Site Loader
Rock Street, San Francisco

Abstraction

In order to measure the public presentation of cypermethrin, fenpropathrin, bifenthrin and cyhalothirn, against spotted bollworm ( SBW ) ( Earias spp. ) at A Research Farm, Shahjahanpur, U.P. and at a husbandman ‘s field for the old ages 2007 and 2008, surveies were carried out in Randomized Complete Block Design with three reproductions. The information of the patched bollworms was taken from fruiting organic structures of 25 workss selected at random. Bifenthrin and cyhalothrin registered lowest figure of patched bollworm larvae 48 hour after spray and high addition of seed cotton. The efficaciousness of insect powders is discussed under status of the country of the survey.

Introduction

Spotted bollworms ( Earias vittella and E. insulana ) are serious plagues of ( Gossypium ) and take a heavy toll on both from sprouting to adulthood of the harvests and in certain old ages has caused 19-20 % output losingss in cotton ( Kamaluddin, 1994 ) . Besides following different control measures varietal opposition and chemical control has been largely relied upon for the control this plague on cotton ( Wahla et al.,1998 ) .The 3 per cent incidence in newly shed fruiting organic structures was determined as the economic threshold degree on the footing of better control of bollworms, higher cost/benefit ratio ( 1:4.61 ) , and increased net income of Rs 1296/ha over recommended agenda with the same figure ( 6 ) of sprays ( Singh and Singh, 1998 ) Chauke et Al. ( 1998 ) reported that cypermethrin was effectual in commanding patched bollworms [ Earias vittella and E.insulana ] . Seed outputs for these interventions were 2.23,2.26 and 2.14 t/ha, severally. Using the pyrethroids in combination with methyl demeton [ demeton-methyl ] did non increase seed output. A figure of the insect powders mentioned above are presently available in the local market but the efficaciousness of these has been reported from the cotton turning largely in the irrigated countries of the U.P. , India. Shahjahanpur is one such country where cotton has non been popular in many old ages. Many countries of Shahjahanpur as have been brought under cotton cultivation during recent old ages. It is necessary to look into the plague position and efficaciousness of insect powders under the conditions of Shahjahanpur. The present surveies describe the consequence of cypermethrin, fenpropathrin, bifenthrin and cyhalothirn on patched bollworm ( Earias spp. ) .

We Will Write a Custom Essay Specifically
For You For Only $13.90/page!


order now

MATERIALS AND METHODS

The surveies of the efficaciousness of insect powders against spotted bollworms were conducted at Research Farm, Shahjahanpur and at Farmer ‘s field at Shahjahanpur, during old ages 2007 and 2008. The harvest was sown under randomised Complete Block Design, with five interventions including a control and in three reproductions. The insect powders were sprayed with a backpack spray in the month of October when infestation reached economic threshold degree ( 5 % ) . The Numberss of larvae were counted on 25 indiscriminately selected workss from squares, flowers and bolls 24 hour before and 48 hour after spray. The inside informations of interventions ( preparation and application rate ) is as follow:

T1 = cheque ; T2 = cypermethrin 10 EC @ 625ml ; T3 =fenpropathrin 10 EC @ 750 milliliter ; T4 = bifenthrin @ 625ml ; T5 = cyhalothrin @ 825ml ; per acre. The spray was done with the aid of Matabi manus operated sprayer fitted with control flow valve ( CFV ) .The sprayer was fitted with an imported hollow cone nose with a discharge rate of 0.80 L/min at 2.4 saloon force per unit area. The harvest was sprayed with an application rate of 200 L/hectare. This rate of application was selected maintaining in position LAI of the harvest. Spray was done during twenty-four hours clip with temperature averaging 30-35 & A ; deg ; C at 5.7km/hr North West air current. The ambient conditions were selected to minimise the hazard of spray impetus and vaporization. Agricultural applied scientists from Agricultural Machnization Institute were involved to guarantee efficaciousness of spray machine for crop-dusting of pesticides. Datas were analyzed through 2-way ANOVA and LSD at5 % degree of chance did comparing of agencies.

Consequence

The efficaciousness of cypermethrin, fenpropathrin, bifenthrin and cyhalothirn, on spotted bollworm ( SBW ) ( Earias spp. ) at Research Farm Shahjahanpur, for the old ages 2007 and 2008 is given in Table 1. The figure of larvae ( 25 workss ) before the spray had non-significant difference on all fruiting organic structures ( square, flower, boll ) in all the secret plans allocated for different interventions in 2007 and 2008 ranging, severally, p value at 5 % ( 0.63 – 0.75 and 0.11 – 0.16 ) .48 hour after the spray of different insect powders, average figure of SBW larvae had statistical difference among the interventions. T4 ( bifenthrin ) and T5 ( cyhalothrin ) shared the lowest equal figure of larvae ( 0.66 ) on squares and were statistically similar to T3 ( fenpropathrin ) . Lowest ( 0.33 ) numberof larvae in flowers was recorded in T4 ( bifenthrin ) and was statistical at par with T3 ( fenpropathrin ) , T5 ( cyhalothrin ) . On bolls, the numberof larvae in T4, being least, was statistically at par withT3 ( fenpropathrin andT5 ( cyhalothrin ) in the twelvemonth 2007 ( Table 1 ) .Mean figure of SBW larvae was lowest ( 0.00 ) on squares in T4 ( bifenthrin ) plots 48 hour after the spray in the twelvemonth 2008. All other interventions had non-significant difference among themselves and had figure of larvae in scope of 1.00 – 1.33. T4 ( bifenthrin ) and T5 ( cyhalothrin ) had lowest figure of larvae in flowers ( 0.66 ) and were statistically similar with T7 ( deltamthrin ) . All the interventions were statistically non-significant among themselves in regard of figure of larvae on bolls, holding lowest ( 0.66 ) in T4, nevertheless, significantly from T1 ( cheque ) , which had 2.66 larvae ( Table 1 ) .The efficaciousness of cypermethrin, fenpropathrin, bifenthrin, And cyhalothirn on patched bollworm ( SBW ) ( Earias spp. ) at Farmer ‘s field, Shahjahanpur for the old ages 2007 and 2008 is given in Table 2.The figure of larvae ( 25 workss ) before the spray head-on-significant difference on all fruiting organic structures ( square, flower, boll ) in all the secret plans allocated for different interventions in 2007 and 2008 ranging, severally, pvalue at 5 % ( 0.08 – 0.38 ) and ( 0.08 – 0.50 ) ( Table 2 ) .T4 had lowest figure ( 0.33 ) of larvae after 48 hour of spray and was statistically similar to T3 ( bifenthrin ) , on squares. All the interventions had statically similar figure of larvae in flowers and on bolls in the twelvemonth 2003 ( Table 2 ) .The significantly lower figure of larvae ( 0.33 ) was recorded in T4 ( cyhalothirn ) . Highest figure of larvae ( 2.00 ) in T1 ( cheque ) was at par with ( cyhalothrin ) T5. Allother interventions had non-significant difference among the figure of larvae in flowers. The figure of larvae in bolls had important difference among the interventions being lowest in T4 ( bifenthrin ) and T5 ( cyhalothrin ) ( 1.00in each instance ) ( Table 2 ) .Table 3 shows the output from treated secret plans ( extrapolated into acre ) . Highest output was obtained from T5 treated secret plans at Research Farm and at Farmer ‘s field in the 2007 and 2008 except in 2008 on husbandman ‘s field, the output was non at par with highest ( 746.2 ) in T4.

Discussion

Spotted bollworms are non merely pest of cotton but do a considerable harm to lady ‘s finger excessively ( Kamaluddin,1994 ) . Control of this plague is really of import in both instances. Insecticides of pyrethroids groups are normally recommended for its control ( Khan and Ahmad, 1979 ) .The pest burden and assortment is different from the former countries. A threshold of 5 % is recommended in the early August in the assorted countries butsame degree of threshold was reached in the month ofOctober in two old ages in the present locations of the survey.

Table 1: Average figure of larvae ( from 25 workss ) on fruiting organic structures 0of cotton at Research Farm

Treatments

Releasing factor 2007

Releasing factor 2008

24 hour before spray

48 hour before spray

24 hour before spary

48 hour before spray

Second

F

Bacillus

Second

F

Bacillus

Second

F

Bacillus

Second

F

Bacillus

Check

1.66

2.00

2.66

2.00a

2.66a

3.00a

1.66

1.66

2.00

1.66a

3.00a

2.66a

Cypermthrin

1.23

2.00

2.00

1.66ab

1.66b

1.66bc

1.33

3.00

1.33

1.33ab

2.00bc

1.33b

Fenpropethrin

2.0

1.66

2.00

1.33abc

1.33bc

1.66bc

1.00

3.33

1.00

1.00b

2.66ab

1.00b

Bifenthrin

1.33

2.00

2.33

0.66c

0.33c

0.66c

1.33

2.33

1.33

0.00c

0.66d

0.66b

Cyhalothrin

1.00

2.67

2.33

0.66c

1.00bc

1.66bc

1.33

1.00

2.00

1.00b

066d

1.00b ( RF ) Shahjahanpur in 2007 and 2008.

Table 2: Average figure of larvae ( from 25 workss ) on fruiting organic structures 0of cotton at Farmer ‘s field at

Shahjahanpur in 2007 and 2008.

Treatments

FF 2007

FF 2008

24 hour before spray

48 hour before spray

24 hour before spary

48 hour before spray

Second

F

Bacillus

Second

F

Bacillus

Second

F

Bacillus

Second

F

Bacillus

Check

1.7

1.7

3.3

2.00a

3.33a

3.33a

1.7

1.7

3.3

2.00a

3.00a

3.00a

Cypermthrin

1.3

2.3

2.3

1.33ab

1.67b

2.00b

1.7

2.0

2.3

1.00b

1.33b

2.00b

Fenpropethrin

1.0

1.3

2.3

1.00bc

1.00b

2.00b

1.0

2.0

2.3

1.00b

1.33b

2.33ab

Bifenthrin

2.0

1.7

2.3

0.33c

0.66b

1.00b

2.0

1.7

2.3

0.33c

0.66b

1.00c

Cyhalothrin

1.7

2.3

1.3

1.67ab

1.00b

1.00b

1.7

2.3

1.3

1.66a

1.33b

1.00c

S ; squares ; F, flowers ; B, bolls.

In the present surveies the lowest figure of larvae andhigh addition of seed cotton was obtained in bifenthrin and cyhalothrin treated secret plans. Cypermethrin was non every bit effectual as supra mentioned two insect powders and resultsare non in conformance with those of Chauke et Al. ( 1998 ) and Brar et Al. ( 1998 ) who found it really effectual after 72hr of spray. Deltamethrin was non as effectual bifenthrinand cyhalothrin but output obtained showed statistically similarity with latter treated secret plans. In most of the old surveies, clip point for effectivity is normally represented as 5-6 yearss after spray but we have tried to happen whether immediate control of this plague is envisaged if the pest interruptions out. In this instance bifenthrin andcyhalothirn would be remedy against spotted bollworms.

Post Author: admin

x

Hi!
I'm Percy!

Would you like to get a custom essay? How about receiving a customized one?

Check it out