The undertaking is a Procedure Control survey which deals with commanding the end product of a specific procedure in conformity with the inputs provided. This is done by utilizing accountants. Accountants are tuned harmonizing to the desired end product.

MATLAB package has been used to imitate the assorted procedures. The package is an indispensable tool which helps in supplying an penetration to the existent procedure. It helps measure the necessary tuning parametric quantities for a accountant and generates the graphical representation of the end product.

## Chapter 1

## Introduction

## PROCESS CONTROL

Procedure control is a field of survey that trades with mechanisms and edifice of stairss to command the end product of a specific procedure. The chief aim of procedure control is to keep a procedure at the coveted operating conditions, safely and expeditiously, while taking into consideration both environmental and merchandise quality demands.

Bringing a procedure under control requires use and controlling of the variables involved in the procedure. The procedure variables are hence classified as: [ 1 ]

Controlled Variables: These are the variables which can be controlled. The set point is the coveted value of the controlled variable.

Manipulated Variables: The procedure variables that can be manipulated in order to accomplish the needed set point.

Perturbation Variables: These variables affect the controlled variables but can non be manipulated. Generally, perturbation variables can non be measured.

## PROJECT OBJECTIVE

The importance of procedure control in the procedure industries has become greater than earlier as a consequence of quickly altering economic conditions and stricter environmental and safety ordinances. [ 2 ]

The undertaking aims at analyzing and understanding the different procedure control strategies involved. The development of a accountant for a procedure is of premier importance and hence will be studied in the class of this undertaking.

## Administration OF THE PROJECT

The survey involves the preparation of a control job and computation of parametric quantities utilizing mathematical expression for assorted accountants.

MATLAB and Simulink have been extensively used to get at the consequences. MATLAB is a huge package tool which makes it easier for the user to imitate a given job.

## Chapter 2

## CASCADE CONTROL OVERVIEW

## 2.1 TYPES OF PROCESS CONTROL STRATEGIES

Closed-loop systems are loosely classified into three classs: [ 1 ]

Feedback Control Systems: These type of systems involve the measuring of the controlled variable which is in bend used to set the manipulated variable. The perturbation variable is non measured.

Feedforward Control Systems: Here the perturbation variable is measured but non the controlled variable.

Cascade Control Systems: The perturbation variable is non needfully measured. It has a primary and a secondary accountant associated with it.

## 2.2 INTRODUCTION TO CASCADE CONTROL

Cascade control systems are control systems with multiple cringles. In cascade control constellations, there is merely one manipulated variable and more than one measuring.

Cascade control can be usefully applied to any procedure where a mensurable secondary variable straight influences the primary controlled variable through some kineticss.

Fig. 1.1 Basic Cascade Control Structure

As shown in Figure 1.1, the cascade control construction has two nested cringles whose working are dependent on each other. In the figure:

C1: Primary Accountant

C2: Secondary Accountant

d1, d2: Perturbations

P2: Secondary Plant Procedure

P1: Primary Plant Procedure

The accountant in the outer cringle is besides known as the maestro accountant while the accountant in the interior cringle is referred to as the slave accountant. As the names suggest, the function of the maestro accountant is to function as the set point for the slave accountant. For a cascade control system to work accurately, the response of the interior cringle must be much faster than the outer cringle. [ 1 ]

## 2.3 ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES

2.3.1 Advantages

Perturbations originating within the secondary cringle are corrected by the secondary accountant before they can impact the value of the primary controlled end product. [ 3 ]

The cascade control construction efficaciously accounts for external perturbations.

Significant decrease of dead clip in variable response. [ 3 ]

Improved closed-loop response due to the presence of measured variable near to the possible perturbation which allows the feedback cringle to respond rapidly.

2.3.2 Disadvantages

Tuning cascade accountants is more hard as the set point alterations every bit good as the figure of parametric quantities involved in the procedure additions.

The usage of extra accountants and detectors can be dearly-won.

## Chapter 3

## SIMULATION STUDIES ON CASCADE CONTROL SYSTEM

The power of MATLAB and its Control System toolbox enables the simulation of the assorted constructions and systems. The modeling of the procedures involved is done on Simulink which is a really ready to hand tool provided by MATLAB.

The cascade construction job requires the dislocation of the multiple-loop system into two single-loop controllers-Primary accountant and Secondary Controller.

## 3.1 SINGLE-LOOP Accountants

The two single-loop accountants are foremost modelled as unfastened cringle systems with no feedback. This is done in order to find the assorted parametric quantities involved in the tuning of the accountants.

3.1.1 Primary Process ( Second-Order Process )

The primary procedure involved in the job undertaken is a second-order procedure with the transportation map: [ 2 ]

Gp ( s ) = 1 ( 3.1 )

0.5s2+1.5s+1

The tuning of the primary accountant requires the rating of parametric quantities. The stairss involved are:

a ) Modeling the unfastened cringle primary control procedure to happen out the steady province value.

B ) Determining the values of unfastened cringle addition changeless K, procedure clip changeless ? and dead clip td utilizing the TWO POINT METHOD.

degree Celsius ) The tuning parametric quantities ( Proportional, built-in and derivative ) are so evaluated for a PID accountant utilizing the COHEN-COON METHOD.

The stairss involved are:

( I ) Open-Loop Primary Process

The usage of MATLAB enables the modeling of the open-loop primary control procedure as shown in figure 3.1.

Fig. 3.1 Open-loop primary procedure

The simulation of the open-loop procedure provides us with the value at which the procedure eventually steadies itself at-STEADY STATE VALUE.

Amplitude

Fig. 3.2: Open-loop response of primary procedure to step-input

Figure 3.2 shows that the steady-state value of the procedure is 1.This value will be used in the following measure.

( two ) Two-Point Method

The Two-Point Method is the 2nd measure involved in finding the parametric quantities of the PID accountant. This method finds the times, t2 and t1, at which the procedure amplitude reaches 28.3 % and 63.2 % of the concluding steady-state value severally.

For happening the exact values of t1 and t2, a little MATLAB plan codification is developed as follows:

num= [ 0 1 ] ;

den= [ 0.5 1.5 1 ] ;

t=0:0.01:5 ;

measure ( num, den, T )

rubric ( ‘Step Response with Proportional Control ‘ )

xlabel ( ‘Time ( sec ) ‘ )

ylabel ( ‘Amplitude ‘ )

Fig. 3.3 Open cringle response of 2nd order procedure

Now, steady-state value = 1

From the graph it is observed that:

t2 = clip taken to make 28.3 % of the steady-state value = 0.759 sec

t1 = clip taken to make 63.2 % of the steady-state value = 1.58 sec

? = Process clip changeless = 1.5 ( t1-t2 ) =1.23 sec

td = Dead-time = t1-? = 0.35 sec

K = Static Gain = O/P at steady province = 1

I/P at steady province

This concludes the Two-Point Method.

( three ) Cohen-Coon Method Of Tuning

Cohen and Coon observed that the response of most treating units to an input alteration, had a sigmoid form, which was approximated by the response of a first-order system with dead-time: [ 2 ]

GPRC ( s ) ? K e-td ( 3.2 )

?s+1

Therefore, for the procedure under consideration this reduces to:

GPRC ( s ) ? e-0.35 ( 3.3 )

1.23s + 1

To accomplish a one-quarter decay ratio and minimal built-in square mistake, they derived looks for the tuning parametric quantities of a PID controller.Evaluating the looks [ 2 ] for the values of K, ? and td found in measure 2 outputs the undermentioned parametric quantities of the PID accountant to be used:

KC = Proportional Gain = 4.93

?I = Integral clip = 0.772

?D = Derivative clip = 0.121

3.1.2 Primary Closed-Loop Response For The Parameters Evaluated

The closed-loop response of the primary procedure is now modelled with the primary accountant whose parametric quantities have been found in measure ( three ) above.

Fig. 3.4 Block diagram for closed-loop construction of primary procedure

The conveyance hold is present due to the exponential term in GPRC ( s ) .The clip hold is equal to the dead-time = 0.35.

No. of Samples

Fig. 3.5 Closed cringle response with accountant ( set point change=1 )

Figure 3.5 shows the measure response of the closed cringle primary procedure with the parametric quantities designed. It can be seen that the oscillating response settles down to a steady province value of 1.

The MATLAB simulated codification of the closed cringle procedure is given below:

Kp=1

Ki=0.81

num= [ 0 1 ] ;

den= [ 0.5 1.5 1 ] ;

numa=Kp*num ;

dena=den ;

[ numac, denac ] =cloop ( numa, dena ) ;

t=0:0.01:5 ;

measure ( numac, denac, T )

rubric ( ‘Step Response with Proportional Control ‘ )

xlabel ( ‘Time ( sec ) ‘ )

ylabel ( ‘Amplitude ‘ )

The end product of the above codification shows that the procedure settles down at 0.5 ( Figure 3.6 ) .

Fig. 3.6 Closed-loop response for 2nd order procedure with accountant

3.1.3 Secondary Process ( First-Order Process )

The secondary accountant is now tuned individually after the primary procedure. The first measure involved in both the procedures is nevertheless the same. The secondary procedure forms the interior cringle of the overall cascade control procedure.

The secondary procedure involved in the job is a first-order procedure with the transportation map: [ 2 ]

Gs ( s ) = 1 ( 3.4 )

0.1s + 1

The stairss involved are as follows:

( I ) Open-Loop Secondary Procedure

The modeling of the open-loop procedure for the secondary system is done below:

Fig. 3.7 Open loop theoretical account of secondary procedure

The graphical response of the unfastened cringle secondary procedure simulates to give the followers:

No. of samples

Fig. 3.8 Open-loop response of Secondary procedure

The graph confirms the steady-state value of the procedure being equal to 1.The open-loop simulation is non necessary for the computation of the parametric quantities as in the primary procedure.

( two ) Synthesis Method Of Tuning

The Synthesis Method of tuning is a theoretical method and does non affect simulation. It involves mathematical stairss which straight generate the values of the parametric quantities required to tune the accountant.

The expression for the two parametric quantities ( Kc and Ti ) to be found are:

Kc = ? ( 3.5 )

K?c

Ti = ? ( 3.6 )

Where the symbols denote:

Kc = Controller addition

? = Process Time- Constant

?c = Closed-loop clip invariable

Ti = Integral clip

The procedure under consideration is Gs ( s ) = 1, which

## 0.1s + 1

straight gives the value of ? = coefficient of s=0.1 and K=numerator=1.

The value of ?c is the coefficient of s in the transportation map given by

?c = Gs ( s ) ( 3.7 )

1 + Gs ( s ) H ( s )

After mathematical computations, the value of ?c is found out to be 0.05.

The Parameters are therefore calculated utilizing these values as:

## Kc=2 and Ti=?=0.1

3.1.4 Secondary Closed-Loop Response For The Parameters Evaluated

The parametric quantities calculated are now used to happen the closed cringle response of

the secondary procedure. The procedure is foremost modelled as:

Fig. 3.9 Closed cringle theoretical account of Secondary Process

The graphical response of the closed cringle secondary procedure simulates to give the followers.

Number of Samples

Fig. 3.10 Closed-loop response of Secondary procedure

## 3.2 CASCADE CONTROLLER

Till now, the primary and the secondary procedures were considered individually. Uniting them into a individual procedure is referred to as the cascade controlled procedure.

Fig. 3.11 Cascaded Procedure

As shown in figure 3.11, the secondary procedure forms the interior cringle ( slave ) of the cascaded construction while the primary procedure forms the outer cringle ( maestro ) .

The parametric quantities required for the simulation have been calculated in the primary and secondary processes.The simulation consequence is shown in figure 3.12.

Number of Samples

Fig. 3.12 Output response of the Cascaded Structure

## Chapter 4

## SIMULATION STUDIES

## Consequence OF DISTURBANCES

Noise in a procedure can well alter the end product of the procedure. It is hence really of import to see the effects of noise on the procedures considered so far.

Primary Procedure

Noise is added to the primary procedure considered in subdivision 3.1.2 in the signifier of another measure input. The measure input is added after a measure clip of 100 seconds to see whether the noise settles down or non.

The procedure diagram is as shown in the figure below:

Fig. 4.1 Primary procedure with noise

The measure input labelled ‘Step 1 ‘ Acts of the Apostless as noise in the procedure. The simulation consequence for the above procedure is:

No. of Samples

Fig. 4.2 Primary Procedure with perturbation applied at t=100 seconds

The noise applied at 100 seconds settles down to value 1 as shown in figure 4.2.

Secondary Procedure

The secondary procedure is now applied a noise input in the same manner as done to the primary procedure. The secondary procedure is now modelled as:

Fig 4.3 Secondary procedure with noise

The measure input is added after a measure clip of 150 seconds and it it settles down to value 1 as shown in figure 4.4:

No. of Samples

Fig. 4.4 Secondary procedure with perturbation applied at t=150 seconds

Cascade Procedure

After holding studied the effects of perturbations on the primary and secondary procedures, noise will be added to the cascaded construction of the two procedures as shown in the figure below:

Fig. 4.5 Cascade procedure with noise

The measure input labelled ‘Step 1 ‘ is the noise for the secondary procedure while ‘Step 2 ‘ is the noise for the primary procedure. The simulation consequence is as shown:

No. of Samples

Fig. 4.6 Cascade procedure with perturbations

The perturbations here are settling down in lesser clip as compared to both procedures individually.

## TIME-DOMAIN SPECIFICATIONS

Time-domain specifications include the analysis of features of 2nd order systems. The features found out in this subdivision are peak clip, settling clip and per centum wave-off.

Peak clip is defined as the clip taken for the response to make the peak value for the really first clip.

Settling clip is defined as the clip taken by the response to make and remain within a specified tolerance set. It is normally 2 % or 5 % of the concluding value.

Overshoot merely refers to the end product transcending the ultimate steady-state end product. Percentage wave-off is given by the undermentioned expression:

% overshoot = A-B * 100 ( 4.1 )

Bacillus

Where A = Amplitude at peak clip

B = Ultimate ( concluding ) value of the response

Integral square mistake ( ISE ) and Integral absolute mistake ( IAE ) are steps of a system public presentation. These are measured for the primary procedure utilizing MATLAB maps. The theoretical account is shown below:

Fig. 4.7 Calculating ISE AND IAE ( Step input 0 to 1 )

The reading given by ‘Display ‘ is for the Integral Square Error ( ISE ) while ‘Display 1 ‘ gives the Integral Absolute Error ( IAE ) . From figure 4.7, it is seen that:

ISE = 0.7726, IAE = 1.278

The peak clip and subsiding clip are calculated from the primary procedure response:

No. of Samples

Fig. 4.8 Primary procedure closed cringle response ( Step input 0 to 1 )

From figure 4.8 it is seen that Peak clip = 3 seconds and Settling clip = 11 seconds. It is besides seen that A = 1.2 and B = 1.Using equation 4.1, the per centum wave-off is calculated to be 20 % .

The above computations have been done for measure input changing from 0 ( initial ) to 1 ( concluding ) . On a similar footing, the computations are done for measure input changing from 0 to 2.

The block theoretical account of the primary procedure is shown in figure 4.9.

Fig. 4.9 Calculating ISE AND IAE ( Step input 0 to 2 )

Figure 4.9 gives the undermentioned readings for measure input from 0 to 2:

ISE = 3.101, IAE = 2.615

The undermentioned response gives the Settling clip and Peak clip for measure input 0 to 2.

No. Of Samples

Fig. 4.10 Primary procedure closed cringle response ( Step input 0 to 2 )

From figure 4.10, it is seen that Peak clip = 2.8 seconds and Settling clip = 9 seconds. Percentage Overshoot can besides be calculated with A = 2.5 and B = 2. Using equation 4.1, per centum wave-off is calculated to be 25 % .

The above calculated consequences are tabulated in the tabular array below:

Set Point Change

Peak clip

Settling clip

% Overshoot

ISE

IAE

1

3

11

20

0.7726

1.278

2

2.8

9

25

3.101

2.615

## Chapter 5

## CONTINUOUS STIRRED TANK

## REACTOR ( CSTR )

## 5.1 WHAT IS A CSTR

Chemical reactors used in chemical workss are vass or containers inside which the chemical reactions of the works occur. A Continuous Stirred Tank Reactor ( CSTR ) is an illustration of such chemical reactors.

The uninterrupted stirred armored combat vehicle reactor ( CSTR ) is one in which the reactants and merchandises continuously flow in and out of the reactor. There is an recess watercourse that brings all of the reactants in at a peculiar rate and dumps them into a big container. A shaft with a blade attached ( scaremonger ) is present in the reactor that rotates to blend the reactants. Finally there is an mercantile establishment watercourse, from where the solution exits the reactor.

## 5.2 TEMPERATURE CONTROL OF A JACKETED CSTR

Fig. 5.1 A Continuous Stirred Tank Reactor ( CSTR )

Figure 5.1 [ 4 ] applies a cascade control scheme for the CSTR. Here the temperature of the reactor is measured and compared with the coveted reactor temperature. The end product of this reactor temperature accountant is a set-point to the jacket temperature accountant. The jacket temperature accountant manipulates the jacket flow rate.

In the cascade control constellation of the shown CSTR ( figure 5.1 ) , the reactor temperature accountant is the primary ( or maestro ) accountant, while the jacket temperature accountant is the secondary ( or break one’s back ) accountant.

The jacket temperature kineticss are by and large faster than the reactor temperature kineticss. This is important as the interior cringle procedure is required to hold faster response than the outer cringle procedure. The interior cringle accountant so adjusts the manipulated variable before it has an consequence on the primary ( outer ) end product.

Fig. 5.2 Block Diagram Representation of CSTR cascade procedure

Figure 5.2 [ 4 ] shows the block diagram of the CSTR procedure. The end product of the primary accountant which is the reactor temperature is the set-point to the inner-loop accountant. The manipulated variable for the secondary cringle is the jacket flow rate.

## Chapter 6

## CSTR PROCESS ANALYSIS

This chapter deals with the analysis and simulation of the primary and the secondary procedures of CSTR described in chapter 5. The transportation maps used for the simulation of the two procedures are given below.

For primary procedure: [ 4 ]

Gp ( s ) = 0.02 ( 6.1 )

s + 0.02

For secondary procedure: [ 4 ]

Gs ( s ) = 1 ( 6.2 )

5s + 1

The analysis and simulation for the above two procedures will be done in the subsequent subdivisions.

## 6.1 PRIMARY PROCESS

The primary procedure is a first-order procedure as given in equation 6.1. Therefore, Synthesis method of tuning will be applied to obtain the accountant parametric quantities.

From the transportation map ( equation 6.1 ) , it is seen that the values of K = 0.02 and ? = 1.

Using the above values of K and ? , and utilizing equations ( 3.5 ) and ( 3.6 ) , the values for the PID accountant are calculated as follows:

Kc = Controller addition = 2

Ti = Integral clip = 1

The primary procedure is modelled as shown in figure 6.1.

Fig. 6.1 Closed cringle theoretical account of Primary CSTR Process

The closed cringle response of the primary procedure for the parametric quantities evaluated is shown in figure 6.2.

No. of Samples

Fig. 6.2 Closed-loop response of Primary CSTR procedure

## 6.2 SECONDARY Procedure

The secondary procedure is besides a first-order procedure as given in equation 6.2. Hence, application of Synthesis method expression will assist to measure the accountant parametric quantities for the procedure.

From the transportation map ( equation 6.2 ) , it is seen that the values of K = 1 and ? = 5.

Using the above values of K and ? , and utilizing equations ( 3.5 ) and ( 3.6 ) , the values for the PID accountant are calculated as follows:

Kc = Controller addition = 2

Ti = Integral clip = 5

The secondary procedure is modelled as shown in figure 6.3.

Fig. 6.3 Closed cringle theoretical account of Secondary CSTR Process

The closed cringle response of the secondary procedure for the parametric quantities evaluated is shown in figure 6.4.

No. of Samples

Fig. 6.4 Closed-loop response of Secondary CSTR procedure

## 6.3 CASCADE PROCESS

The primary and the secondary procedures are now cascaded for the CSTR procedure. The cascade procedure is modelled as shown in figure 6.5.

Fig. 6.5 Cascade Process for CSTR

The parametric quantities for the above procedure are same as calculated in subdivisions 6.1 and 6.2 for the procedures involved.

The closed cringle response of the cascade procedure is shown in figure 6.6.

No. of Samples

Fig. 6.6 Cascade control response for CSTR

## 6.4 EFFECT OF DISTURBANCES

The add-on of perturbations in the CSTR procedure will be analysed in the undermentioned subdivisions.

6.4.1 Primary Procedure

Noise is added to the primary procedure considered in subdivision 6.1 in the signifier of another measure input. The measure input labelled ‘Step 1 ‘ Acts of the Apostless as a perturbation to the procedure.

Fig. 6.7 Primary CSTR procedure theoretical account with noise

The perturbation is added at a measure clip of 200 seconds. The fake response for the primary procedure with noise is as shown in figure 6.8.

No. of Samples

Fig. 6.8 Primary CSTR procedure response with noise

The noise applied at 200 seconds settles down to value 1 as shown in figure 6.8.

6.4.2 Secondary Procedure

Noise is added to the secondary procedure considered in subdivision 6.2 in the signifier of another measure input. The secondary procedure block diagram with noise expressions like as shown in figure 6.9.

Fig. 6.9 Secondary CSTR procedure theoretical account with noise

The noise ‘Step 1 ‘ is added after 100 seconds giving the simulation as shown in figure 6.10.

No. of Samples

Fig. 6.10 Secondary CSTR procedure response with noise

6.4.3 Cascade Procedure

Noise is added to the cascade procedure considered in subdivision 6.3 in the signifier of another measure input. The cascade procedure block diagram with noise is as shown in figure 6.11.

Fig. 6.11 Cascade CSTR procedure theoretical account with noise

‘Step 1 ‘ is the noise perturbation for the inner ( secondary ) cringle while ‘Step 2 ‘ is for the outer ( primary ) cringle.

‘Step 1 ‘ is applied to the procedure after 250 seconds while ‘Step 2 ‘ is applied after 350 seconds. The simulation consequence is shown in figure 6.12.

No. of Samples

Fig. 6.12 Secondary CSTR procedure response with noise

The small bump at 250 seconds settles down at value 1 ( noise for secondary procedure ) .The noise at 350 seconds besides settles down to value 1 ( noise for primary procedure ) .

## Chapter 7

## SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION

The undertaking covers the basic facets of a procedure control strategy. Cascade control schemes for assorted procedures have been drawn which aid understand the advantages of cascade control.

MATLAB package has been extensively used to assist imitate the responses of the procedures modelled. It helps analyze the procedure by giving the values of the time-domain specifications which in bend helps in comparing a procedure with another.

For the cascade processes, the primary and the secondary procedures have been foremost considered as separate procedures and so cascaded into a individual construction.

Different tuning methods have been used for the survey and computation of parametric quantities for the accountant. These include the Two-point method, Cohen-Coon method and the Synthesis method.

The Continuous Stirred Tank Reactor ( CSTR ) was taken up as an illustration of the cascade control job where the temperature of the CSTR was controlled utilizing the cascade control strategy. This was followed by the analysis of the CSTR utilizing MATLAB package.