Lindane is an organochlorine chemical that is widely used as agricultural insect powder and besides every bit pharmaceutical second-line1 intervention for itchs and lice. It is besides known by names ; gamma-Hexachlorocyclehexane ( I?-HCH ) , Benzene haxachloride ( BHC ) 2, Gammaxene and Gammalin. Agricultural-grade lindane merchandises have accounted for more than 99 % of all lindane utilizations. Less than 1 % of lindane has been used in the signifier of medicines pharmaceutical-grade for the intervention of human disease like itchs, caput lice, crab lice. [ 1 ]
Chemical Structure of Lindane
Lindane is made up of at least 99 % of gamma isomer of HCH, therefore the name I?-HCH. Technical HCH can include changing proportions of alpha, betha, delta and epsilon HCH isomers which have been shown to hold serious short and long term wellness effects. Virtually all the insecticidal belongingss resided in I?-HCH.A
Agricultural-grade lindane merchandises have accounted for more than 99 % of all lindane utilizations. Less than 1 % of lindane has been used in the signifier of medicines pharmaceutical-grade for the intervention of human disease like itchs, caput lice, crab lice. [ 1 ]
Lindane is classified as reasonably risky by World Health Organization and its trade is restricted and regulated. Soon its usage is banned in more than 50 states worldwide. Its usage is still relentless in large states like United States, Canada for medical intervention though its usage in agribusiness is wholly banned except for the intervention of pre-planting seeds for 6 crops- barley, maize, oats, rye, sorghum and wheat [ 1 ] .
Lindane is prescribed merely when first-line are failed or can non be tolerated
Harmonizing to IUPAC regulations, the appellation “ benzene hexachloride ” is wrong. But it is still widely used in the name of BHC and it is approved by the ISO [ 3 ] .
Lindane is found in air, H2O and dirt throughout the universe. It is extremely relentless and travels long distances via ambiance and pelagic currents. In fact, lindane with its isomers is the most abundant pesticide in Arctic air and H2O [ 2 ] .
Physical and Chemical Properties:
Lindane is a white solid that may vaporize into the air as a colorless vapour with a somewhat moldy olfactory property.
The characteristic odor of proficient HCH is attributed to the drosss, peculiarly heptachlorocyclohexane
It is stable to air, visible radiation, heat, C dioxide, and strong acids.
Dehydrochlorination of the compound may happen in the presence of base, or on drawn-out warming forming trichlorobenzens and hydrochloric acid.
Rapid debasement ( dechlorination ) of lindane occurs on exposure to Ultraviolet radiation organizing gamma pentachlorocyclohexenes ( PCCH ) and tetrachlorocyclohexens.
The half life for the environmental debasement of lindane under humid or submerged conditions, and field conditions varies from few yearss to 3 old ages depending on the factors such as dirt type, clime, and deepness of application.
Lindane is incompatible with strong bases and powdery metals such as Fe, Zn, and aluminium. It is besides incompatible with oxidising agents and can undergo oxidization when in contact with ozone [ 3 ] .
Other belongingss of the compound are summarized below:
CAS Chemical Name
1 alpha, 2 alpha, 3 beta, 4 alpha, 5 alpha, 6 beta, hexachloro Cyclohexane
Relative molecular mass
1.85 g/ml at 20oC
112 to 113oC
5.6 mPa at 20oC
Solubility in H2O
7.3 mg/l at 25oC
Since early 1950s, lindane has been used as an agricultural insect powder. It has been used in seed intervention, dirt intervention, foliar applications, intervention of woods, lumber, stored stuffs or merchandises, and against ectozoans on animate beings and in public wellness.
It has been used as popular family fumigant, effectual against flies and cockroaches until it was found to be risky to people and pets. The manner of action of lindane on insects is by and large as a tummy toxicant with some fumigant action that it kills insects that ingest it or inhale its vapour.
Lindane was introduced as a pediculicide3 and scabicide4 in 1952 by Reed and Carnrick. Other normally used trade name names are Thionex ( in US ) and Hexit, PMS Lindane ( in Canada ) .
It is besides available as a prescription to handle itchs infestation ( available as lotion pick ) , and to handle caput and organic structure lice ( available in the signifier of shampoo ) . Because of the possible hazards associated with lindane, its usage is no longer recommended as the first-line drug therapy for handling itchs and organic structure lice.
It is available as a suspension, emulsifiable dressed ore, fumigant, seed intervention, wettable and dustable pulverization, and ultra-low-volume ( ULV ) liquid.
Though lindane has many applications it has been banned in many states due to its inauspicious effects.
Environmental Effectss: It contaminates imbibing H2O beginnings. Lindane in H2O can be determined by extraction with crude oil quintessence followed by gas chromatography.
3 Pediculicide- Medication to handle lice and Scabiess
4 Scabicide- Medication to handle Scabiess
The bound of sensing is 0.01 I?g/litre. Lindane is besides leached into surface Waterss and even into land water.Lindane is extremely volatile, and when applied to field harvests in peculiar, a high proportion ( up to 90 % ) of the pesticide enters the ambiance and is subsequently deposited by rain. In common with other organochlorine pesticides lindane is fat soluble and this contributes to its inclination to bioaccumulate through nutrient ironss. Residues have been detected in the kidneys, livers and adipose tissue of a broad assortment of wild animate beings and birds. It is extremely toxic to aquatic invertebrates and fish.The production of lindane generates big sums of waste hexachlorocyclohexane isomers, and it is estimated that every ton of lindane manufactured produces about 9 dozenss of toxic waste. Lindane in dirt can leach to come up and even land H2O and can bioaccumulate in the nutrient concatenation. Over clip, lindane is broken down in dirt, deposit and H2O into less harmful substances by algae, Fungis and bacteriums ; nevertheless, the procedure is comparatively slow and dependent on ambient environmental conditions.
Effectss on Human existences: Daily consumption of HCH isomers in big diets in the USA in 1981-1982 was reported to be 10 ng/kg of organic structure weight for entire HCH ( 8 nanogram of I±-HCH and 2 nanogram of I?-HCH per kilogram of organic structure weight ) ( ATSDR, 1989 ) . In the Netherlands, the day-to-day consumption from nutrient has been calculated to be 1 I?g for the I±- , I?- and I?-isomers, or about 15 ng/kg of organic structure weight ( Slooff & A ; Matthijsen, 1988 ; IPCS, 1991 ) . Consumption from air may be considerable for people populating in houses treated for pest control intents. Symptomatology included: sickness, restlessness, concern, purging, shudder, ataxy, tonic-clonic paroxysms, and/or alterations in the EEG form. These effects were reversible following surcease of exposure and/or diagnostic intervention. In malice of the extended usage of lindane over 40 old ages, merely really few instances of occupational toxic condition have been reported. Even in workers exposed for long periods in both the industry and application of lindane, merely an addition in the activity of drug-metabolizing enzymes of the liver has been on occasion found [ 3 ] . It was concluded from a few ague and short-run surveies on worlds that a dose degree of about 1.0 mg/Kg organic structure weight does non bring on toxic condition, but a dose degree of 15-17 mg/Kg organic structure weight will ensue in terrible toxic symptoms. Approximately 10 % of a dermally applied dosage is absorbed through the human tegument, but more is absorbed when the tegument is damaged.
Lindane is distributed all over the universe and can be detected in the air, H2O, soil/sediment, aquatic and tellurian beings, and in nutrient. The concentrations in these different compartments are normally low and are bit by bit diminishing. Thus, though human exposure occurs via the day-to-day nutrient consumption and lindane has been found in human blood, adipose tissue, and chest milk, the figures are bit by bit diminishing.
The International Agency for Research on Cancer ( IARC ) evaluated the hexachlorocyclohexanes in 1987 and concluded that, for the proficient class and the alpha-isomer, there is sufficient grounds for carcinogenicity for animate beings ; grounds is limited for the beta- and gamma-isomers.
WHO ( 1990 ) classified proficient lindane as “ reasonably risky ” in normal usage ( on the footing of an LD50 of 88 mg/kg ) .
WHO/FAO ( 1975 ) issued a data sheet on lindane ( No. 12 ) , covering with labeling, safe handling, conveyance, storage, disposal, decontamination, preparation, and medical supervising of workers,
first-aid, and medical intervention.
Maximum residue bounds ( MRLs ) have been recommended by the FAO/ WHO Codex Committee for more than 35 trade goods, runing from 0.05 mg/kg on murphies to 3 mg/kg on strawberries. A degree of 0.5 mg/kg was recommended for most fruit and veggies.
The International Agency for Research in Cancer ( IARC ) and the U.S. EPA sort lindane as a possible human carcinogen.
In Japan, all utilizations of HCH and lindane were prohibited in 1971. The chief ground was the environmental pollution with alpha-HCH and ?-HCH that resulted from the old extended usage of proficient HCH. Agricultural utilizations of proficient HCH have been prohibited in most states, because of environmental pollution with alpha-HCH and ?-HCH.
Several techniques have been proposed for the devastation of lindane, including thermic intervention, molecular distillment and biocatalysis attacks. But since the costs involved in these procedures are really high, these methods are non economically executable for devastation of lindane. The present work focuses on the development of an economical method for devastation of Lindane ( g-HCH ) into merchandises which are non toxic in nature. The selected method catalytically converts Lindane into non toxic merchandises utilizing nano Fe oxide ( Fe2O3 ) as a accelerator. To prove this engineering an experimental system was designed and preliminary conditions were chosen based on consequences of survey where different accelerator and experimental conditions were investigated.
In the present survey three set of experiments were conducted for devastation of lindane. In the first set, experiments were conducted utilizing micro Fe oxide atoms loaded accelerator and 2nd set of experiments were conducted utilizing nano Fe oxide atoms loaded accelerator. In this two set of experiments lindane is assorted with propanone in proportion of 25 gm/ml and fed into reactor tubing with the aid of syringe extract pump as micro droplets. In the 3rd set of experiments lindane in vapor signifier fed into the reactor. Iron nano atoms were chosen because they have already been used successfully to dechlorinate many chlorinated organic pollutants such as trichloromethane, C tetra chloride and PCBs.
In this procedure lindane was passed over nano Fe oxide accelerator and it gets adsorbed on the surface of the metal. Iron oxide so reduces chlorinated compound to its dechlorinated signifier. The use of nano Fe oxide accelerator and keeping low temperature ( 3000 C ) for the devastation of lindane makes the procedure economically feasible. The effectivity of nano Fe oxide accelerator decreases as more sum of lindane was fed over the accelerator. In the current work different trials were performed for Restoration of nano Fe oxide accelerator and a technique was found to reconstruct the accelerator which is economically executable.