal point will trust on both types of invention in footings of extremist invention of newness, whereas incremental invention is the type with fewer new inventions.
Portfolio of confederations ( ego-centric web with type of spouses )
Harmonizing to several research grounds
Geographic range and spouse function ( provider, purchaser, rival )
Collaboration therefore seems to be cardinal to successful
invention, leting spouses to larn from each other and complementing their resources.
In their literature reappraisal on the diverseness of an confederation portfolio of a house on its advanced performanceaˆ¦
As mentioned in the debut, it is known that coaction with different spouse types can take to different types of advanced public presentation ( Kash & A ; Rycroft, 2002 ) ,
is better to analyze confederation portfolio composings and do a differentiation between extremist and incremental invention as advanced public presentation, because this enables to find what sort of diverseness is more likely to take to extremist and incremental invention.
The picks made on the reading of this research lead to the undermentioned research inquiry:
To what extent does the diverseness of an confederation portfolio in footings of geographical range, national- and international inter-organizational confederations, affects a house ‘s incremental and extremist advanced public presentation moderated by a house ‘s R & A ; D attempt?
Relevance of the research
The purpose of this research is to widen the range of confederation portfolio diverseness. This survey contributes to the literature of confederations by opening the black-box of a portfolio attack in footings of national- and international inter-organizational confederations which can act upon a houses incremental and extremist advanced public presentation. of This research is relevant because anterior research associating to the South African Innovation Survey 2001 is non investigated in the context of portfolios associating to extremist and incremental advanced public presentation.
Scientific and practical relevancy!
Alliance portfolios and advanced public presentation Already in engineering context but non in international vs. national
In this research a part to the literature will be made by research what the influence of the diverseness of an confederation portfolio has on incremental and extremist invention.
Blackbox ingaan door portfolio benadering
Using this variable is hence besides valuable for the practical relevancy, because organisations are interested in the consequence of strategic confederations on advanced public presentation ( G. Meurtgeert, scriptie ) .
Theoretical Background ( in advancement )
In this subdivision the dependant, independent and chairing variable associating to this research will be defined from which hypotheses are generated. Finally, the conceptual theoretical account visualizes the relation between the dependant, independent and chairing variable.
Specifying the chief constructs
Dependent Variable: Advanced public presentation
Roberts ( 1988 ) defines advanced public presentation as the extent of commercial success, derived from the debut of new or improved merchandises and/or services on the market. Harmonizing to Hagedoorn & A ; Schakenraad ( 1994 ) bettering advanced public presentation is an of import incentive for houses to come in strategic confederations. In this research exploratory invention ( extremist invention ) and exploitatory invention ( incremental invention ) are distinguished. Exploratory inventions are extremist inventions and are designed to run into the demands of emerging clients or markets ( Benner and Tushman, 2003:243 ; Danneels, 2002 ) . They offer new designs, create new markets, and develop new channels of distribution ( Abernathy and Clark, 1985 ) .
and Advanced public presentation can be distinguished
Stipulating advanced public presentation enables to analyze specific combinations of spouse and happen synergisms that lead to higher degrees of extremist or incremental advanced public presentation.
As mentioned in the debut, it is known that coaction with different spouse types can take to different types of advanced public presentation ( Kash & A ; Rycroft, 2002 ) , because some confederations can complement a focal organisation with the cognition to develop extremist inventions, while other confederations have complementary assets needed for 8
Zaltman, Duncan & A ; Holbek ( 1973 ) define invention as an thought, pattern or, material artefact perceived to be new by the relevant unit of acceptance ( p 10 ) . However, Dewar & A ; Dutton ( 1986 ) province that the definition of Zaltman et Al. ( 1973 ) does non stress that an invention can change in grade of newness to an following unit. An invention can change from incremental to extremist.
Dewar & A ; Dutton ( 1986 ) specify extremist inventions as cardinal alterations that represent alterations in engineering and incremental inventions as minor betterments or simple accommodations in current engineering.
Exploratory INNOVATIONS REQUIRE NEW KNOWLEDGE OR DEPARTURE FROM EXISTING KNOWLEDGE ( BENNER AND TUSHMAN 2002, LEVINTHAL AND MARCH 1993, MCGRATH 2001 ) .
CONVERSELY, EXPLOITATIVE INNOVATIONS ARE INCREMENTAL INNOVATIONS AND ARE DESIGNED TO MEET THE NEEDS OF EXISTING CUSTOMERS OR MARKETS ( BENNER AND TUSHMAN 2003, P. 243 ; DANNEELS 2002 ) . THEY BROADEN EXISTING KNOWLEDGE AND SKILLS, IMPROVE ESTABLISHED DESIGNS, EXPAND EXISTING PRODUCTS AND SERVICES, AND INCREASE THE EFFICIENCY OF EXISTING DISTRIBUTION CHANNELS ( ABERNATHY AND CLARK 1985, P. 5 ) . HENCE, EXPLOITATIVE INNOVATIONS BUILD ON EXISTING KNOWLEDGE AND REINFORCE EXISTING SKILLS, PROCESSES, AND STRUCTURES ( ABERNATHY AND CLARK 1985, BENNER AND TUSHMAN 2002, LEVINTHAL AND MARCH 1993, LEWIN ET AL. 1999 ) .
Independent Variable: Alliance Portfolio Diversity
The construct confederation portfolio is defined by Ozcan & A ; Eisenhardt ( 2009 ) as a house ‘s set of confederations, refering its ego-centric web including a house ‘s direct ties ( p. 246 ) . Harmonizing to Bruyaka ( 2009: 2 ) the construct of portfolio diverseness refers to “ the assortment of a house ‘s external links with different spouses ” ( Bruyaka, 2009, p. 2 ) .
In this research the diverseness of an Alliance Portfolio consists of the constellation of geographical range ( national- and/or international inter-organizational confederations of innovating houses ) .
National inter-organizational confederations
H1a: A South African house ‘s confederation portfolio configured by lone national inter-organizational confederations will positively impact a South African house ‘s incremental invention public presentation.
H1b: A South African house ‘s confederation portfolio configured by lone national inter-organizational confederations will negatively impact a South African house ‘s extremist invention public presentation.
International inter-organizational confederations
Parkhe ( 1991 ) defines planetary strategic confederations, in this research referred to as international confederations, as “ the comparatively abiding interfirm concerted agreements, affecting cross-border flows and linkages that utilize resources and/or administration constructions from independent organisations headquartered in two or more states ” ( 581 ) .
H2a: A South African house ‘s confederation portfolio configured by lone international inter-organizational confederations will negatively impact a South African house ‘s incremental invention public presentation.
H2b: A South African house ‘s confederation portfolio configured by lone international inter-organizational confederations will positively impact a South African house ‘s extremist invention public presentation.
National- and international inter-organizational confederations
H3a: A South African house ‘s confederation portfolio configured by national- and international inter-organizational confederations will negatively? impact a South African house ‘s incremental invention public presentation.
H3b: A South African house ‘s confederation portfolio configured by national- and international inter-organizational confederations will positively? impact a South African house ‘s extremist invention public presentation.
Theoretical Mechanism between Alliance Portfolio Diversity and Radical Innovation of Newness ( in advancement )
Specifying the moderating construct
Moderating Variable: R & A ; D Effort
Laursen & A ; Salter ( 2006 ) find that houses who have unfastened hunt strategies-those who search widely and deeply-tend to be more advanced ( p. 131 ) . Contradictory to this is the fact that R & A ; D attempt could besides hold a negative influence on a house ‘s extremist invention of newness. Harmonizing to Koput ( 1997 ) over-searching could do information overflow ( ‘the absorbent capacity job ‘ ) , if advanced thoughts come at the incorrect clip and topographic point they can non be to the full exploited ( ‘the timing job ‘ ) and since there are so many thoughts, few of these thoughts are taken earnestly or given the needed degree of attending or attempt to convey them into execution ( ‘the attending allotment job ‘ ) .
This leads to the aˆ¦..hypothesis:
Powell et Al. ( 1996 ) study grounds from assorted surveies that R & A ; D strength ( or the degree of technological edification of an industry ) is positively associated with the strength and
figure of confederations in that sector.
H1: Alliance Portfolio Diversity moderated by R & A ; D Effort will hold a curvilineal consequence on a house ‘s extremist invention of newness.
2.3 Conceptual theoretical account
This conceptual theoretical account visualizes the cardinal variables of the research.
Alliance Portfolio Diversity
R & A ; D Effort
Methodological framework/ Research scheme ( in advancement )
This subdivision provides the methodological model of the research and gives indoors in the information, measurings of the variables and provides an account of how the information will be analyzed.
3.1 Research design
The chief purpose of this research is to prove the hypotheses which are derived from the literature sing the construct variables, from this aim the research can be characterized as deductive. The research can has a quantitative research design. The South African Innovation Survey ( SAIS 2001 ) will be used as secondary informations. This information is collected in one period in clip ; hence this research can be labeled as cross-sectional.
3.2 Data aggregation & A ; Sample scheme
In this research information of the SAIS 2001 will be analyzed. All South African houses with 10 or more employees and economically active in 1998-2000 can be defined as the population of the study. The information is collected by the University of Pretoria in coaction with the Technology University Eindhoven based on the European Community Innovation Survey used from 1994 onwards. In SAIS 2001, a graded random sample of 7039 houses was selected from a commercial database of SA houses, and their representatives were asked to finish the study questionnaire. Of these representatives, 617 ( or 8.4 % ) completed the questionnaire ( Bakker, Oerlemans & A ; Pretoria, 2008 ) .
Measurements of the variables
To prove the hypotheses advanced in the theoretical model, tonss on points of the SAIS 2001 will be analyzed, therefore the measurings are describe in this research proposal.
Dependent variable: extremist invention of newness
Extremist invention of newness will be measured by incremental and extremist invention.
( see Appendix A for operationalization ) .
Independent variable: confederation portfolio diverseness
The constellation of an confederation portfolio is measured by concentrating geographical range ( national- and international inter-organizational confederations ) and spouse function ( purchaser, supplier and rival ) . Different inquiries about confederations are asked to the respondents for each of these dimensions ( see Appendix A for operationalization ) .
Control variables: house industry and
There is a possibility that other variables affect the dependant and independent variables, hence two control variables will be included in the research. The first control variable is steadfast size.
aˆ¦aˆ¦.is the 2nd control variable.
To corroborate or reject the hypotheses, the chief relationship between confederation portfolio diverseness and advanced public presentation will be tested. The confederation portfolio diverseness is determined by three dimensions, which will be taken togheter for the information analysis.
Linear arrested development alaysis. To prove the influence of the control variables, several theoretical accounts will be constructed Cluster analyses: doing groups e.g. international confederations of providers, national confederations of providers
Logistic arrested development: Incremental invention = 0, Radical invention = 1
Research quality indexs
Credibility/Internal cogency Since this research has a cross-sectional design it will be hard to accomplish a high internal cogency ( Bryman, 2008 ) . William Blankley ( manager research ) interview for new tendencies that did emerge. Transferability/External cogency
Given that the SAIS2001 was distributed among different industries and the indicant that the response group of the study is representative for the entire population of South African houses, the external cogency can be assured. Dependability/Reliability
The consequences of the SAIS2001 could be different if the study was executed a 2nd clip.
Improve Research Proposal
Finish Master Thesis
Defense Master Thesis
Hand-in Research Proposal
Research Proposal Defense
Hand-in Research Proposal minor alteration
Hand-in Research Proposal major alteration
Go/no go Research Proposal
Ideally Deadline Master Thesis
Hand-in Master Thesis
Defense Master Thesis
Bakker, R.M. , Oerlemans, L.A.G. and Pretorius, T. ( 2008 ) . Domestic and International
Innovation partnerships: do they count for invention results of South African
Bruyaka, O. ( 2009 ) . Alliance portfolio diverseness: A new position on the construct and its
steps. EGOS 2009: Barcelona.
Bryman, A. ( 2008 ) . Social Research Methods. New York: Oxford University Press.
Cohen, W. M. , & A ; Levinthal, D. A. ( 1990 ) . Absorbent Capacity: A New Perspective on
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Dewar, R. D. , & A ; Dutton, J. E. 1986. The acceptance of extremist and incremental inventions: An
empirical analysis. Management Science, 32: 1422-1433.
Duysters, G. & A ; Loksin, B. ( 2007 ) . Determinants of confederation portfolio complexness and its consequence
on advanced public presentation of companies. Journal of Product Innovation Management.
Dyer, J. , & A ; Singh, H. ( 1998 ) . The Relational Position: Concerted Strategy and Beginnings of
Interorganizational Competitive Advantage. Academy of Management Review, Vol.
23, No. 4: 660-679.
Koput, K. W. ( 1997 ) . A Chaotic Model of Innovative Search: Some Answers, Many Questions.
Organization Science, Vol. 8, No. 5: 528-542.
Lavie, D. ( 2007 ) . Alliance portfolios and steadfast public presentation: A survey of value creative activity and
appropriation in the U.S. package industry. Strategic Management Journal, 28: 1187-1212.
Laursen & A ; Salter ( 2006 ) . Open for invention: The function of openness in explicating invention
public presentation among U.K. fabrication houses. Strategic Management Journal, 27: 131-250.
Parkhe, A. ( 1991 ) . Interfirm diverseness, organisational acquisition, and length of service in planetary
strategic confederations. Journal of International Business Studies, 22: 579-601.
Wassmer, U. ( 2010 ) . Alliance Portfolios: A Review and Research Agenda. Journal of
Management, Vol. 36: 141-171.
Zaltman, Duncan & A ; Holbek ( 1973 )
Appendix A: Operationalization tabular array
Calculation of mark
Alliance Portfolio Configuration
The constellation of an confederation portfolio in footings of national- and/or international inter-organizational confederations
National inter-organizational confederations
Firms are asked whether they have an confederation with national or foreign spouses
International inter-organizational confederations
Extremist invention of newness
Extremist invention of newness here is the rate between incremental inventions ( new to the house ) and extremist inventions ( new to the house and new to the market )
Calculation of mark