The research was carried to analyze the effects of different doses of gamma-ray irradiation on physicochemical belongingss of flour and amylum granule construction of wheat when compared to non-irradiated wheat. Irradiation by gamma beams is to protect the wheat from gnawers, insects, plagues etc and to guarantee the quality and safety during storage. Lower scopes of gamma radiation can besides increase the shelf-life period. The consequences revealed that the wet content of wet gluten and titratable sourness were greatly affected by irradiation intervention. Their values decreased as the dosage of gamma-rays increased. The micro-structure of wheat ( starch granules ) was besides affected due to gamma-rays. The ground behind that could be the free groups liberated by gamma-rays disrupts the I±- ( 1-4 ) and I±- ( 1-6 ) linkages in the amylase content of amylum. The parametric quantities of flour viscousness were decreased with addition in gamma-ray dose. On the contrary, there was no important consequence on dry gluten content, ash and protein contents. Hence the gamma radiation has shown a important consequence on the physicochemical belongingss of flour and amylum granule construction of wheat.
Wheat is the most widely adult cereal in the universe and its production is increasing globally. Since wheat is rich in saccharide ( amylum ) , gluten and its derived functions, it has become the national basic nutrient of 43 states. The physicochemical belongingss of wheat flour such as gluten index, fat acid value, sum of protein, ash content etc determines the quality of wheat. These belongingss can so be related to constituents in wheat like amylum, fat, ash, enzyme ( Hoseney, 1994 ) . These belongingss may change due to assorted factors during cultivation ( conditions, fertilisation, and temperature ) , storage ( humidness, storage clip, temperature ) and post-harvest processing ( milling ) . The protein content can be increased by N-fertilization during cultivation of the wheat. Elevated temperatures during storage and 2nd milling during processing of wheat can besides change the protein quality.
The harvested grain has to be stored for a long clip in the development states. During storage, terrible losingss of grain happen due to the invasion of insects, gnawers and plagues ( Gralik and Warchalewski, 2006 ) . Effective storage techniques are required to turn out the safety and quality of wheat during storage ( Jin song, Harold and Yi-Zhong, 2009 ) . Recent developments in processing of post-harvest grain affect the Gamma-ray irradiation, an ionic and no heat procedure to protect wheat from insect infestation and microbic taint ( Jinsong et al, 2005 ) . Lower doses of gamma-radiation can besides increase the shelf life period of wheat. The consequence of gamma beams on nutrients particularly wheat and rice have received broad importance because of nutrient safety involvements. Using gamma radiation on nutrients is internationally recognised for keeping the quality of nutrients for a long clip ( Suhag, Racova, Polovka, 2006 ) . This method of irradiation is followed in many states but there is some contradiction in some states. The ground for this is because of the influence of gamma radiation could ensue in alteration in the quality. It has been testified that gamma radiation generates free groups that cleaves larger molecules like proteins and fats into smaller fragments like Dextrin. Hence, before irradiation of wheat grain by gamma-rays, the wake of the intervention and its influence on the physicochemical belongingss of wheat should be considered.
The debut is concentrating on the physicochemical belongingss that are affected by gamma-ray irradiation intervention, organisms that are responsible for wheat grain losingss, how gamma-ray irradiation can forestall these losingss and the advantages and contradictions involved in gamma-irradiation procedure. The debut clearly stated the chief aims of the survey ; the consequence of gamma-rays before wheat drying, on the physicochemical belongingss and on the amylum granule construction with the assistance of an electronic microscope.
Puting up a hypothesis and proving it is the footing for any type of research design. A hypothesis is an premise that has been put frontward because it is conceived to be true but has non been proved. Once an premise has been developed, it can be resolved into two hypotheses between which one hypothesis is accepted ; the void hypothesis against the alternate hypothesis.
The hypothesis being tested here is that “ consequence of gamma-rays on physicochemical belongingss, flour viscousness and microstructure of wheat ” .
A Null Hypothesis is a statistical trial that proposes that no statistical significance exists in a set of given observations.A It is used to happen out the difference or relationship between two variables with the impression at the beginning that there is no difference between the two variables. A void hypothesis is tested for possible rejection under the given that it is true. Depending on the information, the void hypothesis is either will or will non be rejected but can ne’er be accepted. It is denoted by Ha‚ˆ . A
If the information is strong plenty to reject the void hypothesis, so the void hypothesis is rejected and alternate hypothesis is accepted. If the void hypothesis is rejected ( p & lt ; 0.05 ) in favor of alternate hypothesis it concludes that there is a important relationship between the two groups or variables, bespeaking differences between the groups. Alternate hypothesis is denoted by H1.
Mistakes in Hypothesis Testing:
Two types of mistakes may originate during hypothesis testing.
Type 1 Mistake: Occurs when void hypothesis ( Ha‚ˆ ) is rejected when it is really true. That is, H1 is wrongly accepted.
Type 2 Mistake: Occurs when void hypothesis is non rejected when it is really false. That is, H1 is wrongly accepted.
General Design for Research
The design for the research is fundamentally that wheat was obtained and after drying five samples of wheat at 105a?°C, the wet content ( 25 % ) was determined. The dried wheat was divided into five samples and packed in polyethylene bags. The samples were so exposed to gamma irradiation at different doses like 0 kGy, 0.6, 1.5, 2.4 and 2 kGy severally. The samples were so taken for micrology observation to analyze the consequence of irradiation on the amylum granule and construction of wheat grain ; microstructures of irradiated samples were prepared and observed by utilizing a XL30-ESEM negatron microscope. Wheat grains were cut with a knife and the untasted broken surface was picked up for micrology observation.
The irradiated samples were so dried in an oven at a changeless temperature of 50a?°C until the wet content reaches to 13.5 % . The grain was milled and the wheat flour was obtained after dividing the bran. The observations done were that for:
Gluten content: 25gms of flour was assorted with 12.5 mL H2O and the ensuing paste was
washed with H2O for 10min by utilizing a Perten Glutomatic Gluten Index Machine. Then the moisture gluten piece was centrifuged for 1 min utilizing a Perten Centrifuge that gives the moisture gluten output. The wet sample is dried for 30 min and after chilling gives the dry gluten weight and the corresponding per centums were calculated.
Titratable Sourness: 100g sample ( Triplicates ) is neutralized with Na hydrated oxide, utilizing
phenolphthalein as an index.
Ash Content: 2g of each sample ( Five samples ) were incinerated at 910a?°C for 3h in an oven.
Protein Content: determined by Kjeltec TM 2300 Analyser.
Determination of Starch Viscosity: 3g of sample and 25 milliliters H2O were assorted exhaustively and
the resulting mixture is sent into Rapid Visco Analyser for Starch Viscosity Determination.
Phenolphthalein was used as an index for finding the Titratable sourness harmonizing to the AOAC International process, 1990. Even, the methodological analysis followed for finding Ash content was setup by American Association of Cereal Chemistry ( AACC ) .
All the methods followed were standard methods and are internationally recognised bespeaking a good methodological analysis overall. The writer has used the studies of FAO/IAEA/WHO/ICGFI and confirmed that the irradiated nutrients are nutritionally rich and safe for human ingestion. However, some subdivisions need a few accommodations. If the wheat samples would hold been collected from different topographic points apart from lodging to one topographic point, there would be a better chance to compare the consequences obtained for different assortments of wheat grown in different climatic conditions. The writer carried his research on merely one wheat species ; the physicochemical belongingss may change between different species of wheat grown in different climes. The negative impact of gamma-ray irradiation intervention on larger molecules like protein etc was non enlightened in a proper mode.
There are no indicants that the overall gamma-irradiation intervention was operated efficaciously and there were no marks of acknowledgment by the USDA or the FDA. The storage conditions can besides alter the grain quality, gluten content, enzyme activity etc ( Mehmet Murat Karaog Lu, Melek Aydeniz, Halis Gurbuz Kotancilar & A ; Kamil Emre GercA?elaslan, 2009 ) . The writer has non mentioned about the factors ( storage conditions ) that may act upon the physicochemical belongingss other than gamma irradiation.
Evidence Based Methods:
This is of premier importance while transporting out a research. This method is used to guarantee that the research worker has thorough cognition of certain grounds before get downing the research and has used qualified stuff to transport the research. Another of import measure while making a research is to avoid any sort of subjective influence or prejudice. Therefore, the research worker should clearly specify the population that is being targeted.
The chief purpose of this is to guarantee the readers that the best possible interventions were used in the research. In an attempt to avoid the prejudice, the writer has analysed the sample in triplicates for finding the titratable sourness, ash and protein contents. Techniques like warming and drying were done at suited temperatures recommended by international associations like AOAC and AACC. All these processs prove that appropriate stairss have been taken to extinguish prejudices to a larger extent possible.
Data is of many types viz. categorical, uninterrupted and distinct. Categorical information is further divided to nominal and ordinal informations. Nominal informations are values that can be assigned a label in the signifier of a figure. If a information set can be ranked or put in a sequence, it is called an ordinal information. Valuess are distinguishable and separate in distinct informations. The information obtained in this research is uninterrupted informations ; if a information can hold values/ observations within finite or infinite scope, it is called a uninterrupted information set.
Data was subjected to Analysis of Variance trial ( ANOVA ) which is the appropriate method for the current state of affairs. The writer has used standard divergence, F-test and LSD trial to construe the consequences clearly. ANOVA is used to compare more than two interventions or groups at a clip. In the current state of affairs, the wheat irradiated with gamma beams was compared with non-irradiated wheat to see if there were any important alterations in wheat construction, ash content, and protein content etc. From table 1, we observe that the P value is less than 0.05 which indicates that there was a important difference observed in Wet gluten content, wet of wet gluten content and titratable sourness when compared to that of non-irradiated wheat. There is no important difference ( p & gt ; 0.05 ) in values of dry gluten content, ash and protein content. From figure 2 and table 2, we observe that irradiation has a important consequence on extremum viscousness, hot gluing viscousness and cool pasting viscousness ( parametric quantities to mensurate flour viscousness ) and microstructure of wheat grain. Hence void hypothesis is rejected which assumed that there was no important difference between the irradiated wheat and non-irradiated wheat mentioning to wet gluten, wet of wet gluten content, titratable sourness, microstructure and flour viscousness. Contrary to this, void hypothesis is non rejected for ash and protein and dry gluten contents.
The alternate statistical method that can be proposed is Linear Regression Model. Out of the two arrested development theoretical accounts, viz. simple and multiple arrested development, the multiple arrested development theoretical account could be the best theoretical account that can be proposed for the current state of affairs. This is used when the response of one variable is explained by alterations in other variables.
There is merely one graph that the writer has put on. It is really clear demoing the viscousness alterations for different doses of irradiation at different times.
Intellectual Property Rights
“ Intellectual belongings rights ( IPR ) , are the rights granted to Godheads of any human rational creativeness ” . The major Intellectual belongings rights include patents, right of first publications, hallmarks, design rights, moral rights, performing artists ‘ rights and rights to forestall “ go throughing off ” and breach of assurance. IPR can be granted to any creative activity related to industrial, scientific, literary and artistic Fieldss.
Patents are the rights granted to the Godhead of an innovation by the authorities for a definite period of clip. In fact, the discoverer ‘s belongings can non be used by anyone without the grant of licence by that discoverer. A patent Lashkar-e-Taiba discoverers to profit from their innovations. It besides protects any unauthorized purchasing or merchandising of an innovation. The methods employed in the current research were non advanced ; in fact the writer has used the methods that were already been in usage. Gamma ray irradiation method has been in usage before this research. Therefore, there would be no demand to patent this research.
Health and Safety:
Health and safety should be given the paramount importance. The writer has stated that harmonizing to FAO, irradiated wheat is nutritionally safe for ingestion but it depends on the irradiation dosage. This statement is farther supported by The United States Public Health Service, The American Medical Association, National Association of State Departments of Agriculture, The Institute of Food Engineers and the World Health Organization. The procedure of irradiation should be carefully monitored since any little error will take to a terrible fatal accident. Exposure to gamma beams even for a short period of clip will take to malignant neoplastic disease. Merely trained forces should command the gamma irradiation. Besides, some of the reagents used are of high wellness hazard as they are carcinogenic and may even take to decease. While managing the reagents, safety steps such as baseball mitts, goggles and lab coats are must.
There are no ethical issues taken into consideration, as there were no human or carnal populations used in this research. If in any research, worlds or animate beings are involved, research workers should follow rigorous ethical processs as they are meant to be.
For any research to acquire accurate consequences, quality confidence processs should be followed. Labs with advanced engineering instruments and extremely qualified forces should be selected to avoid the mistakes in the consequences. The accreditation of the research lab should besides be verified as merely the research labs which maintain criterion techniques will be accredited. The quality control employed in this research was good and the equipment like negatron microscopes, ion coaters etc are all equal for the research.
The research was conducted in a well designed mode. The consequences were presented decently and the significance is clearly explained. There was no confusion with the graphs and tabular arraies. The sample was analysed in triplicates and therefore the coveted truth could be achieved. The hypothesis is clear explicating the effects of gamma irradiation on physicochemical belongingss and construction of wheat. The design is equal to turn out the hypothesis. Appropriate statistic method was used. However, there are countries that need betterment. The consequences would hold been more accurate if samples of different species were collected from different topographic points. But, the experiment in overall was really good.