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Eeckhout was a Dutch painter of portrayals, spiritual topics and genre, active in Amsterdam. He was a friend and favorite student of Rembrandt and a close impersonator of his manner. In approximately 1655 he painted a figure of scenes in the wholly different mode of Ter Borch.

Eeckhout ‘s Scholar with his Books gives us no feeling of the wisdom evoked in Rembrandt ‘s portrayal of the Old Rabbi. Here we see an hardworking bookworm whose acquisition is indicated merely by external objects-the books and the Earth. The erudite work forces portrayed by Vermeer and Rembrandt are work forces of exceeding qualities but their portrayals can non be called genre pictures. This image by Eeckhout is surely a genre picture, the Sitter, nevertheless, is non shown to be a sage but a burgess. The warm maroon and xanthous colorss and the mode of painting are evocative of Rembrandt ‘s ulterior manner.

The sitting figure of a wise old adult male is outlined against an vague background, his face and custodies brilliantly illuminated by the visible radiation from a taper. It is a pose often seen in seventeenth-century portrayals and one often used by Rembrandt himself. Although this is a portrayal from life, the intervention of the topic evokes a scriptural ambiance. The image is about allegorical: the old adult male ‘s attitude of speculation symbolizes the passing nature of adult male ‘s mind. The light reflecting on his face is echoed in the freshness from the dorsum and the Cu candle holder, familiar objects that give a feeling of warm familiarity. The image was painted in the same twelvemonth as the celebrated Night Watch.

Signature: Signed and dated 668 on the closet ( specious, ulterior add-ons ) .

Birthplace: This picture and the Geographer ( St & A ; auml ; delsches Kunstinstitut, Frankfurt ) are likely comrade pieces, in malice of the fact that the Sitter is looking to the left in both of them. They portion the same birthplace until 1778. Frankincense: sale Rotterdam, 1713 ; sale Amsterdam, 1720 ; sale Amsterdam, 1729 ; sale Amsterdam, 1778. Collection Jean-Etienne Fiseau ; art trader Lebrun, Paris ; brought to Paris in 1785 ; sale Amsterdam, 1797 ; sale Amsterdam, 1800 ; sale Paris, 1881 ; aggregation Alphonse de Rothschild, Paris, 1888 ; aggregation Edouard de Rothschild. Abducted by Hitler during World War II. Restored to proprietor in 1945. Acquired by Mus & A ; eacute ; e du Louvre, Paris, 1983.

In position of the fact that the Astronomer and the Geographer are likely pendents, and are the lone works in Vermeer ‘s work that represent male figures involved in scholarly chases, we are handling them collectively.

Until 1778, they remained together. The signatures and day of the months on both pictures are questionable, but they must hold been executed toward the terminal of the 1660s.

None of these pictures appears in the sale of 1696, and were hence commissioned by a frequenter who was particularly interested in uranology or the heavenly scientific disciplines. In both pictures, the mentions to books, scientific instruments, and, in the portrayal of the Astronomer, the heavenly Earth by Jodocus Hondius, are accurately depicted.

The latter picture characteristics on the rear wall a image stand foring the scene of the determination of Moses, which has been interpreted as being associated with the advice of godly Providence in making, in the instance of the uranologist, for religious counsel.

Although farfetched, it is likely that the content of the picture is associated in some manner with the significance of the work. The sea chart on the wall of the Geographer does non hold any spiritual association. It must be remembered that the rise of involvement in scientific research at the clip, fostered by the freshly established University of Leyden, and philosophers like Descartes, did non hold any specific spiritual associations. Quite to the contrary, the purpose was to research the existence, and at the same time to farther Dutch pilotage in its conquering of far-off lands.

Both pictures, with their insides of scholarly studios and scientific gear, award Vermeer the chance for buoy uping effects that envelop the scientists in the enigma of an ambiance that lifts their businesss into the kingdom of spiritualty

It has proved possible to place the book that lies unfastened in forepart of this mystically-clad uranologist. It is by Adriaen Metius and is called The Exploration and Observation of the Stars. The Earth was made by Jodocus Hondius.

Signature: Signed twice: on the closet ; and signed and dated 1669 top right. All these letterings are doubtful.

Birthplace: This picture and the Astronomer ( Louvre, Paris ) are likely comrade pieces, in malice of the fact that the Sitter is looking to the left in both of them. They portion the same birthplace until 1778. Frankincense: sale Rotterdam, 1713 ; sale Amsterdam, 1720 ; sale Amsterdam, 1729 ; sale Amsterdam, 1778. After 1778: in 1785, both pictures were brought to Paris by the art trader Alexandre Joseph Paillet. He intended to sell them to the Gallic male monarch, but was unsuccessful. Sale Amsterdam, 1797 ; sale Amsterdam, 1803 ; aggregation Alexandre Dumont, Cambrai ; aggregation Isaac Pereire, 1866 ; sale Pereire, Paris, 1872 ; aggregation Max Kann, Paris ; sale Demidoff, Palais de San Donato, Florence, 1880 ; sale Ad. Jos. B & A ; ouml ; sch, Vienna, 1885. There acquired by the museum.

In position of the fact that the Astronomer and the Geographer are likely pendents, and are the lone works in Vermeer ‘s work that represent male figures involved in scholarly chases, we are handling them collectively.

Until 1778, they remained together. The signatures and day of the months on both pictures are questionable, but they must hold been executed toward the terminal of the 1660s.

None of these pictures appears in the sale of 1696, and were hence commissioned by a frequenter who was particularly interested in uranology or the heavenly scientific disciplines. In both pictures, the mentions to books, scientific instruments, and, in the portrayal of the Astronomer, the heavenly Earth by Jodocus Hondius, are accurately depicted.

The latter picture characteristics on the rear wall a image stand foring the scene of the determination of Moses, which has been interpreted as being associated with the advice of godly Providence in making, in the instance of the uranologist, for religious counsel.

Although farfetched, it is likely that the content of the picture is associated in some manner with the significance of the work. The sea chart on the wall of the Geographer does non hold any spiritual association. It must be remembered that the rise of involvement in scientific research at the clip, fostered by the freshly established University of Leyden, and philosophers like Descartes, did non hold any specific spiritual associations. Quite to the contrary, the purpose was to research the existence, and at the same time to farther Dutch pilotage in its conquering of far-off lands.

Both pictures, with their insides of scholarly studios and scientific gear, award Vermeer the chance for buoy uping effects that envelop the scientists in the enigma of an ambiance that lifts their businesss into the kingdom of spiritualty.

In “ The Geographer ” , Vermeer presents another person in an inside. This male figure, though, is endowed with intense energy in comparing to the brooding adult females of other composings. The flow of visible radiation from left to compensate activates the canvas. The flow is accentuated compositionally by the massing of objects on the left. The light spills forcefully into the unfastened country on the right, projecting a powerful series of diagonal shadows. Vermeer adjusted his initial word picture of the figure to supply a more active stance. Detailed survey of the canvas reveals that the geographer originally looked down at the tabular array, with his splitters besides pointed down. Adjusting the composing to aline the adult male ‘s face and the splitters with the flow of light gave farther energy to the motion across the canvas. The creases of the robe besides serve to trip the figure, with their moral force, about abstract word picture in their sunstruck part.

The picture accurately renders the cartographic objects that express the subject: the sea chart, Earth, splitters, square and a cross-staff that was used to mensurate the lift angle of the Sun and stars. It is likely that Vermeer ‘s sophisticated presentation of these instruments was informed by his association with celebrated scientist Anthony Van Leeuwenhoek. Although no paperss exist associating the two, they were both born in Delft in the same twelvemonth. A modern-day portrayal of Leeuwenhoek closely resembles the figure in Vermeer ‘s geographer, and it is really possible that Leewenhoek served as the theoretical account.

Another Vermeer work, “ The Astronomer ” , is normally considered a pendent to “ The Geographer ” . In it, the same theoretical account is depicted, this clip among the instruments of astronomical survey. Both pictures dramatically convey the exhilaration of scholarly enquiry and find. Sing these plants as pendents offers an allegorical reading: the uranologist, pupil of the celestial spheres, hunts for religious counsel ; the geographer, pupil of the Earth, charts the proper class for temporal life.

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