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Herbal Medicine sometimes referred to as Herbalism or Botanical Medicine, is the usage of herbs for their curative or medicative value. A herb is a works or works portion valued for its medicinal, aromatic or savoury qualities. Herbal workss produce and contain a assortment of chemical substances that act upon the organic structure. Herbal medical specialty is the oldest signifier of health care known to mankind ( holistic online.com ) .

Herbs are presenting a rejoinder and herbal ‘renaissance ‘is go oning all over the Earth. The herbal merchandises today symbolize safety In contrast to the synthetics that are regarded as insecure to human and environment. Although herbs had been priced for their medicative, flavoring and aromatic qualities for centuries. Of the 2,50,000 higher works species on Earth, more than 80,000 are medicative workss India is one of the universe ‘s 12 biodiversity centres with the presence of over 45000 different works species. Traditional systems of medical specialty continue to be widely practiced as many histories. Population rise, unequal supply of drugs, prohibitory cost of interventions, side effects of several allopathic drugs and development of opposition to presently used drugs for the infective diseases have led to increased accent on the usage of works stuffs as a beginning of

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medical specialties for a broad assortment of human complaints.

Green workss synthesis and continue a assortment of biochemical merchandises, many of which are extractible and used as chemical provender stocks or as natural stuff for assorted scientific probes. Many secondary metabolites of workss are commercially of import and find usage in a figure of pharmaceutical compounds. ( medicative works categorization )

The World Health Organization ( WHO ) estimates that 4 billion people, 80 per centum of the universe population, soon use herbal medical specialty for some facet of primary wellness attention. WHO notes that of 119 plant-derived pharmaceutical medical specialties, approximately 74 per centum are used in modern medical specialty in ways that correlated straight with their traditional utilizations as works medical specialties by native civilizations Major pharmaceutical companies are presently carry oning extended research on works stuffs gathered from the rain woods and other topographic points for their possible medicative value. Among ancient civilisations, India has been known to be rich depository of medicative workss. The wood of India is the Principle depository of big figure of medicative and aromatic workss, which are mostly collected as natural stuffs for the industry of drugs and perfumery merchandises ( herbal medical specialty holistic online.com ) .

The major systems of autochthonal medical specialties are:

Ayurveda

Among these systems ayurveda is most developed and widely practiced in India. Ayurveda Dating back to 1500-800 BC has been an built-in portion of Indian civilization. The term comes from Sanskrit Au ( life ) and Veda ( cognition ) As the name implies it is non merely the scientific discipline of intervention of the ailment but covers the whole gamut of happy human life affecting the physical, metaphysical and the religious facets. Ayurvedic signifier of medical specialty is believed to be existing in India for 1000s of old ages. It employs assorted techniques besides to supply mending or alleviation to the ailing patients. One of the things that ayurveda uses is medicines of works of Many herbs and spices used in Indian cookery, such as garlic, ginger, turmeric, split, cardamon, cinnamon, Cuminum cyminum, Chinese parsley, fenugreek fennel, ajowan ( ajwain ) , anise, amchur, bay foliage, hing ( asafoetida ) etc. , are known to hold medicative belongingss Ayurvedic medical specialty uses all of these either in diet or as medical specialty. Besides, the many Medicinal workss that are found in India ( and elsewhere ) are routinely used by the practicians of Ayurveda. In India over 7,000 medicative works species are known to be. Some of these medicative workss have been featured on Indian postage casts.

Unani system of medical specialty:

In the Unani system, assorted types of intervention are employed such as ilaj spot tad bur ( regimental therapy ) , ilaj bil Ghiza ( diet therapy ) , ilaz command Dawa ( pharmaco-therapy ) and jarhat ( surgery ) . The regimental therapy includes, vivisection, cupping, diaphores is, umlaut, Turkish bath, massage, cauterant, purge, vomit, exercising, leeching, etc. Diet therapy purposes at handling certain complaints by the disposal of specific diets or by modulating the quality and quantit the pharmaco-therapy trades with the usage of of course happening drugs of preponderantly mineral or carnal beginning. Surgery that has been in usage in Unani pattern for a long clip employs surgical processs for which certain instruments and techniques have been designed.

A

A A A A A A A In Unani medical specialty, individual drugs or combinations in the natural signifier are preferred, over compound preparations. The Unani Materia Medica is really huge, but most of the ingredients are locally available and easy to obtain. The of course happening drugs used in the system are symbolic of life and are by and large free from side effects. And such drugs are toxic are processed from rough stuff and purified in many ways before usage.

A

The Unani pharmacopoeia ( Said, 1969 ) has a rich armamentarium of natural drugs, dwelling of largely herbs but besides stuff of animate being, mineral and marine beginning. There are over 2,000 species of workss in the Unani Materia Medica ( Daljithsimha, 1974 ) , of which many species of workss happening in India found a topographic point ( Fatima, 1994 )

Siddha system of medical specialty:

Alternate medical specialty. Siddha system is one of the oldest systems of medical specialty in India. The term ‘Siddha ‘ agencies accomplishment and the ‘Siddhars ‘ were saintly figures who achieved consequences in medical specialty through the pattern of Yoga. Eighteen ‘Siddhars ‘ seem to hold contributed towards the development of this medical system. In the ancient period Indian saints handled the workss and herbs for long life with better wellness and lived more than thousand old ages of age. The sages were called Rishis in the North and Siddhars in the South and their systems were known as Ayurveda and Siddha. The name Siddha oushadha ( Siddha medical specialty ) relates to the earlier esoteric medicative posits refering length of service, even immortality, and the ulterior astrochemical preparations as conceived and practiced by 18 Siddhars, located in what is today, the Tamil Nadu. It is for this ground ; the full Siddha medical literature is in Tamil. The Siddha system has approximately 800 texts of which 180 are in print.

Harmonizing to Siddha anticipations, it is known to the universe that Lord Siva taught the Siddha rules and doctrines to Matha, Sri Parasakthi. After that the Siddha rules were presented to the followings of Lord Siva and Sakthi, to Siddhars, get downing with Siddhar – Nantheesar, so to Siddhar Thirumoolar, Agathiyar and other adherents along with the 18 Siddhars and shortly. When we go through the Tamil Literature, we can see several Siddhars like Agathiyar, Tholkappiyar etc. All the Siddhars adopted the saiva siddantham rules. It is an first-class philosophical theory to human existences with holy life. In all Siddhars, Agathiyar was considered the outstanding leader with his ulterior guru Lord Subramaniyar. From the old Siddha literature we can understand that Siddhar – Agathiyar was first taught by Lord Siva, Sakthi and subsequently by Lord Subramaniyar. The system is besides called Agathiyar system in the name of its celebrated exponent sage Agasthya. A figure of medical plants of this system are ascribed to him but it may be hard at this clip to state the exact figure that can be credited to him. This system of medical specialty developed within the Dravidian civilization, which is of the pre-Vedic period. The Siddha system is mostly curative in nature. The Neem tree was regarded every bit sacred in Mohenjo-Daro Civilization. In the annals of the antediluvian Siddha System of Medicine, the first medicative works mentioned every bit good as found a topographic point, in ancient Tamil literature is Margosa or Neem. Tamils has been used from the clip of immemorial as bar for variola and other catching diseases and besides considered to possess powers to guard off evil liquors. Possibly they were cognizant of the bactericidal action and the medicative belongingss of the Margosa, Tirumular, the great Siddha is said to hold been in deep repentance for several 1000s of old ages before the Christian epoch in ageless cloud nine under a sacred pipal tree. Harmonizing to Siddha medical scientific discipline the universe consists of 5 elements. Earth, Water, Fire, Air and Ether which correspond to the five senses of the human organic structure, Man breath air, maintains the heat in the organic structure, consumes H2O and nutrient, because of the life force given by quintessence, he is alive. The Earth is the first component which gives all right form to the organic structure, including castanetss, tissues, musculuss, tegument, hair etc. Water is the 2nd component stand foring blood, secernments of the secretory organs, critical fluid etc. Fire the 3rd component that gives emotion, energy and verve to the organic structure. It besides helps digestion, circulation and stimulation besides respiration and the nervous system. Above all other is the feature of adult male ‘s mental and religious modules. A suited proportion of these five elements in combination with each other produce a healthy individual. Siddha System presents the motto, “ Food is being medicine and medical specialty is being nutrient ” to people.

Folk medical specialty:

Folk medical specialty is traditional healing pattern which is used for relieving unwellness and

Injury and provides assistance while giving birth to child. It is non a scientific medical specialty but common people

Medicine is more formal and systematic medical specialty. Folk medical specialty uses many workss

Derived redresss and by utilizing folk medical specialty, you can maintain yourself off from modern

medical services. Folk medical specialties are available for bring arounding both physical and mental

unwellness. You can utilize works or tree roots, fruits, insects, and nutrient points for handling malignant neoplastic disease,

Malaria, warts, sore pharynxs to arthritis, powerlessness, high blood force per unit area and infected

lesions.

Folk medical specialty from different workss:

Some workss are besides used as common people medical specialties. The below common people redresss are used for

handling many physical upsets.

Chokecherry works as redress: It is used for handling pneumonia. It besides treats cold, cough and unclutter your pharynx. We can utilize it by boiling chokecherry works bark and do it as tea.

Juniper works as redress: It is used for handling kidney complaints. You can utilize it by oppressing berries and blend it in tea and consume.

Labrador works as redress: You can utilize the foliage of Labrador works for holding alleviation over cold, grippe and tummy disturbance. First you have to dry these foliages and do it into tea. Use this mixture as common people redress.

Dandelion works as redress: This works leaves are boiled newly and used as the blood purifier.

Balsam works as redress: You can utilize the sap of balsam fir for mending a cut by distributing sap over the cut.

Haw thorn shrub as redress: It is used for handling sore pharynx. This is used by boiling the shrub and gargling with liquid.

Many workss synthesize the substances and are used for keeping wellness status. All

The above redresss are folk redresss which are used for handling different physical upsets.

Natural Folk medical specialty as herbal medical specialty:

Fresh steaks and cataplasm is used for handling septic lesions. Molassess is used for handling sore pharynx and used for handling babe ‘s dentition job. Fresh Cucumis sativus and wet bag tea is used for handling bad oculus. Garlic is used for cut downing high cholesterin and high blood force per unit area. Juice from Neem leaves is used for bring arounding malaria. Natural common people medical specialties are safe to utilize as they will non do any side effects and chemical reactions. These are besides called as place redresss.

These redresss are used for bring arounding different complaints such as abdominal hurting, thorax hurting, blood force per unit area, blood toxic condition, anaemia, arthritis, bone greaves, firing lingua, vesica infection, diarrhoea, dermatitis, desiccation, dry tegument, ear aching, eczema [ Eczema Treatment ] and many other tegument diseases and physical upsets. Different methods of common people medical specialty used in intervention with the aid of herbs, animate being parts, ceremonial, raising, thaumaturgy, witchery and many other agencies are used. This intervention is done apart from medical scientific discipline. Folk medical specialty is simple and easy to utilize. There are no hazards and side effects involved in taking this medical specialty ( www.altmedicinezone.com ) .

Introduction TO FICUS ( FIG TREES )

Family: Mulberry family

Figures have been recorded in ancient historical tablets as far back as 2500 B.C.

Fig trees are Medium sized deciduous fruit trees that produce a profuseness of

succulent fruit in late summer in most climes. ( Article beginning World Wide Web. ehow.com )

Ficus tree is a really common houseplant that comes in a figure of different species.

Most of its species are native to indo- Australian part. Some are native to cardinal and South America whole others are endemic to Africa, Figs grow good in Southern climes where winter low temperatures seldom hit stop deading. ( www.hub pages.com /hub/ficus )

Facts about the Ficus trees

There are about 850 identified species of Ficus

Many Ficus species produce comestible fruit. Depending on the species, each fruit can incorporate up to several hundred to several thousand seeds. Its fruit is considered to be one of the first fruits cultivated by worlds.

It is an of import tree from a spiritual point of position and has much importance in rather a few faiths including Islam, Hinduism and Buddhism. They have a long history and are estimated to hold been here on Earth for 60 to 80 million old ages.

One of the oldest Ficus trees is in Sri Lanka which harmonizing to history records was planted back in 288 B.C.

common assortments

Some of the common assortments of Ficus.

Ficus midght

Ficus anil ( it can boom really low light conditions )

Ficus starlight ( it is a new varicolored signifier of lasting green crying fig )

Ficus Monique ( it is really popular new Ficus assortment.

Ficus hispida

Ficus retusa ( it is considered fastest turning ficus assortment )

Ficus elastica ( normally known as the rubber tree )

Ficus nerifolia ( World Wide Web. hubpages.com/hub/ficus ) .

Ficus ( Moraceae ) species are used in common people medical specialty for the intervention of assorted diseases, such as biliousness, ulcers, purging, vaginal complains, febrility, diabetes, rednesss, Wound, lucoderma, ulcer itchiness, diuretic, liver diseases and Hansen’s disease, liver1. ( Swapnadeep Drug 2010 )

Introduction TO DIABETES

The universe diabetes, intending “ siphan ” was foremost given by Grecian physician Arateus in the 2nd century describe the patients with great thirst and inordinate fluctuation. In the seventeenth century, it was observed that piss of diabetes patients was sweet, so the word mellitus, intending ‘honey honey ‘ was added to it, the sweet piss of diabetes is due to increased blood sugar degree which leads to spillage of glucose into the piss. Diabetes mellitus is a clinical upset in which blood sugar degree are abnormally high known as Hyperglycemia. It occurs due to Absence or deficient production of insulin, it is a chronic status, as it lasts life clip, but can be good controlled. It is besides known as ” Madhumeha ” in Ayurveda. It is an endocrinal upset doing assorted metabolic alterations in the organic structure taking to terrible complications such as harm to the eyes, kidneys, nervousnesss, bosom and blood vass. ( Htpp: //www.diabetes-information.com/diabetes.htm ) ) .

As per the computations of the World Health Organization, more than 171 million autumn victims to this threat all over the universe. ( Acta poloniae pharmaceutica-drug research vol 67 ) The disease is going more widespread withough its happening has been noticed in about all states, it is the developed states that suffer more from this complaint. It will impact a individual regardless of weight, age, or race ; particularly diabetes tallies in the household.

Types of diabetes:

Type 1 diabete

Type 2diabetes

Gestational diabetes.

For all types of diabetes, the metamorphosis of saccharides ( including sugars such as glucose ) , proteins, and fats is altered.

Type 1diabetes: ( Besides referred to as insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, ( IDDM ) , and juvenile diabetes. )

In type 1 diabetes, the beta cells of the pancreas produce small or no insulin, the endocrine that allows glucose to come in organic structure cells. Once glucose enters a cell, it is used as fuel.

Without equal insulin, glucose physiques up in the blood stream alternatively of traveling into the cells. The organic structure is unable to utilize this glucose for energy despite high degrees in the blood stream, taking to increased hungriness. In add-on, the high degrees of glucose in the blood do the patient to urinate more, which in bend causes inordinate thirst. Within 5 to 10 old ages after diagnosing, the insulin-producing beta cells of the pancreas are wholly destroyed, and no more insulin is produced.

TypeA 1 diabetes can impact kids or grownups but, because it represents a bulk of the diabetes instances in kids so it was traditionally termed as “ juvenile diabetes ” .

TypeA 2 diabetes:

Referred to as non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus ( NIDDM ) and adult- oncoming diabetes, consequences from insulin opposition, a status in which cells fail to utilize insulin decently, sometimes combined with an absolute insulin lack. Diabetes is caused by a job in the manner organic structure makes or uses insulin. Insulin is necessary for glucose to travel from the blood to the interior of the cells. Unless glucose gets into cells, the organic structure can non utilize it for energy. Excess glucose remains in the blood, and is so removed by the kidneys. The symptoms include inordinate thirst, frequent micturition, hungriness, and weariness.

Gestational diabetes mellitus ( GDM ) :

Resembles typeA 2 diabetes in several respects, affecting a combination of comparatively unequal insulin secernment and reactivity. It occurs in approximately 2 % -5 % of all gestations and may better or vanish after bringing.

Causes of Diabetess

1 ) Hereditary or Inherited Traits: It is strongly believed that due to some cistrons which passes from one coevals to another, a individual can inherit diabetes. It depends upon intimacy of blood

2 ) Relationship as female parent is diabetic, the hazard is 2 to 3 % , male parent is diabetic, the hazard is more than the old instance and if both the parents are diabetic, the kid has much greater hazard for diabetes.

3 ) Age: Increased age is a factor which gives more possibility than in younger age. This disease may happen at any age, but 80 % of instances occur after 50 twelvemonth, incidences addition with the age factor.

4 ) Poor Diet ( Malnutrition Related Diabetes ) : Improper nutrition, low protein and fiber consumption, high consumption of refined merchandises are the expected grounds for developing diabetes.

5 ) Fleshiness and Fat Distribution: Being overweight agencies increased insulin opposition that is if organic structure fat is more than 30 % , BMI 25+ , waist girth 35 inches in adult females or 40 inches in males.

6 ) Sedentary Life style: Peoples with sedentary life styles are more prone to diabetes, when compared to those who exercise thrice a hebdomad, are at low hazard of falling quarry to diabetes.

7 ) Stress: Either physical hurt or emotional perturbation is often blamed as the initial cause of the disease. Any perturbation in Corticosteroid or ACTH therapy may take to clinical marks of the disease.

8 ) Drug Induced: Clozapine ( Clozaril ) , olanzapine ( Zyprexa ) , risperidone ( Risperdal ) , quetiapine ( Seroquel ) and ziprasidone ( Geodon ) are known to bring on this deadly disease.

9 ) Infection: Bacteria ( strephylococci ) be responsible factor for pancreas infection in.

10 ) Sexual activity: Diabetes is normally seen in aged particularly males but, strongly in adult females and those females with multiple gestation or agony from ( PCOS ) Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome.

11 ) High blood pressure: It had been reported in many surveies that there is direct relation between high systolic force per unit area and diabetes.

12 ) Serum lipoids and lipoproteins: High triglyceride and cholesterin degree in the blood is related to high blood sugars, in some instances it has been studied that hazard is involved even with low HDL degrees in go arounding blood.

Symptoms of Diabetess

Diabetess occurs when the organic structure does non bring forth adequate insulin or the cells of the organic structure do non react to the insulin produced, ensuing in high blood sugar. Peoples with diabetic complaints, normally complain of the following symptoms of diabetes:

frequent micturition

utmost thirst and hungriness

weariness or unusual fatigue

weight loss

deep external respiration

sickness

purging

itchy tegument

sores that take clip to mend

abdominal hurting

blurred vision

numbness of custodies or pess

frequent tegument, gum or vaginal barm infections

Apart from those diabetes symptoms, skin roseolas or diabetes dermadromes can besides happen.

Treatment for Diabetess: As symptoms of diabetes tend to demo up much later than the status occurs in your organic structure, it is advisable to hold your blood sugar degrees diagnosed sporadically. Even if there are natural redresss that have been developed for the intervention for diabetes, insulin injections and implantable insulin pumps are the most sought out 1s. Type 1 diabetes can be treated with exercising, insulin and a balanced diet. Type 2 diabetes is foremost treated with weight decrease, a diabetic diet and exercising. Weight decrease and exercise additions the organic structure ‘s sensitiveness to insulin, therefore commanding blood sugar lifts. When these methods fail to take down the blood sugar degrees, unwritten medicines are used. If unwritten diabetes medicines are deficient and make non assist lower the glucose degrees in blood, insulin intervention is used ( www.diabetesdirectory.org ) .

NATURAL MEDICINES USED FOR DIABETES

The quickly increasing incidence of diabetes mellitus is going a serious menace to mankind wellness in all parts of the universe. Furthermore, during the past few old ages some of the new bioactive drugs isolated from workss showed anti diabetic activity with more efficaciousness than unwritten hypoglycaemic agents used in clinical therapy. The traditional medical specialty performed a good clinical pattern and is demoing a bright hereafter in the therapy of diabetes mellitus. Many surveies have confirmed the benefits of medicative workss with hypoglycaemic effects in the direction of diabetes mellitus. The effects of these workss may detain the development of diabetic complications and correct the metabolic abnormalcies. WHO has pointed out this bar of diabetes and its complications is non merely a major challenge for the hereafter, but indispensable if wellness for all is to achieve. Therefore, in recent old ages, considerable attending has been directed towards designation of workss with anti diabetic ability that may be used for human ingestion. Further, it emphasizes strongly in this respect the optional and rational utilizations of traditional and natural autochthonal medical specialties.

Recently, some medicative workss have been reported to be utile in diabetes worldwide and have been used through empirical observation as anti diabetic and anti hyperlipidemic redresss. Despite the presence of known anti diabetic medical specialty in the pharmaceutical market, diabetes and the related complications continued to be a major medical job. Anti hyperglycemic effects of these workss are attributed to their ability to reconstruct the map of pancreatic tissues by doing an addition in insulin end product or suppress the enteric soaking up of glucose or to the facilitation of metabolites in insulin dependent procedures. More than 400 works species holding hypoglycaemic activity have been available in literature, nevertheless, seeking for new anti diabetic drugs from natural workss is still attractive because they contain substances which demonstrate alternate and safe effects on diabetes mellitus. Most of workss contain Glycosides, Alkaloids, Terpenoids, Flavonoids, Cartenoids, etc, that are often implicated as holding ant diabetic consequence.

Based on the WHO recommendations, hypoglycaemic agents of works beginning used in traditional medical specialty are of import. The attributed anti hyperglycemic effects of these workss are due to their ability to reconstruct the map of pancreatic tissues by doing an addition in insulin end product or a lessening in the enteric soaking up of glucose. Hence, intervention with herbal drugs has an consequence on protecting I?-cells and smoothing out fluctuation in glucose degree For a long clip, diabetes has been treated with several medicative workss or their infusion based on the folklore medical specialty. Now adays Herbal medical specialties are extremely recommended for intervention of diabetes in malice of other curative action, which can bring forth serious side effects. ( Neelesh malviya, ” 2010 ) .

Some medicative workss utile in diabetes worldwide are:

Anacardium occidentale Linn. ( Anacardiaceae ) , herb originated from Brazil, it is used as folk medical specialty in African states, chiefly in Cameroon, for the intervention of diabetes mellitus.

Boerhaavia diffusa Linn. ( Nyctaginaceae ) , is distributed widely all over in India.

Bougainvillea spectabilis Linn. ( Nyctaginaceae ) , is a really familiar ornamental works commonly

grown in Indian gardens.

Cassia kleinii Wight & A ; Arn. ( Caesalpiniaceae ) , is the medical redress for the common people diabetic practitionersin South India.

Dioscorea dumetorum Pax. ( Dioscoreaceae ) , used in intervention of diabetes in traditional medical specialty, possesses hypoglycaemic consequence.

Ficus hispida Linn. ( Moraceae ) , besides known as Daduri for the intervention of diabetes. May be found throughout India.it is significantly decreases fasting blood glucose degrees in normal and alloxan- induced diabetic rats.

Panax ginseng Linn. ( Asiatic ginseng, Araliaceae ) , root has been used clinically in the intervention of type II diabetes throughout Asiatic states.

Syzyguim cumini Linn. ( Once Eugenia jambolana, Myrtaceae ) , with putative antihyperglycemic effects. Many parts of the works, like fruit, seeds, bark and tea prepared from the foliages, have been used in intervention of diabetes throughout Asiatic states.

Terminalia chebula Retz. ( Combretaceae ) , has been widely used in diabetes in Ayurveda and is widely distributed in India.

Terminalia catappa Linn. ( Combretaceae ) , is found throughout the heater parts of India and called an Indian Prunus dulcis. The anti diabetic potency of crude oil quintessence, methyl alcohol and aqueous infusion of T. catappa fruits on fasting blood sugar degrees and serum biochemical analysis in alloxan-induced diabetic rats was performed.

ANTI OXIDANT

Plants have been an of import beginning of medical specialty for 1000s of old ages. Antioxidants are extremist scavengers which protect the human organic structure against free groups that may do pathological conditions such as ischemia, asthma, arthritis, redness, neurodegeneration, Parkinson ‘s disease, mongolianism, ageing procedure and possibly dementias1.Flavanoids and flavones are widely distributed secondary metabolite with antioxidant and antiradical belongingss. Plant based natural components can be derived from any portion of workss bark, leaves, flowers, roots, fruits, seeds etc that is any portion of the works may incorporate active constituents. Antioxidant based drugs or preparations for the bar and intervention of complex diseases like coronary artery disease, shot, diabetes, Alzheimer ‘s disease and malignant neoplastic disease have appeared during the last three decennaries. This has attracted a great trade of research involvement in natural antioxidants. Recently there has been a rush of involvement in the curative potency of medicative workss as antioxidants in cut downing such free radical-induced tissue hurt. The chief features of an antioxidant are its ability to pin down free groups. Highly reactive free groups and O species are present in biological systems from a broad assortment of beginnings. These free groups may oxidise nucleic acids, proteins, lipoids and DNA and can originate degenerative diseases. Antioxidant compounds like phenolic acids, polyphenols and flavanoids scavenge free groups such as peroxide, hydroperoxide or lipidperoxyl and therefore suppress the oxidative mechanisms that lead to degenerative diseases. ( E.N. Siju et. al,2010 )

MECHANISM OF ANTIOXIDANTS

Coevals of free groups

During several metabolic tracts, the life cells generate Reactive O species ( ROS ) and Reactive Nitrogen species ( RNS ) . Patho physiological status heighten the coevals of ROS begins with the rapid consumption of O and activation of NADPH oxidase and the production of the superoxide free groups ( O2 )

2 O2 + NADPH Oxidase 2O2 + NADP + H+

SOME OF THE ANTIOXIDANTS

vitamines

Alfa vitamin E ( Vitamin E )

Fat soluble vitamins found in cells.

Function: – Interruptions lipid per oxidization lipoid. Peroxide and O2- and OH

Scavenger.

I?-Carotene ( Vitamin A )

Fat soluble vitamins found in cells.

Function: – Scavenger OH, O2- and peroxy groups prevent oxidization of

Vit.A. binds to passage metals.

Ascorbic Acid ( Vitamin C )

Ascorbic acid is H2O soluble, it is present in citrous fruit fruits, murphies, tomatoes and green leafy veggies. Directly scavengers OH, O2- and H2O2. Neutralizers oxidant from stimulates neutrophiles. Contributes to regeneration of Vitamin E.

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