Since the 1980s organisational behaviour faces unprecedented challenges. External environment system has the tendency of alterations additions, weakened stableness and complexness additions, deterministic weakened. On one manus, the traditional organisational design value rules and methods of rigorous division was shaked. On the other manus, updated the organisational development value criterion and value orientation, asks the group established new benefit and new ecology. Meanwhile, groups of people besides appear the alteration tendencies of work values diverseness, construction distinction, variegation of undertakings and nature of the work, these require organisations can react to these alterations in the manner of guarantee workers ‘ stableness. But the extended application of information engineering are altering and will further alter the organisation ‘s direction engineering and procedure, will advance the organisation from constructing clear stiff organisation boundary into boundaryless direction or permeable boundary direction. Organizational behaviour faces all kinds of challenges of organisational behaviour research, puts frontward the challenge, raising a series of alterations of the place of organisational behaviour from object to research methods. Each period of direction theory and method inherit and develop the first period of geographic expedition and research. Therefore, the survey of organisational behaviour will besides endlessly innovate and develop in direction theory and direction pattern in the historical development.
Whilst new thoughts are emerging on the skyline they appear to be stirring controversy amongst those already entrenched in the subject. This treatment is caused by the work stoppage of Luthans and Avolio to positive OB by Hackman, and followed recently by the likes of Davis striking at the really nucleus of Hackman and Oldham ‘s Job Characteristics Model and besides Kilduff & A ; Brass who call for a re-visit of the theoretical account. This study considers as the environment alterations and the deepening of the research development, thoughts should besides with alterations.
2. Literature reappraisal
2.1 Theory of OB
Researchs of organisational behaviour originated in the 1930s Hawthorne ‘s trial. The 1990s to the 1950s, the behavioural scientific discipline began to predominate, the survey of organisational behaviour besides entered a new stage classical direction theory from the economic sciences of the behaviour of the single research paradigm. The new stage of research focused on work outing cooperation of organisations middleman/machine and people/things, showed on the emphasis on efficiency and public-service corporation. They organized the internal construction of the scientific nature, stress preciseness and subject, depicted extremely structured, formal, impersonal characteristics of the organisational construction for people ( Mayer & A ; Salovey, 2000 ) . Classical direction theories try to supply with cosmopolitan intending for the organisation ‘s direction thought and scientific method.
Organizational behaviour is a scientific discipline to research organisation of human behaviour and mental habitue. It is a subdivision of behavioural scientific discipline, with the development of society, particularly the development of economic system prompted enterprise organisation ‘s development, organisational behaviour gets more and more attending by people. Organizational behaviour has many subdivisions, such as endeavor organisation, behaviour and school organisational behaviour, hospital organisation, behaviour and army organisational behaviour, etc ( Bandura, 1991 ) . At present, there are many researches about endeavor organisation & A ; behaviour, these researches get broad application. Therefore, organisational behaviour and endeavor organisation & A ; behavior is treated as every bit by people. There are many definitions about organisation behaviour. Beyer, J. M. ( 1997 ) thought organisational behaviour is a research field, it discusses the person, group and construction on the internal organisational behaviour, and the influence of the application of these cognition to better organisational effectivity ( Pond & A ; Sue, 1989 ) .
2.2 research of positive OB
Positive Organizational Behavior is the merchandise of positive psychological science methods, which emphasizes the of import value of persons in the organisations, positive characteristics, position and behaviour as the research object ( Luthans & A ; Youssef, 2007 ) . It is the research and application of human resources of positive orientation advantages and psychological capital. These advantages and resources are mensurable, developmental and effectual remedy for recognizing rational, they have stimulative consequence to accomplish their organisational end, their end is public presentation betterment. Related research powerful show, positive organisation has alone function to explicate the phenomenon of organisational variables. Thompson ( 2005 ) made a groundbreaking survey of commercial squad and confirmed the of import index to divide the vigorous development squad and the weak squad is the positive communicating between squad members with support look. The analysis on unwritten study shows that encourage, support and thank are characteristics for positive studies, and refused, cynicism and sarcasm are characteristics for negative study standards. Researches show that successful squad show more positive consequence, thought and invention, but in low public presentation squads, the positive effects and idea is restricted by different grades, employees lack of creativeness, and hold a negative attitude towards the hereafter ( Rob, 2001 ) .
On emotional reaction and emotional direction researches, Conti, R. ( 2000 ) used hierarchy method examined the effects of fiscal advisors emotional ability. In their two dimensional theoretical account, emotional ability is related to the positive province. The consequences besides proof positive psychological province of employees has influence to client ‘s positive psychological science. That is to state, this positive province has possible value on the company. Brief & A ; Weiss ( 2002 ) developed a set of dynamic theoretical account aimed at the working squad appeared in positive emotion. The survey cogent evidence, positive organisational behaviour does non merely concentrate on simple causal nexus to power, common benefit, through an analysis of the relationship between, it could develop into a addition of organisation and persons coiling, make a strong drift of development ( Seligman & A ; Csikszentmihalyi, 2000 ) .
2.3 Job features theoretical account
The earliest construct of occupation features was from Taylor proposed “ scientific direction ” four rules. The four rules are professional, systematic, simpleness and criterion into work design. Bandura ( 1982 ) put frontward the work nature, working environment, compensation and benefits, work safety and work feedback, the accomplishments to work, work, work, work disputing autonomy acquisition and development chances, relationships and the handiness of interior work reward all belong to occupation features. Therefore, loosely talking, all the work related factors or properties may name it occupation characteristic ( Wright & A ; Staw, 1999 ) .
Gist ( 1989 ) thought occupation features include six dimensions, they are diverseness, unity, liberty, feedback and cooperation and friendly relationship chances. That is occupation features theoretical account. Jones ( 1986 ) has adjusted the theoretical account, increased the factor importance, and removed the factor friendly relationship undertaking chances and concerted. And he divided feedback into work feedback and others feedback. Based on the above researches, Oldham and Hackman put frontward the undermentioned theory: Work design itself should include some basic characteristics that can spirit up employees ‘ motivations. The construct of occupation characteristic theoretical account, Oldham and Hackman summarized features of interaction and single differences of conceptual and five nucleus work features on the footing of old researches ( Snyder, 2002 ) .
Anyhow, the occupation characteristic theory of Oldham and Hackman suggests that if a occupation needs many accomplishments, and employees could finish a undertaking and complete this work to bring forth certain effects on others words, employees can see of significance and value from the work ( Luthans, 2002 ) ; if in the procedure of employee ‘s work, employees are gave more freedom of picks, duty of employees could be formed ; if in the procedure of employee ‘s work, employees could acquire the feedback of their work public presentation, could do perceptual experience consequences ( Snyder, 2002 ) . Therefore, the work possible mark obtained from nucleus work features could impact these three key psychological provinces, and consist of internal work motive and employees ‘ other active work consequences ( Hackman & A ; Oldham2006 ) .
3.1 The causes of the treatment
In the procedure of research development of organisational behavior, many new sentiments appeared, such as the treatment happened recent, that positive OB by Hackman arousing a strong counter-attack by Luthans and Avolio, followed recently by the likes of Davis striking at the really nucleus of Hackman and Oldham ‘s Job Characteristics Model and besides Kilduff & A ; Brass who call for a re-visit of the theoretical account. Since the 1980s, as the organisation of external and internal environment profound alterations, organisational behaviour faced unprecedented challenges. This study considers that with the development of researches and alterations of internal environment and external environment, organisation demands do some alterations in the new state of affairs ( Luthans, 2002 ) . So, the theories should besides alterations with the alterations of environment. Judging from the organisation ‘s external environment, external environment system has changed, the alterations shake the traditional organisational design value rules and methods of rigorous division, organisation construction besides appears the tendency of organic type and flattening type. Judging from the organisation ‘s internal environment, sustainable development comprehensively updates organisational development value criterion and value orientation. At the same clip, the tendency of organisation staff ‘s values diverseness, workers construction distinction, undertakings and variegation of the nature of the work, demands organisations could react to these alterations in a stableness manner. But the extended application of information engineering are altering and will further alter the organisation ‘s direction engineering and procedure, promotes the organisation from constructing clear stiff organisation boundary into boundaryless direction or permeable boundary direction. All of these alterations will do the redefine of organisation ‘s ain value, motivate the alterations of organisational behaviour and will do a series of of import alterations of organisation direction.
3.2 The challenges faced by positive OB
The biggest challenges that positive OB faces is the alteration of organisation development sense. Organization development sense means the value of steering organisational development criterion and value orientation, is the endurance and development guiding of organisation. During the 1990s, in the background of planetary environmental debasement and the energy crisis, international faculty member appeared the theory of sustainable development, this theory emphasizes the relationship to organize environment and development. Sustainable development asks the group set uping new benefit sense. Sustainable development promotes the alteration of modern organisation map, and the passage of the modern organisation map has become one of the indispensable elements of organisational alteration. It stresses the organisation ‘s societal service map, asks thae group to take a set of societal duties ( Wright, 2003 ) . Organizations should set up an internal restraint mechanism, efficaciously avoid the inclination of merely see their ain involvements regardless the societal involvements in doing determinations, organisations should comprehensive analysis of society restricts factors and societal effects of determination aims, and actively measure if determination mark may do societal jobs, and timely rectification decision-making ends may take to negative societal effects harmonizing to societal value. This means that organisation should pay great attending to the overall societal benefits. As a member of society, organisation should even pay more attending to impacts from societal organisation behaviour of the ecological environment, societal public assistance projects and public assistance, societal religious civilisation and other facets. The sustainable development asks the group to set up new ecology sense. The sustainable development theory more emphasiss ecosystem of the organisation, the ecological construct reflects the organisation covering with assorted sorts of internal and external dealingss of a sort of new idea, new regulations.
Judging from the external dealingss, confronting collaborators and rivals, organisations must set equality and common benefit as a manner to cover with assorted criterions of behavior. Organization through concerted competition but non scattered competition manner to set up cooperation and sharing resources with collaborators and rivals, and so construct uninterrupted symbiotic relationship, so as to make a harmonious and orderly competition environment.
Judging from the internal dealingss, symbiotic thought petitions to construct the organisation as a ‘life community ‘ between built proprietors, operators and workers. This should better work, quality of life, construct appropriate organisation clime, better the internal ecological environment, staff and organisation, closely related wale and suffering.
3.3 The challenges faced by occupation features theoretical account
The alterations of occupation features show at the diverseness of work values foremost. The diverseness of work values non merely lie non merely in interior work value and external work value is more distinction at the demographic features, different occupations, instruction, age and sex, while their sociology features have become progressively obvious. The employment criterions of workers in different parts, different cultural background, different organisation field besides absolutely different. Hence its character and behaviour shows different organisation environment features from traditional 1s. The dependance of cognition workers to the organisation is lower, they ‘re more value about work liberty and contemn the bid and control from organisation, they are more value about work significance and non merely pay attending to work consequences connexion.
Second, the construction of workers is showed the distinction tendency. The differences in workers ‘ household background, instruction background, cognition construction, work experience, life style and spiritual beliefs are increasing, this means that workers in an organisation will demo the different cultural values, work attitude and communicating manner. The differentiated workers ‘ construction will do organisational civilization alterations from integrated to multi-dimensional, from enclosed to open. How to alter direction doctrine, and how to build the organisation civilization, to enable an organisation could react to organisational behaviour to guarantee the stableness of difference workers, it puts frontward a new subject. If direction is undeserved, may do high turnover, communicating obstructions and more struggle.
At last, workers ‘ work undertakings and nature are besides demoing diverseness tendency. Traditionally people use ‘blue-collar ‘ , ‘white-collar ‘ to state the undertaking of organisation staff and character. Nowadays, people use more ‘collar ‘ to state organisation work of different functions and appeared ‘gold-collar ‘ in high engineering Fieldss and ‘gray-collar ‘ , etc. The tendency promotes the alterations of organisation ‘s work system, emerges a flexible on the job hr and flexible working group, that is allow workers in peculiar period of clip, free to make up one’s mind clip to travel to work. So as to recognize the elastic working group, organizing work portion, and even appeared teleworking, through the office networking with organisation computing machine consult with the concern, finish the assorted studies, analytical processing information.
3.4 The hereafter of organisational behaviors research
Positive organisational behaviour non merely concentrate on the quantitative survey of personal micro behaviour degree, its current substructure on the systemic is limited, non believe about the influence of factors on organisational public presentation in the macroscopic degree see the organisational environment, organisation construction, organisational civilization, leading, system, policy. Organizational behaviour faces all kinds of challenges, and puts frontward the challenges, therefore research sparked a series of alterations from research place to research objects and research methods.
3.4.1 The alteration of research place
Research place reflects the research workers ‘ value judgement and value orientation. An of import displacement on research place is the apprehension of people to the public presentation of human behaviour. The apprehension of human nature in a certain extent determines their survey angle and research content. Through the research on human nature, will be helpful for directors in understanding human nucleus based on the direction of established values, and find sensible direction manner for direction activities. The alteration of research place is helpful for directors to set up flexible direction manner, and by making a humanist organisation civilization atmosphere, recommending workers ‘ enterprise and self-denial. In the interim of recognizing personal societal value, recognize the win-win state of affairs to persons and organisations.
3.4.2 The alteration of research objects
The research content transportations from single behaviour and group activities to the interaction of organisational behaviour and organisation environment. With the uninterrupted development of direction patterns, the new direction theories and methods are invariably emerging. The research attempts of organisational behaviour reflect the alteration of organisation direction, enable an organisation could plan a more sensible organisational construction and set up more effectual direction manner harmonizing to organisation environment, development mark, engineering and forces construction alteration and development. Research objects transportation from the expectedness of general organisation bend to categorization organisation character.
3.4.3 The alteration of research methods
The traditional method is laboratory experimental survey and field trials based on the procedure ‘hypothesis – observation – confirmation ‘ to objective descript research objects and utilize observation and experiment informations stuff on the research object to analysis. The defects of this research method are: from personal position, people as a whole of biological science, physiology and sociological, human behaviour is complex, hard to accurately step and accurate anticipations. From organisation position, modern organisation ‘s differences, alterations, complexness and uncertainness factors are increasing, simple theoretical account and mathematical method has been hard to explicate in complex variables of organisational behaviour.
Harmonizing to treatment above, organisational behaviour research method begins to turn to a batch of instance surveies and scale study. The development of the modern information engineering provides possibility for instance surveies and scale study. The empirical research method has practical value at acquiring general decision to explicate and specifying the specific application to organisational success or failure. This study bases on the treatment of OB theory late, discusses the development of organisational behavior. Organizational behavior faces immense challenges non merely on positive OB but besides on occupation features theoretical account. The internal and external environment has changed these old ages. Since the beginning of the twentieth century, the system of direction signifier has experienced 100 old ages of research history. Each period of direction theory and method inherited to the first period of geographic expedition and research accomplishments, so the survey of organisational behaviour will besides has a period of constantly invention and development in direction theory and direction pattern in the historical development.
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