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In order to measure the impact of human activity on the nutrient concatenation, monitoring of hint metals in a assortment of dry fruits being sold in Lahore metropolis has been focus of this survey. Trace degrees of metals such as Zn, Na, K, Ni, Mn, Al and Se were determined in 05 different assortments of dry fruits purchased from local market of Lahore metropolis of Pakistan. Potassium concentration in Pistachio ( 408.16 ± 0.57 mg/100 g ) and in Cashew ( 252.85 ± 0.92 mg/100 g ) were higher as compared to other dried fruit samples. So the Pistachio and Cashew nuts were rich beginning of K and can be used as addendum in herbal preparation to get the better of K lack.

Cardinal words: Dry fruits, Potassium, Cashew and Pistachio.

Introduction

Metallic elements are indispensable for of import biochemical and physiological maps and are necessary for keeping wellness throughout life ( Erum Zahir. et Al, 2009 ) . It is good known that an extra or lack of hint metals present in the human organic structure can do harmful effects. Excess of Cu in human organic structure cause Wilson ‘s disease where as the lack of Zn is responsible for retarded organic structure growing ( Olivaries et al. , 1996 ) .

Dry fruits in significant measures are indispensable foods in a rational proportion for human organic structure ( Sattar A 1989 ) . They have well more energy than fresh fruits because the foods are concentrated in solids when the H2O is removed. They are first-class beginning of minerals, vitamins and enzymes. They are easy to digest and clean the blood and the digestive country. Persons who have this natural diet will ever bask good wellness. Besides the unwellness caused by the consumption of unnatural nutrients can be successfully treated by dry fruits. Though nuts and raisins are little in size, sum of power they provide us when consumed make them really large. Fresh and dry fruits are really indispensable since besides being nutrient for us they besides have strong medicative belongingss.

The under-nutrition is the major public wellness job impacting the developing states ( Muller and Krawinkel, 2005 ) . Harmonizing to Nnamani et Al. ( 2009 ) , the World Health Organization ( WHO ) estimated that 200 million people in Sub-Sahara Africa are affected with chronic under nutrition.

Since at the ancient times nuts and dried fruits have been considered as an of import human beginning of nutrient either in from of wild or turning fruit trees. Dry fruits play a critical function in the diet of human existences as these are rich beginning of different hint metals and foods ( Dreher, M.L. , et Al. 1996 ) . Among the major comestible nuts and dried species, including Almond ( Prunus dulcis ) , Walnuts ( Juglans regia ) Pistachio ( Pistacia vera ) , Peanut ( Arachis hypogaea ) and Cashew ( Anacardium occidentale ) are reviewed in connexion with their nutritionary value and K concentration with other of import hint metals which are indispensable for human organic structure.

This survey is aimed to show a information of hint degrees of metals in different types of Dry fruits available in Lahore metropolis. This survey report the nutritionary profile of some selected dried fruit, with the hope that it would be found worthy of undertaking the job of under-nutrition in the society. On footing of analysis of different dry fruits it help to place that which is best diet that provide possible beginning of Potassium. Dry fruits prevent different type of diseases and maintain a individual energetic and active all through his life even up to the ripe old age as in Table 1.

Table 1. Importance of dry Fruits in human Life

Common name

Botanic name

Importance

Almond

Prunus dulcis

Almonds are a rich beginning of vitamin E, dietetic fibre, indispensable minerals and monounsaturated fat. Almonds improved skin color and perchance a lower hazard of malignant neoplastic disease. Preliminary research associates ingestion of Almonds with promoting blood degrees of high denseness lipoproteins and take downing low denseness lipoproteins. ( Spiller GA 2008 )

Cashew

Anacardium occidentale

Cashew nuts contain protein, saccharides and are really rich beginning of minerals. Minerals particularly manganese, K, Cu, Fe, Mg, Zn and Se are concentrated in the nuts which are of import for castanetss, nervousnesss and musculuss.

Peanut

Arachis hypogaea

Peanutss are rich in foods, niacin, vitamin Bc, fibre, Mg, vitamin E, manganese and P.

Pistachio ( pista )

Pistacia vera

Pistachios rich in K concentration and significantly reduced the degrees of low-density lipoprotein ( LDL cholesterin ) in organic structure while increasing antioxidant degrees in the serum. Pistachio nut can significantly promote plasma degrees of xanthophyll, alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, and gamma-tocopherol ( Kay CD 2010 ) .

Walnut

Juglans regia

Compared to certain other nuts, such as Almonds, Peanuts and hazelnuts, Walnuts contain the highest entire degree of antioxidants, including both free antioxidants and antioxidants bound to fiber Walnuts act as a malignant neoplastic disease chemopreventive agent, an consequence which may be a consequence of the fruit ‘s high phenoplast content, antioxidant activity, and potent in vitro anti-proliferative activity ( Negi, Arvind Singh 2011 )

Materials and Methods

The choice of dry fruits based on standards sing their ingestion and their handiness. The composite samples of dry fruits were collected from the local market of Lahore city- Pakistan.

All dry fruit samples were washed exhaustively and individually. Runing tap H2O was employed to take dust and ad-hered atoms. The samples were subsequently rinsed thrice with de-ionized H2O and later dried in oven at 60-80 & A ; deg ; C. After drying and chilling, approximately 2 g of each dried sample was weighed accurately in cleaned and dried 50ml beaker and digested in 10 milliliter of 1:3 mixture of concentrated 65 % HClO4: HNO3 ( Merck ) utilizing a hot plate, boulder clay clear solution was obtained. Digested samples were cooled at room temperature. These were so acidified with 10 milliliters of 1:1 mixture of HCl: H2O and filtered through 0.45 micrometer filter paper and the volume was made up to 50ml with distilled H2O ( AOAC 2000 ) . The digested samples were transferred to cleaned dried plastic bottles for chemical analysis by utilizing Atomic Absorption Spectrometry ( Perkin Elmer Aanalyst 800 ) .

Table 2. Standard runing conditions for the analysis of heavy metals utilizing Atomic Absorption Spectrometry

Metallic elements

Wavelength

( nanometer )

Lamp Current

( ma )

Fire

Slit Width

( millimeter )

Lead

283.3

12

0.2

Manganese

279.5

30

0.7

Copper

324.8

30

Air-

0.2

Co

240.7

30

Acetylene

0.7

Nickel

232.0

30

0.2

Zinc

213.9

20

0.2

Quality Control

All reagents were of analytical class and high pureness distilled H2O was used for doing all the solutions. For the confidence of Precision and truth all dry fruits samples were analyzed in three replicate. Consequences obtained from the experiments ( n = 3 ) are expressed as Mean values ± SD ( standard divergence ) .

Result and Discussion

Dry fruits are of import beginning of foods and offer assorted advantages over dietetic addendums. In our day-to-day diet dry fruits have been strongly associated with decreased hazard for some signifiers of malignant neoplastic disease, bosom disease, shot and other chronic complaints ( Goldberg, 2003 ) . Climatic conditions, peculiarly temperature and light strength, have an particularly strong consequence on the nutritionary quality of dry fruits and veggies oxidization ( Mozafar, 1994 ) . Although antioxidant capacity varies greatly among dry fruits and veggies it is better to devour a assortment of trade goods instead than restricting ingestion to a few with the highest antioxidant capacity ( Kalt, 2002 ) .

Pakistan has all the natural spirits, normally considered ideal for the production of good quality of dry fruits due to handiness of fertile dirt, temperature fluctuation and other climatic status. Pakistani dry fruits are being demanded in about all over the universe. The concentration of the metals in dry fruits depends on dirt type, the rhizome used for fruit trees, mulching, irrigation, fertilisation and other cultural patterns influence the H2O and alimentary supply to the works. ( Goldman et al. , 1999 ) .

Table 3 shows the metal profile of five dry fruits normally used by local population in Punjab. Clinical and epidemiological surveies have reported the good effects of tree nuts and Peanuts on serum lipid degrees. Pistachio nuts contain high thermal value and the lipoid for human organic structure. ( Michael J. et Al. 2007 ) . It can be seen that Pistachio has least value of Al ( 0.823 mg/ 100g ) and Peanut has a high value of it. The concentration of Zn is really high as compared to Al, Ni, Mn and Se, shown in Figure 1. The concentration of Zn in Walnut is ( 2.94 ± 0.06 mg/ 100g ) where as in Cashew ( 3.3 ± 0.05 mg/ 100g ) , which is recorded upper limit. The concentration of Al was singular in Peanut and Walnut severally. Concentration of Mn in Walnut was ( 2.32 ± 0.09 mg/ 100 g ) and Almond besides contain sufficient sum that is ( 1.66 ± 0.07 mg/ 100 g ) .

Table 3: Trace and heavy metals concentration in dry fruits samples mg/100 g.

Metallic elements

Almond

mg/100 g

Cashew mg/100 g

Peanut mg/100 g

Pistachio mg/100 g

Walnut

mg/100 g

Aluminum

1.92 ± 0.02

1.78 ± 0.22

3.55 ± 0.56

0.82 ± 0.12

2.46 ± 0.45

Nickel

0.18 ± 0.12

0.59 ± 0.04

0.031 ± 0.03

0.042 ± 0.01

0.13 ± 0.02

Manganese

1.66 ± 0.07

0.82 ± 0.04

0.99 ± 0.05

0.79 ± 0.03

2.32 ± 0.09

Selenium

0.02 ± 0.001

0.001 ± 0.001

0.012 ± 0.001

0.028 ± 0.01

0.031 ± 0.001

Zinc

2.43 ± 0.12

3.3 ± 0.05

2.26 ± 0.09

1.66 ± 0.08

2.94 ± 0.06

Sodium

39.78 ± 0.62

36.47 ± 0.72

53.98 ± 0.82

123.15 ± 0.93

57.16 ± 0.57

K

236.4± 1.02

252.85 ± 0.92

200.7 ± 0.98

408.16 ± 0.57

228.62 ± 0.67

*ND= Not detectable.

Potassium is necessary for the map of all life cells, and is therefore present in all works and animate being tissues. The five dry fruits under probe are rich in K. Maximum potassium concentration was found in Pistachio ( 408.16 ± 0.57 mg/100 g ) and minimal value was found in Peanut as ( 200.7 mg/100 g ) which is depicted in Figure 2. Na concentration was maximal in Pistachio ( 123.15 ± 0.93 ) and minimal value was found in Cashew as shown in figure 2.

Digestive system may besides acquire affected due to potassium lack, therefore taking to, chronic wakefulness, irregularity, depression and high blood pressure ( G. Gopal et Al. 1991 ) . Critically low degrees of K are known to ensue in dangerous conditions such as cardiac arrhythmia, and that makes it all the more of import to maintain an oculus for the K degree in the organic structure ( Horacio J. et Al, 2007 ) . Prevention is better than remedy, and a balanced diet is the key to forestall many diseases. The decision of the survey shows that Pistachio and Cashew were rich beginning of K and can be used as addendum and in herbal preparation to get the better of K lack.

Recommendations

It is suggested that Pistachio and other dry fruits were used in our day-to-day diet it would be good to get the better of K lack.

These dry fruits were good for the patient which enduring diseases caused by lack of K.

Peoples should be educated to keep good wellness by utilizing balance diet.

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