Site Loader
Rock Street, San Francisco

The Indian Council of Forestry Research and Education, Forest Departments and forest corporations of different provinces, and many universities have selected and established familial resources. Whereas, aggregation, care and continuation of accession is carried out, elaborate certification and farther surveies on these resources are required to find public-service corporation in footings of genetic sciences, bio-technology, silviculture, opposition to disease and plagues. Research strategies for finding the familial base and redundancy, quantifying the familial displacement, placing familial contaminations, using and supplying specific individualities for enrollment and enfranchisement are discussed. The function for an apex bureau like ICFRE is to organize the networking and word picture of forest familial resources and the practical benefits of such an attack are presented

FOREST GENETIC RESOURCES FOR TREE IMPROVEMENT

Recognizing the importance of production forestry, strategic activities for tree betterment are in advancement in the ICFRE, Dehra Dun. Developing appropriate schemes for tree betterment and incorporating it with the tree genetic sciences activities of the State Forest Departments is critical. In this attack the accent is on species oriented tree betterment programme in coaction with State Forest Departments. Therefore, ICFRE, during the last many old ages, has developed comprehensive schemes for tree betterment programme for species like Teak, Acacias, Neem, Dalbergia, Pines, Casuarina, Bamboos and Gmelina. The attack is in footings of development of Seed Production Areas ( SPA ) , Clonal Seed Orchards ( CSO ) , Seedling Seed Orchards ( SSO ) select germplasm for primogenitors and clonal accessions of high value. Several hundred trees have besides been identified as campaigner plus trees propagated vegetatively and established as germplasm bank ( World Bank Project, 2000 ) in India ( Gurumurthi and Kumar, 1996, Kumar and Gurumurthi, 2000, Varghese et al. , 2000, Balasubramanian and Gurumurthi, 2001 ) . Forest Research Institute, Dehra Dun, TFRI, Jabalpur, AFRI, Jodhpur, RFRI, Jorhat and IFGTB, Coimbatore have assembled different populations of assorted species. In add-on, international birthplaces of nim tree, casuarina, eucalyptus and acacias have besides been assembled. National degree birthplaces for assorted species like Dalbergia sissu, Pines, acacias have besides been assembled. Improved seeds from Clonal Seed Orchards and Seedling Seed Orchards of Casuarina, Eucalyptus and Neem are already made available for seting to user bureaus.

State Forest Departments – Apart from the attempts of ICFRE, Forest Departments of different provinces and forest corporations in different provinces and many universities which have strong schools of forestry have besides selected and established germplasm in coaction with ICFRE. There are several studies of germplasm aggregation in bamboo from FRI, TFRI, RFRI, KFRI and State Forest Departments. These population/germplasm are extremely valuable and need to be conserved, in add-on, accessions added.

Tree Based Industries – A figure of tree based industries like AP Paper Mill, Rajahmundry, J.K. Paper Mills, Rayagada, Seshasayee paper Board, Erode, West Coast Paper, Dandeli, ITC Bhadrachalam, Harihar Polyfibres, Karnataka, Hindustan Newsprint Ltd. , Kerala have besides collected germplasm for their demands interactively with ICFRE. Amongst the germplasm developed by ITC Bhadrachalam, the ringers of eucalypts are widely planted by husbandmans, corporations and industries. The ICFRE establishments have identified several plus trees and from stressed environments that can organize the familial base from assorted tree betterment activities ( Gurumurthi and Kumar, 1996, Kumar and Gurumurthi, 2000, Balasubramanian, 2001, Balasubramanian and Gurumurthi, 2001 )

Stairss involved in developing the familial resources are geographic expedition, aggregation, brief rating, genteelness, generation and preservation. The attacks followed for alien species includes debut every bit good. In instance of autochthonal species like Pinus roxburgii the attack followed is based on location, direction and care followed by betterment schemes. Complete information base for seed bases and their transition into seed production countries ( SPAs ) , seedling seed groves ( SSOs ) , clonal seed groves ( CSOs ) and vegetive generation garden ( VMG ) along with complete list of ringers multiplied vegetatively for different species is maintained in single institutes.

TREE GENETIC RESOURCE FOR TREE IMPROVEMENT

A enormous attempt has been put in and the populations are on the land. It needs networking, integrating and development. Many of these aggregations can be of usage as base population for tree betterment programme and production of high giving assortments or ringers. Every institute has developed tree betterment programmes and implemented them at different degrees. In choice species, crossbreeding groves are besides in place but the uniformity in planning and direction is missing. During the last decennary dramatic alterations are taking topographic point in tree betterment and forestry betterment research as it is impacting critical resources like H2O, dirt, reservoirs, and catchments and their ecology and environment. The rapid alteration in clime and planetary heating is conveying about alterations in the eco system and is roll uping the research workers and policy shapers to alter the action program in forestry through the attacks of preservation and productiveness betterment vertically for output addition per unit of clip and infinite. This necessitate the demand for looking at the bing forest familial resources and inventing new methods for development advanced forest familial resources. Though new schemes need to be developed the already available resources need to be re-examined and suitably dovetailed into perspective planning. Globally therefore the bing forest familial resource developed as forest generative stuffs such as seeds, ringers in different type of groves is under traveling re-examination, rating and certification. India which to many leads in forestry research peculiarly in teak besides needs to re-look the existing resources peculiarly those developed in coaction with State Forest Departments that should work as the basic stuff for all tree betterment activities nationally and incorporating globally to run into the millenary challenges and the demand for heightening productiveness. The high giving up ringers and improved seeds can therefore organize the basic stuff for betterment. Therefore the clip has come to really closely interact with State Forest Departments for measuring the familial resources and incrementally moving upon them for research and betterment at the degree of ICFRE by obtaining financess from external beginnings for the incremental research and development. Need for FGR to be continuously upgraded is an indispensable demands. Therefore schemes should be put in topographic point for enrollment, rating, certification, word picture and intercession of the bing FGRs non merely to find the spread in cognition for the changed demands but besides plan prospectively for future action.

In position of the fact that the trees have long rotary motion period and several old ages of hold from sprouting to blossoming and about all are cross pollinated, the clonal stuff can be efficaciously used for introgression of cistrons for different traits. In fact, biotechnology will play much greater function in tree betterment in future. “ Tree Improvement “ to “ trait betterment ” for “ merchandise ” is the attack. It can supply trees tailored for cellulose, lignin, sodic and saline dirts, even ideotypes for agroforestry. Support is required to inventorise, measure and characterize the germplasm and web it as Tree Genetic resource for which a monolithic attempt is needed. Converting the germplasm into tree familial resource is a demand for production forestry.

Whereas aggregation, care and continuation of accession to the germplasm developed through seting stock betterment is carried out by different Institutes of ICFRE, elaborate surveies on these germplasms are required to find the importance of the aggregations in footings of familial base and redundancy in order to keep optimal degree of fluctuation to accomplish cost decrease. The attack is to measure and characterize the familial stuff to find public-service corporation.

Trees and woods and their huge diverseness in distribution, organismal webs, species and genotypes have important ecological, economic, environmental, climatic and socio-economic values Wood is an of import natural stuff for edifice and building, the mush and paper industry, and energy production segregation of atmospheric C is an of import map in extenuating clime alteration, air filtration, H2O and dirt preservation every bit good as their function in local clime ( micro clime ) , are of import ecosystem maps and services. In add-on woods are of high value for diversion and touristry and have cultural and religious significance.

31 % of the entire planetary land country or more than 4 billion hour angles are covered by woods. 1,2 billion of these are used for production of wood and non wood merchandises. Extra 949 million hour angle are dedicated to multiple utilizations including dirt and H2O preservation. Managed woods including commercial plantations are increasing and now comprise about 7 % of the entire forested area.. Accordingly forest trees particularly those suited for plantations are in the focal point of advanced genteelness schemes including familial technology. ( FAO 2010 ) ,

Harmonizing to FAO, a tree is: “ a woody perennial with a chief root, or, in the instance of brush, with several roots, holding a more or less definite Crown ” . For FAO bamboos, thenars and other woody workss if run intoing the above standards are included into the definition of a tree ( FAO 2005 ) . Tree workss occur in many different orders and households of workss. Most species of trees today are blooming workss belonging to the Angiosperms and Gymnosperms.

The focal point of wood or plantation tree familial alteration includes herbicide resistence, wood composing ( eg lignin ) , growing rates and phenology ( including blossoming and fruiting ) ( Verwer et al. 2010 ) , insect/pest tolerance, or abiotic emphasis tolerance whereas cardinal facets with fruit trees are resistence to pathogens and abiotic emphasis together with phenology. By far the most transmutations and tests have been done with poplars ( Canada Norway Workshop 2007 ) , followed by eucalyptus and pine. High fruitfulness ( reproduction capacity ) together with seed quiescence, multiple and really effectual distribution tracts of propagules, extended possibilities of vegetive reproduction and high viability are of import facets of their world-wide adaptative capacities and distribution. Forest trees are valued for their big biomass production and part to ecological and landscape architecture. Root systems are extended and are inextricably enmeshed with mycorrhiza, symbiotic associations with Fungis. In add-on ( forest ) trees are involved in wide interactions with farther beings from decomposers to birds and wildlife. Given all these facets rather frequently trees are described as representing an ecosystem in themselves.

Breeding and cultivation of wood trees is a rather fresh attack of resource use ( Campbell et al. 2003 ) . In Europe, tree extension and forest direction commenced in the in-between ages, but merely since the nineteenth century, forest trees are being consistently adapted to the demands of wood production ( Mathews & A ; Campbell 2000 ) . For this ground, even in normally adult species, the degree of domestication is still low.

Genetic and phenotypic word picture and stableness

During a tree lifetime these beings experience multiple abiotic and biotic impacts and environmental alterations with malleability in genomic and phenotypic reactions considered to play an of import function in such adaptative responses. In add-on, natural cistron hushing and extremely variable look degrees during the long lifetime of trees have to be considered. ( Ahuja 2009 ; Harfouche etal. 2011 ) . There is grounds that gene/environment interactions play an of import function ( Strauss et al. 2004 )

To speed up genteelness and generation attacks in trees clonal and vegetive extension has been developed including tissue civilization and micro extension ( Giri et al. 2004 ) . Embryogenic tissues turned out to be the most promising in renewing plantlets ( Frankenhuyzen & A ; Beardmore 2004 ) . Somaclonal fluctuation in propagative and clonal tissue civilization is really common ( Rani & A ; Raina 2000 ) Consequently clonal fidelity is an of import consideration in extension of trees. Transformation protocols are chiefly based on Agrobacterium tumefaciens and to a lesser extent on ballistic methods ( Frankenhuyzen & A ; Beardmore 2004, Harfouche et Al. 2011 ) . These, every bit good as transmutation related tissue civilization, are beginnings for the debut of mutational fluctuation. Back-crossing has been suggested to cut down the presence of transmutation induced mutants, which is a greater challenge for trees than for one-year harvest workss ( Flachowsky et al. 2009 ) .

Dispersal and distribution tracts

Trees have developed a battalion of ways to reproduce and administer via seeds and vegatative propagules. Propagules are frequently designed to distribute far and wid, ( eg. by air current, but besides by H2O, animate beings, insects ) with big sums of pollen and seed per persons ( Williams 2010 ) Seeds inside fruits may go as trade goods around the Earth and be released at the topographic point of ingestion being route borders, railroad roads or touristic countries, every bit good as local gardens.

Points to see

Pollen dispersion:

Pollen viability and pollenation particulars ;

Possible spacial pollen distribution ;

Timing of pollen production vs. receptiveness of female flowers

Mechanism developed in some species to guarantee selfing.

Seed dispersion:

Seed quiescence and viability

Abiotic distribution ( air current, H2O, inundations etc. )

Biotic distribution via animate beings including worlds for example, seed dispersion via trade good fruits ;

Vegetative dispersion ( including via exported or imported wood/branches ) ;

Points to see

Rotation period ;

Degree and type of direction ;

Evaluation of direction schemes ;

Monitoring consequences of field tests.

ACTION REQUIRED ON BASIC DATA ON THE ABOVE POINTS

Collate all the activities on Tree betterment research in India

What are the activities on specific tree genteelness work in advancement peculiar with mention to specific traits.

Identify the traits that can non be improved by familial agencies and that require molecular attacks.

Whether such molecular programmes are in advancement in tree research administrations and in the research wings of State Forest Departments

Whether such molecular programmes are in advancement in the industrial sector that use trees for paper, mush, Mach industry, plyboard industry etc, . Do the hold program to import Transgenics. If so modes.

Are there systems in topographic point for registering the seed and generative propogules that are produced for seting in plantation programmes. If non when will such enrollment will be put in topographic point in clip edge mode.

Points to see

Degree and type of direction ;

Evaluation of direction schemes ;

Monitoring propogule production

Whether seeds and propogules are being certified for their quality are non.

If familial betterment is to take topographic point, the betterment should be over a bench grade of quality. Whether such bench grade has been developed for at least species of economic importance.

Has basic biological science paperss prepared for trees that are being targeted for improvement.This is really of import to determe targeted attacks for molecular biological science in tree specis as they are of really long continuance

Surveies on pollen motion are really of import for Pollen viability and pollenation particulars as possible spacial pollen distribution, timing of pollen production vs. receptiveness of female flowers mechanism developed in some species to guarantee selfing

The Indian Council of Forestry Research and Education and the research establishments under it can supply information on these facets and have initiated sudies in some of the above countries like enrollment of propogules, familial betterment and can supply elaborate information. Tree betterment per Se whether through silvicultural, familial, genteelness and biotechnology must maintain all the poins detailed supra as trees whether in nature or plantations or groves influence systems and the envronment and are besides affected by the vegatations in the environment

Therefore probes are required for

Estimating the extent of variableness in footings of morphological forms, familial behavior in relation to environment.

Determining per cent variableness in the germplasm compared to that of natural population.

Determining the extent of fluctuation that is required to be maintained in alien germplasm.

Mass generation through macro/micropropagation every bit good as through development of primogenitors of choice germplasm.

Determining germplasm traits for demand of industry and husbandmans

Determining the adaptative traits of species/collection/provenance for salt, alkalinity, disease and plague opposition.

Determining the impact of betterment in the environment and the influence of flora around on the population under betterment

RESEARCH AREAS FOR STRENGTHENING THE TREE GENETIC RESOURCES

Familial rating of germplasm and assembly of nucleus aggregations though populations are derived from specified country or birthplace, and tests established, proper categorization and individuality is indispensable. Introduction of seeds from the topographic point of beginning where interspecific intercrossed occur in nature, for e.g. , in Australia where both Eucalyptus tereticornis and Eucalyptus camaldulensis are found, seed accessions derived can be interspecies loanblends. To develop proper schemes it is necessary to transport out familial rating of such germplasm and validate nucleus aggregations as the beginning itself could be from loanblends. When nucleus aggregations are used for debut of accessions to other topographic points, it is of import to develop methods for proof of such aggregations in early phases. In fact, in tree betterment and tree genetic sciences, such surveies of proof are highly of import as otherwise it will be many old ages before the disagreement is detected. It is of import to supervise the propagules derived for nucleus aggregations, whether it is from Seedling Seed Orchards or Clonal Seed Orchards. Molecular markers like AFLP have been shown to be more accurate in such surveies than morphological markers ( Akagi, 1997 ) . Amongst the molecular markers, SSRs and AFLPs were found to hold high value for information content ( Powell et al. , 1996 ) . Molecular markers can besides be developed to find the functional diverseness. Molecular markers have been used for sorting familial diverseness in rice germplasm ( Akagi, 1997, Virke et al. , 2000 ) , soybeen germplasm ( Powell et al, 1996 ) , Barley accession ( Russell, 1997 ) and Wild bean ( Tohme et al. , 1996 ) . Such surveies are common in engendering programme and release of assortments in agribusiness. No such surveies are conducted in forestry species. It is of import to transport out such surveies in germplasms where selected stuffs are allowed to crossbreed and the seeds derived from such population are distributed for mass production.

Distribution of familial fluctuation: The familial fluctuation in tree betterment is frequently accepted if the debuts are from birthplaces and populations, which nevertheless may non ever be true at genome degree. Therefore, it would be worthwhile to find the extent of fluctuation in antique situ population and farther compare it with the distribution of familial fluctuation in in situ population ( Francisco-Ortega et al. , 1992, Loos, 1994, Muluvi et al. , 1999 ) . This provides an attack to find the extent of fluctuation required for population betterment the extent of redundancy nowadays in the population, which in bend decides the population sizes. In other words, schemes to keep optimum fluctuation with minimum population size demands to be determined. Yasodha et Al, 2001, could quantitatively measure birthplace degree fluctuations in Casuarina equisetifolia utilizing ISSR and FISSR markers. There is demand to find the extent of familial fluctuation for species native to our state viz. teak, Pinus roxburgii, Dalbergia sissoo etc to invent in situ preservation schemes. Acquisition of germplasm is therefore optimized through trying schemes, which besides identifies the spreads in acquisition ( Kesseli et al. , 1991 ) Management of these germplasm requires considerable research inputs through development of forms for economic and plantation features followed by familial analysis which is further strengthened through marker analyses like micro orbiters. These methods are efficaciously followed in concurrence with morphological traits in many agricultural species for word picture. Such surveies are about nonexistent in forestry, but has become indispensable in position of works assortments protection act.

Quantification of familial displacement: The population of tree species are maintained at different degrees viz. seed production countries, seedling seed groves, clonal seed groves or in some species crossbreeding groves and clonal gardens. The gathering of population is an indicant of different degrees of familial displacement in the population except in instance of clonal gardens. The chance of familial impetus in segregating population is high due to cross-pollination. Specification for bar of pollen taint is spelt out. Yet, the familial taint and impetus in the population needs to be monitored and determined ( Kidwell et al. , 1994 ) . Familial impetus surveies are indispensable to keep the displacement at higher degrees. The chance of familial impetus in air current pollinated population is higher compared to that in insect pollinated population. Quantitative familial surveies provide attacks to find such impetuss ( Schittenhelm et al. , 1997 ) . However, in instance of tree species where generational rhythms are much longer, it is necessary to develop schemes to find the extent of familial impetus with in the population. They can besides be used in concurrence with AFLP surveies so that the minimum alterations occur in familial diverseness peculiarly in instance of introduced populations ( Kidwell et al. , 1994 ) . In land race populations such attacks demands to be followed for introduced species like casuarina, eucalyptus and acacia to find the effectual population size. This is every bit of import in preservation schemes as good ( Parzies et al, 2000 ) .

Designation of familial contaminations: The tree betterment schemes, at advanced degrees of population like clonal seed groves, crossbreeding groves are susceptible to familial taint. This is because population of coveted accessions are merely allowed to engender and the chance of pollen carried through air current dispersion can do contaminations. This can frequently be monitored through sample surveies in seeds derived from well-maintained populations ( Tanksley and Jones, 1981 ) . Familial taint surveies are besides indispensable for clonal accession wherein all ringer demand to be fingerprinted and maintained and any misidentification can be rapidly detected wherever intuition arises ( Steiner et al. , 1997 ) . In tree species over a period of clip bodily embryogenesis will go a tool for development of improved / genetically modified population. In such attacks methods need to be evolved to analyze the consistence and stableness of bodily embryogenesis in derived population. Such surveies have been carried out in intercrossed poplars ( Han et al. , 2000 ) .

Development of direction schemes: Comprehensive tree betterment programmes are frequently undertaken at the degree of silviculturists and really frequently assorted population and accession are introduced/ developed on empirical footing. This is because scientific tools are non available to measure and qualify the debut / populations. This explains why tree genetic sciences / tree betterment all over the universe is far behind that in agricultural harvest betterment. Though quantitative genetic sciences provides many methods, the combinations required in quantitative genetic sciences that needs to be validated statistically is frequently at discrepancy with what is practiced in the field. Very frequently the tree betterment patterns are constrained by insufficiency of land and unequal handiness of accessions. Therefore, even the best direction schemes followed in silviculture does non supply the coveted consequences. Two major jobs in tree betterment viz. , long old ages to finish engendering coevals, limited truth of choice methods of superior trees for quantitatively familial traits of industrial and environmental relevancy can be significantly mitigated by direct designation of genotypes at early phases of tree development utilizing a diagnostic system based on molecular markers co- segregating with traits of involvement. It is therefore indispensable to develop a combination of genetic sciences and molecular markers to set up betterment schemes and associate the same to preservation schemes for in situ populations ( Chalmers et al. , 1994, Del Rio et al. , 1997, Krauss, 2000 ) .

Use of molecular markers for functional diverseness and for familial sweetening are two countries of great importance for industrial plantations and barren development. Molecular markers have been used to hasten the showing of germplasm resources for plague opposition and to ease the introgression of opposition cistrons in to susceptible lines ( Mayer et al. , 1997, King et al. , 1999 ) , for diagnostic intents ( Chen et al. , 1998 ) and for foretelling the public presentation of relevant traits. Mathish et Al. 2001, have devised a Deoxyribonucleic acid fingerprint database direction scheme utilizing Microsoft Access 2000 for confirming fingerprints of ringers maintained in germplasms. As ringers will be introduced in larger Numberss through macro and micropropagation at that place will be an absolute demand to analyze and document the fingerprints of of import ringers. It will go the basic necessity as grounds for rational belongings rights every bit good as to supply equal support for protection of works assortments peculiarly for tree species. The major policy attacks for protection of works assortments and husbandmans right measure of 2001 is largely concerned with agricultural harvests. Plantation directors, whether in the wood section or private baby’s rooms will progressively depend on trait improved stock in their seedling / ringers and in such instances it is of import to find the parametric quantities for enfranchisement of such stock. In fact there will be an absolute necessity to specify the works quality criterions in footings of physical and familial quality.

All these probes will supply leads for

Methods for finding the value of the tree germplasm

Economic production of familial resources

Development of parametric quantities for finding the economic potency for different terminal usage direction.

Determine the physical and genic quality of seeds and compare the same with less improved and unimproved population of sub-species taxa.

Planting stock value derived from improved population.

Development of baby’s room patterns for quality propagules with defined criterions and partly defined lineages.

Quantification of propagules that can be produced yearly and the extent of the stock that can be provided for plantation activities.

Developing bundle of nursery patterns and specific baby’s room substructure for such quality propagules.

This attack will supply footing to develop specific individualities for

Registered propagules ( Registration ID for beginning identified seeds )

Certified propagules ( Certified ID for clonal seed groves ) .

Hybrid propagules ( Hybrid ID for full sibs ) .

Familial enfranchisement ( Familial ID for ringers, micropropagated workss )

Supplying enfranchisement will assist in developing the footing for works quality criterions in baby’s rooms. It will ease the State Forest Departments, Corporations and industries to develop criterions for release of seting stuffs. Therefore, an apex bureau like ICFRE needs to be provided with financess and duties for networking and development of National Bureau of Forest Genetic Resources and rating and word picture of elect germplasm.

This will enable ICFRE institutes to

Fix a database of all the stuffs available on the land for assorted species and supply methods for rating and word picture.

Network the germplasm aggregations for assorted species with different provinces through the research establishments under it. Already the programme of improved seting stock is on the land and will be utilized for the intent.

Develop species web for industries in betterment of their germplasm and keeping their ain tests. Evaluation and word picture of such germplasm will be done by the several ICFRE institutes.

The scheme when implemented will hold a multiplier consequence in footings of production of propagules of coveted quality and equal measure. It can besides foretell productiveness. Adding quality to volume in trees is a necessity non merely to supply high value merchandises but besides for preservation programme in footings of monitoring and direction, both in in situ, ex situ and in production populations. In fact, this attack provides chances for the Forester, organized scientists of forest research, resource directors in province section, private baby’s rooms, micropropagation Parkss, tree based industries and husbandmans to work together and optimise the attempt and maximise the output. The full concerted installation would go a system to absorb the promotion in biotechnology innovatively and adaptively for tree betterment through nonconventional programmes, like engineered workss for drought tolerance, salt tolerance, plague and disease opposition in add-on to scaling up the loanblends that are produced through controlled pollenation. Such concerted attack would put foundation for developing substructure and human resource and quickly reassign quality merchandises at user degree, like forest sections and husbandmans. The attack will lend to rationalization of familial resource aggregations and increase the efficiency of resource direction.

ROAD MAP FOR FOREST GENETICS MANAGEMENT NETWORK

As a first measure, it is necessary to acquire the available informations on these species in the signifier of seed groves, seed production countries, clonal seed groves and other generative stuffs.

Prepare for Registration of these countries species wise

– Every province may be encouraged to use for enrollment of their choice country.

– A proforma demands to be designed individually, species wise, degree of betterment done. This proforma needs to be developed and circulated to all the ICFRE institute and NPD will make the needful for developing a consensus papers.

– This consensus papers will necessitate to be put on the web site of ICFRE.

– ICFRE will make a separate web format for FGRMN that will be put the paperss such as under

Consultative workshop on schemes for preparation of FGRMN.

Recommendation of the workshop

Precedence species that will be taken up in the Phase-I and Phase-II along with the networking spouses.

All the related paperss, publication.

– Guidelines for enrollment of different types of Seed Orchards, Clonal Orchards demand to be prepared. This will be coordinated by NPD by assigning species to different institutes that will work as organizing spouses

– Each institute of ICFRE must come out with species guidelines

– The attack will be provide paperss for

Application for Registration

Preparation of self appraisal papers

Confirmation of the beginnings that need to be registered.

– Registration is indispensable for its being used under Seed bill/ Forestry generative stuff measure, that may be passed in parliament shortly. Therefore it is necessary that, ICFRE and FGRMN web has the consensus papers on guidelines and processs ready for presentation and treatment which even otherwise is indispensable.

– The guidelines and direction patterns should be simple and in line with patterns already being followed, nevertheless, FGRMN will germinate a consolidative papers that will ease certification for Registration.

– This will besides necessitate a self appraisal proforma that will be designed by FGRMN in audience with NPD who will go around to all the nodal institutes and nodal officers in the province and finalise the same.

– A meeting of all nodal officers in several institutes demands to be held to eventually make up one’s mind on a acceptable but flexible format that may really slighter from species to species and part to part.

Once this proforma is in topographic point. The institutes under ICFRE in coaction with several province sections will represent Regional panel for Registration. All these inside informations need to be put on a web site, that will be designated as FGRMN, Website.

All signifiers, guidelines, applications format will be put on this web site.

The accreditation panel will dwell of two members from the institute one each for the several SFD at least one retired CCF, retired DCF 5-8 Scientists as members with one member secretary from the several institute.

Methodology for enrollment will affect

Receiving application

Size uping suitably

Arranging of site visit

Analyzing all documented processs.

Qualitatively and quantitatively assess the information provided.

– The confirmation commission will dwell of one member of the several institute, two members form accreditation panel of the several institute who will besides finalise the visit to the country along with inside informations provided in the ego appraisal proforma after common consent with the SFD concerned.

– The Committee during the visit will measure in item the seed/propagule production country verify all the certification available. ( There may be a demand to supply preparation on certification, if one already does non be ) .

– If a certification exists it needs to be rationalized in relation to a species for the whole state. It is besides necessary to develop the species wise standard operation processs for propagule and production and direction system. This attack requires elaborate treatment and argument. ( Basic SOP-for SPA, SSO, CSO and VMG. demand to be prepared. Before readying of SOP, back up papers to be prepared and provided.

Speciess detail for information paperss:

This is a basal line species document basically descriptive in footings of morphological, anatomical, generative characters, the genus, household and biological science. Briefly ecology, biological science distribution must be stated to boot, tree direction, germplasm direction, plagues and disease besides must besides be stated. List of farther reading must besides be provided. These are available in public sphere and can be obtained. I have the inside informations of the 15 species that is selected for FGR.

Following Measure is to change over all the species paperss into biological science paperss. As present we are covering with trees 15 species to get down with elaborate biological science paperss for each species need to be developed. This is because, the species are being improved though different stairss of development, viz. Silvicultural betterment, tree betterment, familial betterment trait betterment and eventually active germplasm development and subsequently molecular schemes. Even for first measure betterment, base line informations for unimproved population under zonal, edaphic and environmental conditions are necessary to find the amplitude of fluctuation that exists nationally. Based on this familial betterment will get down or the 1s already developed will be documented.

Therefore biological science paperss though has likewise with species papers, it will be hold different focal point and will wholly detail all the available information, under the undermentioned probationary caputs.

General description

Vegetation

Habitat

Taxonomy

Cytology

Prevailing species, related 1s

Centres of origin/diversity

Natural distribution, development migration

Generative biological science

Copulating system, cistron flow

Seed production

Natural regeneration

Geneticss and genomics including cytology, chromosome normal variableness.

Familial variableness

Population degree variableness

Individual degree variableness

Crossability

Familial betterment work done in India

Genomicss, sequencing, if any even at international degree.

Use, market, economic sciences

Industries utilizing the species, if any

Organizations working in India

All mentions.

The species papers is available and for transition into biological paperss.

All these are called baseline stuff that is required for documenting the bing resources and for betterment to find

Extent of betterment over baseline on output

Traits ( one may better a trait without bettering or even decreasing output )

Traits for biotic and abiotic demands

These inside informations decide the present position of familial resources, at unimproved and at assorted degrees of betterment. In our state improved or modified trees occur/improved at the undermentioned degrees.

Choice

Watering place

SSO

CSO

Genetic up step

Familial pyramiding

For those factors that can non be pyramided genetically ( that demand to be defined with grounds ) molecular and biotech attacks will hold to be followed in which instance boosters, choice markers, figure of transcripts that need to integrate, where required cistron hushing demand to be defined with its possible impact on roots, root merger, rhizosphere and the bugs associated with the same, related species and genera where cistron flow can happen, pollen biological science, motion, insect and associated plagues. All these can be determined from biological science papers.

A Separate Resource Improvement web will be formed across ICFRE institutes and even affecting Scientists and Foresters from outside ICFRE to develop web undertakings in these countries. Again, this is possible to plan merely when, the FGR is validated, registered networked and the spreads identified for farther betterment.

Therefore scientists need to be instantly identified across the ICFRE and each of them be given one species to develop biological paperss. Each one will be a comprehensive book and must be prepared and print within 3 months at the most. It should non be a voluminous book but a COMPREHENSIVE BASE DOCUMENT that should include and extra facet of

Development of Network subjects and spouses.

Once the subject is in topographic point individuality scientists, Foresters, SFDs and NGOs and develop a brief web proposal, saying installation demand and clip frame. At first, a theme papers of 4-5 pages will be developed. It will be vetted by appropriate commission and presentation made to different support bureaus, obtain financess for brainstorming and subsequently undertaking wise and nowadays for support. The undertaking should non be for more than five old ages develop preservation with industries that have DSIR recognized installations for coveted species.

Develop pool with International groups and species specific/function specific webs for obtaining International support.

For all these attacks, the National undertaking Director must became a portion of organisational construction and station created for this FGR and should be placed at ICFRE central office at Dehra dun. Further more, all the bing All India Coordinated Project must be reworked in much greater item and made into difference constituents live betterment, genetic sciences, markers development etc. , based on the inside informations available in baseline papers.

Therefore a national Centre for enrollment and enfranchisement system for seed and propagule beginnings will be created

— –

Mentions AND FURTHER Reading

Akagi H, Yokozeki Y, Inagaki A and Fujimura T ( 1997 ) . Highly polymorphous microsatellites of rice

consist of AT repetitions, and a categorization of closely related cultivars with these microsatellite venue.

Theoretical and Applied Genetics, 94: 61-67.

Ahuja, M.R. ( 2009 ) Transgene stableness and dispersion in wood trees. Trees Vol. 23 pp. 1125-1135

Begon, M. Townsend, C.R. and Harper, J.L. 2006. Ecology – From Persons to Ecosystems, Fourth Edition. Blackwell Printing

Balasubramanian A and Gurumurthi K ( 2001 ) . Familial divergency in ringers of Casuarina equistifolia In:

Proceedings of the Workshop semen Peer Review on Casuarina ( Compiled by K. Gurumurthi ) . October 8-9,

2001. Institute of Forest Genetics and Tree Breeding, Coimbatore. pp 73 – 84.

Balasubramanian, A ( 2001 ) . Screening for salt opposition in ringers of Casuarina equisetifolia Forst.

Ph.D thesis submitted to the Forest Research Institute ( Deemed University ) , India.

Chalmers KJ, Newton AC, Waugh R, Wilson J and PowellW ( 1994 ) . Evaluation of the extent of familial

fluctuation in mahoganies ( Meliaceae ) utilizing RAPD markers. Theoretical and Applied Genetics, 89: 504-508.

Campbell, M.M. Brunner, A.M. Jones, H.M. and Strauss, S: Hydrogen: ( 2003 ) ForestryA?s fertile crescent: the application of biotechnology to forest trees. Plant Biotechnology Journal 1: 141-154

Chavarriaga-Aguirre P, Maya MM, Tohme J, Duque MC, Iglesias C, Bonierbale MW, Kresovich S and

Kochert G ( 1999 ) . Using microsatellites, isozymes and AFLPs to measure familial diverseness and

redundancy in the manioc nucleus aggregation and to measure the utility of DNA-based markers to keep

germplasm aggregations. Molecular Breeding, 5: 263-273.

Chen XM, Line RF and Leung H ( 1998 ) . Genome scanning for resistance-gene parallels in rice, barley, and

wheat by high-resolution cataphoresis. Theoretical and Applied Genetics, 97: 345-355.

Del Rio AH, Bamberg JB, Huaman Z, Salas A and Vega SE ( 1997 ) . Measuring alterations in the familial

diverseness of murphy cistron Bankss. 2. In situ V ex situ. Theoretical and Applied Genetics, 95: 199-204.

Ewald, D. Hu, J. Yang, M. ( 2006 ) Transgenic forest trees in China. In ; Fladung, M. Ewald, D. ( Eds ) Tree transg FAO 2004. Preliminary reappraisal of biotechnology in forestry including gengetic alteration. Resources Working Paper FGR 59E Forest Resources Division

Food and agriculture organization 2005. Global forest resource appraisal. Global Forest Resources Assessment update Footings and definitions. FRA Working Paper 83/E, FAO Forestry Department Rome 2004 ( hypertext transfer protocol: //www.fao.org/forestry/site/24690/en )

Food and agriculture organization 2010 Global Forest Resources Assessment 2010, chief study 163

enesis: recent developments, Springer Berlin. pp 25-45

Frankenhuyzen, K. Beardmore, T. ( 2004 ) Current position and environmental impact of transgenic

forest trees. Can. J. For. Res. 34: 1163-1180

Francisco-Ortega J, Jackson MT, Catty JP and Ford-Lloyd BV ( 1992 ) . Familial diverseness in the

Chamaecytisus proliferus composite ( Fabaceae: Genisteae ) in the Canary Islands in relation to in situ

preservation. Familial Resources and Crop Evolution, 39: 149-158.

Giri CC, Shyamkumar B, Anjaneyulu C ( 2004 ) : Advancement in tissue civilization, familial transmutation and applications of biotechnology to trees: an overview. Trees, 18, 115-135.

Gordon, D.R. et Al ( 2011 ) Measuring the invasive potency of biofuel species proposed for Florida and the United States utilizing the Australian weed hazard appraisal. Biomass and Bioenergy 35, 74-79

Gurumurthi K and Kumar A ( 1996 ) . Constitution of ringer bank of Casuarina equisetifolia for tree

betterment. In: Recent Casuarina Research and Development Eds. Pinyopusarerek, K, Turnbill, J.W. and

Midgley, S.J. Proceedings of the 3rd international Casuarina workshop, Da Nang, Vietnam 4-7 March

1996. Pp.159-161.

Harfouche, A. Meilan R. Altman A. ( 2011 ) Tree familial Engineering andapplications to sustainable forestry and biomass production. Tendencies in Biotechnology, Vol. 29, No. 1

Hubert, J. Cundall E. ( 2006 ) Choosing birthplaces of broadleafed trees. Information note. Forestry Commission UK. hypertext transfer protocol: //www.forestry.gov.uk/pdf/fcin082.pdf/ $ FILE/fcin082.pdf

Han KH, Meilan R, Ma C, and Strauss S.H. ( 2000 ) . An Agrobacterium tumefaciens transmutation

protocol effectual on a assortment of cottonwood loanblends ( genus Populus ) . Plant Cell Reports. 19: 315-320.

Kesseli R, Ochoa O and Michelmore R ( 1991 ) . Variation at RFLP venue in Lactuca spp. and beginning of

cultivated boodle ( L. sativa ) . Genome, 34: 430-436.

Kidwell KK, Austin DF and Osborn TC ( 1994 ) . RFLP rating of nine Medicago accessions

stand foring the original germplasm beginnings for North American lucerne cultivars. Crop Science, 34: 230-

236.

King GJ, Tartarini S, Brown L, Gennari F and Sansavini S ( 1999 ) . Introgression of the Vf beginning of strikebreaker

opposition and distribution of linked marker allelomorphs within the Malus cistron pool. Theoretical and Applied

Geneticss, 99: 1039-1046.

Krauss SL ( 2000 ) . Patterns of copulating in Persoonia mollis ( Proteaceae ) revealed by an analysis of paternity

utilizing AFLP: deductions for preservation. Australian Journal of Botany, 48: 349-356.

Kumar A and Gurumurthi K ( 2000 ) . Familial divergency surveies on Clonal public presentation of Casuarina

equisetifolia. Silvae Genetica. 49:57-60.

Loaiza-Figueroa F and Weeden NF ( 1991 ) . Effectss of seed addition processs on isozyme polymorphism

in Allium. FAO/IBPGR Plant Genetic Resources Newsletter, 83/84: 1-3.

Loos BP ( 1994 ) . Allozyme distinction of European populations and cultivars of Lolium perenne L. , and

the relation to ecogeographical factors. Euphytica, 80: 49-57.

Mathish NV, Tripathi SB, and Gurumurthi K. ( 2001 ) . DNA – Fingerprint database direction utilizing

Microsoft Access- a simple scheme to confirm fingerprints of clones.Plant Cell Biotechnology and

Molecular Biology ( in print ) .

Mayer MS, Tullu A, Simon CJ, Kumar J, Kaiser WJ, Kraft JM and Muehlbauer FJ ( 1997 ) . Development of

a Deoxyribonucleic acid marker for Fusarium wilt opposition in garbanzo. Crop Science, 37: 1625-1629.

Muluvi GM, Sprent JI, Soranzo N, Provan J, Odee D, Folkard G, McNicol JW and Powell W ( 1999 ) .

Amplified fragment length polymorphism ( AFLP ) analysis of familial fluctuation in Moringa oleifera Lam.

Molecular Ecology, 8: 463-470.

Mathews, J.H. et Campbell, M.M. ( 2000 ) The advantages and disadvantages of the application of familial technology to forest trees: a treatment. Forestry Vol. 73 No. 4: 371-380

Matyssek, R. ; Fromm, J. ; Rennenberg, H. ; Roloff, A. ( 2010 ) : Biologie der Baume – Von der Zelle zur globalen Ebene. Ulmer Verlag, Stuttgart. 349 S.

Merkle, S.A. Andrade, G.M.. Nairn, C.J. Powell, W.A.. Maynardet, C.A.. ( 2007 ) Restoration of threatened species: a baronial cause for transgenic trees. Tree Genetics & A ; Genomes Vol. 3: 111-118

OECD, Safety Assessments of Transgenic Organisms. OECD Consensus Documents. Vol. 3, 2010: Biology of Trees: White Pine, Jack Pine, North American Larches, Douglas-Fir, Lodgepole Pine, Black Spruce ; Vol. 2, 2006 Biology of Tress: Norway Spruce, White Spruce, Sitka Spruce, Eastern White Pine, Poplars, Stone Fruits, European White Birch.

Parzies HK, Spoor W and Ennos RA ( 2000 ) . Familial diverseness of barley landrace accessions ( Hordeum

vulgare ssp vulgare ) conserved for different lengths of clip in antique situ cistron Bankss. Heredity, 84: 476-486.

Powell W, Morgante M, Andre C, Hanafey M, Vogel J, Tingey S and Rafalski A ( 1996 ) . The comparing

of RFLP, RAPD, AFLP and SSR ( microsatellite ) markers for germplasm analysis. Molecular Breeding, 2:

225-238.

Russell JR, Fuller JD, Macaulay M, Hatz BG, Jahoor A, Powell W and Waugh R ( 1997 ) . Direct

comparing of degrees of familial fluctuation among barley accessions detected by RFLPs, AFLPs, SSRs and

RAPDs. Theoretical and Applied Genetics, 95: 714-722.

Rani V, Raina S.N. ( 2000 ) Genetic fidelity of organized meristem-derived micropropagated workss: a critical revaluation. In Vitro Cell Biol Plant 36:319-330

Schittenhelm S, Gladis T and Rao VR ( 1997 ) . Efficiency of assorted insects in germplasm regeneration of

carrot, onion and Brassica rapa colza accessions. Plant Breeding, 116: 369-375.

Steiner AM, Ruckenbauer P and Goecke E ( 1997 ) . Care in genebanks, a instance survey:

taints observed in the Nurnberg oats of 1831. Familial Resources and Crop Evolution, 44: 533-

538.

Tanksley SD and Jones RA ( 1981 ) . Application of intoxicant dehydrogenase allozymes in proving the familial

pureness of F1 loanblends of tomato. HortScience, 16: 179-181.

Tohme J, Gonzalez DO, Beebe S and Duque MC ( 1996 ) . AFLP analysis of cistron pools of a wild bean nucleus

aggregation. Crop Science, 36: 1375-1384.

Varghese M, Nicodemus A, Nagarajan B, Sasidharan KR, Siddappa, Bennet SSR and Subramanian K.

( 2000 ) . Seedling seed orchards- for engendering tropical trees. Publishers ; Director, Institute of Forest

Geneticss and Tree Breeding, Coimbatore, India.

Virk PS, Zhu J, Newbury HJ, Bryan GJ, Jackson MT and Ford-Lloyd BV ( 2000 ) . Effectiveness of different

categories of molecular marker for sorting and uncovering fluctuation in rice ( Oryza sativa ) germplasm.

Euphytica, 112: 275-284.

Verwer, C.C. Buitenveld, J. Koelwijn, H.P. Tolkamp, W. de Vries, S.M.G. new wave der Meer, P.J. . ( 2010 ) Genetically modified trees – Status, tendencies and possible environmental hazards. Alterra-report 2039 ( hypertext transfer protocol: //edepot.wur.nl/146722 )

Williams CG ( 2010 ) . Long-distance pine pollen still germinates after meso-scale dispersion. Am J Bot. 97 ( 5 ) :846-55.

Yasodha R, Kathirvel M, Sumathi R, Gurumurthi K and Nagaraju J. ( 2001 ) . Familial analyses of

Casuarinas utilizing ISSR-PCR and FISSR-PCR markers. Communicated to Theor Appl Genet.

Planting STOCK IMPROVEMENT UNDER ICFRE*

Institute

Seed Production Area ( in hectares )

Clonal Seed Orchard ( in hectares )

Seedling Seed Orchard ( in hectares )

Vegetative Multiplication Garden ( in hectares )

FRI, Dehradun

181.8

28.0

25.2

4.1

IFGTB, Coimbatore

82.3

27.7

38.3

13.5

IWST, Bangalore

120.0

12.0

34.0

6.0

TFRI, Jabalpur

425.0

41.0

83.5

10.0

AFRI, Jodhpur

200.0

29.0

55.0

5.0

RFRI, Jorhat

24.0

12.8

6.0

6.0

HFRI, Shimla

32.5

8.0

12.0

2.0

CSF & A ; ER, Allahabad

60.0

3.0

30.5

0.0

IFP, Ranchi

100.0

5.0

60.0

10.0

Entire

1225.6

166.5

344.4

56.6

*Major species are Eucalyptus, Teak, Acacia, Neem, Dalbergia, pines, Casuarina, Bamboos, Anogeissus, Gmelina, Prosopis Pericallis cruenta

REQUIREMENT OF DIFFERENT PLANTING MATERIAL

Name of the species

Seedlings raised from certified beginnings

( million )

Clonal stuffs

( million )

Seedlings raised by normal patterns

( million )

Entire seedling raised

( million )

Area

( million hour angle )

Eucalyptus

150

200

450

800

0.40

Bamboos

250

300

650

1,200

0.60

Acacias

300

100

600

1,000

0.50

Albizzias

18

60

360

600

0.30

Prosopis Pericallis cruenta

160

370

530

0.20

Prosopis juliflora

320

750

1,070

0.60

Casuarina equisetifolia

32

32

96

160

0.08

Dalbergia sissu

16

16

128

160

0.08

Conifers

80

8

312

400

0.20

Teak

120

60

60

240

0.12

Sum

1,448

936

3,776

6,160

3.08

Priority species for different provinces for the seting Stock Improvement programme

State

Organizing institute

Priority Species for the constitution ofaˆ¦

Seed Production Area ( SPA )

Clonal Seed Groves

Seedling Seed Groves

Vegetative Multiplication Garden

Up, Haryana & A ; Punjab

FRI, Dehra Dun

Dalbergia

Sissoo

Eucalyptus

Tereticornis

Pinus

Roxburghii

Dalbergia

Sissoo

Eucalyptus

Tereticornis

Pinus

Roxburghii

Dalbergia

Sissoo

Eucalyptus

Tereticornis

Pinus

Roxburghii

Eucalyptus

Tereticornis

Pinus roxburghii

TN, Kerala, Andaman & A ; Nicobar

IFGTB, Coimbatore

Eucalyptus spp.

Acacia spp.

Tectona grandis

Eucalyptus spp.

Casuarina

spp.

Tectona grandis

Eucalyptus spp.

Casuarina spp.

Tectona grandis

Eucalyptus spp.

Casuarina spp.

Tectona grandis

Karnataka & A ; Andhra Pradesh

IWST, Bangalore

Tectona grandis

Eucalyptus

Camaldulensis

Casuarina spp.

Eucalyptus spp.

Tectona grandis

Casuarina spp

Eucalyptus spp.

Tectona grandis

Casuarina

spp.

Tectona grandis

Bamboo

MP, Maharashtra & A ; Orissa

TFRI, Jabalpur

Tectona grandis

Casuarina

Equisetifolia

Tectona grandis

Casuarina

spp.

Albizia procera

Bamboo

Tectona grandis

Casuarina

spp.

Albizia procera

Bamboo

Tectona grandis

Casuarina

Spp.

Albizia procera

Bamboo

Rajasthan Gujarat

AFRI,

Jodhpur

Tectona grandis

Dalbergia

Sissoo

Acacia nilitica

Eucalyptus spp.

Tectona grandis

Dalbergia

Sissoo

Acacia nilitica

Eucalyptus spp.

Dalbergia

Sissoo

Acacia nilitica

Eucalyptus spp.

Dalbergia

sissu

Eucalyptus spp.

J & A ; K Himachal Pradesh

HFRI, Shimla

Pinus roxburghii

Dalbergia sissu

Pinus spp.

Dalbergia sissu

Pinus spp.

Dalbergia sissu

Populus spp.

UP

ISF & A ; ER, Allahabad

Dalbergia

Sissoo

Eucalyptus spp.

Acacia spp.

Dalbergia

Sissoo

Tectona grandis

Eucalyptus

Bihar, Orissa W.B

IFP, Ranchi

Acacia auriculiformis

Eucalyptus spp.

Acacia spp.

Eucalyptus spp.

Dalbergia

Sissoo

Gmelina

Arborea

Eucalyptus spp.

Paulownia spp.

Gmelina arborea

Bamboo

Birthplace tests constitution by ICFRE

States of India

Speciess

Up, Punjab & A ; Haryana

TN, Kerala & A ; A & A ; N Land

MP, Maharashtra, Orissa & A ; Goa

Rajasthan, Gujarat & A ; D & A ; N

Karnataka, AP, A & A ; N

Bihar, WB, Orissa

Acacia nilotica

27

34

46

14

Azadirachta indica

26

19

Pinus roxburghii

23

Dalbergia sissu

31

10

10

Prosopis Pericallis cruenta

6

Casuarina equisetifolia

40

Eucalyptus grandis

17

10

E.tereticornis

5

4

E.Camaldulensis

13

16

15

E.microtheca

20

Acacia lebbeck

13

A.mangium

13

Santalum album

9

Acacia procera

11

Pongamia pinnata

7

Jatropha curcus

25

Dendrocalamus

Strictus

11

Tecomella undulate

13

Gmelina araborea

32

13

Post Author: admin