Franchising has a important function in economic development and has received a batch of attending for making concern and growing scheme. ( 9:1 ) Identifying the influential factors in concern ‘ failure and success, ever, are considered as of import basis in concern researches, particularly entrepreneurial activities. ( 10:1 )
During the past decennaries, franchising is turning fast in many states in the universe ( 16:6 )
In retail and services concern franchising is rather common ( 7:1 ) , in which production and ingestion of services have to be done at the same clip and near to client ( 10:9 ) where concern demand to develop mercantile establishments in different geographic topographic point ( 12:4 )
Harmonizing to aˆ¦ . 77 per centum of the best international franchising are within service industry includeaˆ¦ ( 11:3 )
Franchising drama an of import function in economic development ( 10:3 )
Cost and hazard of developing concern in new market, enforce the concerns to acquire into inter-organizational partnership. ( 11:1 )
Harmonizing to Michael ( 1996 ) considerable parts of the sale in services industry such as eating houses ( 46 % of gross revenues ) , revenue enhancement readying ( 67 % of gross revenues ) , forte nutrient retailing ( 55 % ) , publishing and copying ( 71 % ) , and lodging ( 39 % ) are in consequence of franchising. ( 12:3 )
Besides franchising has been considered as a growing scheme for organisation spread outing among concerns ( 16:3 )
Franchisees in order to avoid fail in concern prefer to affect in established franchise system. ( 10:14 )
Franchisees ‘ failure should be separate from factors are due to franchisor ‘s characteristics. ( 10:14 )
Although analyzing on franchise failure has received a batch attending among research workers such as aˆ¦ ( 10:11 ) There is deficiency of survey about probe of franchisors related factors in franchisees ‘ failure and success ( 10:10 )
Franchisees ‘ failure and success has non received adequate attending in surveies, and in some surveies which have been done like ( NAFTA ) implies to franchisors perceptual experience in franchisees ‘ failure. ( 6:5 )
Franchising because of increasing impacts on concern surveies has been topics of broad assortment of several subject include, ( 12:1, 18:2 ) economic, strategic, selling, entrepreneurship and jurisprudence. In economic sciences, construction of contract is discussed ; in Strategic, franchising is an organisational signifier ; franchising in selling is an of import distribution channel ; in entrepreneurship it is a manner for run a new concern ( high cited one ) and at last contractual clause and legal issues between franchisees and franchisor is studied in jurisprudence.
In many states franchising has an active function in manner of making concern ( 7:2 )
High rate of failure among new franchise systems ( 10:13 )
More than 40 per centum of retail gross revenues in the United States are in consequence of franchising. ( 12:2 )
Although some believe franchising is more common in little concern but some others think in Reveres ( 16:7 )
Business format franchising has been increasing during the past decennaries ( 6:1 )
Franchisees as possible enterprisers have net income motive besides ( 5:2 )
There are 809 active franchise systems with 34200 franchised mercantile establishment in the UK that has more than ? 12.2 million one-year turnover ( 2:2 )
Businesss are ever looking for a manner for enlargement. ( 1:5 )
Despite the job of affecting in the franchise system, franchise have bright hereafter for franchisees and franchisors.
Franchisee is a beginning of new thought and invention for franchise system from local market and client penchants ( 22:2 )
Franchising as one of the fast growth concern signifiers during the past decennaries. ( 2:1 ) ( 9:3 )
Franchising has been developed alternatively of traditional signifier of forming in the retail organisation. ( 7:1 )
In order to deficiency of understanding in franchising, qualitative survey should be done. ( 16:7 )
Franchising success is due to making concern in collaborative manner. ( 9:4 )
Choice of proper spouse has of import function in success of concern in franchising and both side should measure each other capablenesss exactly and choose the best 1 ( 9:4 )
During the recent old ages, franchising has turned into one the most common manner for making concern ( 20:1 )
Besides franchising is used as a market entry manner for internalisation.
There was more than 158,625 franchises with about $ 209 billion bend over in service industry. Franchising has created about 4,145,613 occupations in the United States ( 7:3 )
Influence of franchise on possible enterprisers ( franchisee ) has received less attending than franchisors ( 21:2 )
There is deficiency of research about Persian franchise system.
Franchising as an attractive manner for spread outing concern has been considered. ( 21:1 )
Franchising due to detached organisational units, standardisation across the units and joint ownership is different from other sorts of partnership. ( 20:3 )
Franchising is a collaborative concern ( 9:5 )
In franchising, possible enterpriser ( franchisee ) purchase the right of utilizing a franchisor hallmark, operational system and concern format ( 10:2 ) within a specific part and period. ( 16:2 ) ( 4:2 ) ( 11:4 )
In this relationship franchisee acquire the benefit signifier proven trade name and tried merchandise and services and franchisor will be able to reassign hazard and cost of the entry to the new market to franchisee and besides acquire the benefit of initial fee and royalty. ( 4:3 ) ( 11:5 )
Harmonizing to Rubin ( 1978 ) :
“ A franchise understanding is a contract between two ( legal ) houses, the franchisor and the franchisee. The franchisor is a parent company that has developed some merchandise or services for sale ; the franchisee is a house that is set up to market this merchandise or services in peculiar location. The franchisee pays a certain amount of money for the right to market this merchandise ” ( Rubin, 1978, p.224 ) .
Tatham et Al ( 1972 ) , Edens et Al. ( 1976 ) , Knight ( 1986 ) , Olm et Al. ( 1988 ) , Withane ( 1991 ) , Castrogiovanni et Al. ( 1993 ) , DeCeglie ( 1993 ) , Forward and Fulop ( 1993 ) , Kahn ( 1994 ) Hing ( 1995 ) Kaufmann and Stanworth ( 1995 ) , Shubart and Bennett ( 1997 ) , Falbe and Welsh ( 1998 ) , Fenwick and Strombom ( 1998 ) , Jambulingam and Nevin ( 1999 ) , Berni ( 2002 ) Kasselmann et Al. ( 2002 ) Clarkin and Swavely ( 2006 ) , Ramirez ( 2007 ) provided an account about proper franchisee ‘s features such as the entrepreneurial capacity, professional experience, motive, fiscal capacity, personality, extraversion, communicating capacity and desire for success ( 7:1,2 )
Choosing a right spouse in franchising has a polar function in franchisors and franchisees success ( 7:4 ) and incorrect choice of spouse cause struggle between them and will hold strategic effects on both. ( 11:9 )
So they have to look for an ideal spouse ( 7:5 )
Franchisor should place and take more concerted and less timeserving franchisees ( 1:3 )
Choice of proper spouse has polar function in success of franchise web ( 1:1 )
And right choice of spouse can give an account of discrepancy in franchisees ‘ behaviour. ( 1:2 )
And how they select each other has non been explored mostly. ( 11:10 ) and it is needed to analyze how franchisor and franchisee usage different standards for choice the spouse. ( 11:11 )
Not many surveies discuses about using different choice standards from franchisee ‘s point of position. However there are some surveies that have paid to both sides perspective in spouse choice. ( 11:8 ) and they believed farther surveies for understanding more about should be done.
Franchisor and franchisee enter to this system with certain outlook and “ unrealistic outlook ” will increase struggle between them. ( 9:7 )
And they have to compatible spouse to avoid struggle ( 9:8 )
Harmonizing to ( 8:3 ) local environment, trade name name, spouse features, support services, system quality, cost and communications has been identified as influential factor in franchisee determination to prosecute in a franchise system. ( 8:3 )
Poor choice can take to serious job for go oning the partnership ( 9:6 )
Importance of researching the spouse choice procedure and standards ( 11:7 )
Harmonizing to Clarkin and Swavely ( 2006 ) there is no sufficient surveies about how they evaluate each other features in franchisees.
Provided services include cost of supplies, independent resourcing, funding beginnings, preparation, pre-opening services and sole district have polar function in franchisees determination ( Falbe & A ; Welsh, 1998 ; Hing, 1996 ; Peterson & A ; Dant, 1990 ; Piedmont & A ; Whitehead, 1990 ; Roh, 1998 ) . ( 8:3 )
Lack of cognition about impacting factor on franchisees ‘ public presentation and effects of franchising, as built-in portion of franchise system, has made a spread in franchise literature. ( 10:7 ) ( 10:4 ) ( Combs, Michael, and Castrogiovanni 2004 )
Understanding about influential factors on franchisees public presentation, in one manus aid franchisor to follow more supportive scheme and in the other manus will assist franchisees to choose proper franchise. ( 10:8 )
Franchisees are ever of import beginning of new thought and invention base on local market. ( 16:4 )
Franchisee besides absorbs the hazard of enlargement into the new market. ( 10:5 )
In malice of importance of franchisee in the franchise system, there are no cognition about part factor to franchisee public presentation ( 10:6 )
Service industry in Iran and their function in GDP.
Resource based position