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How does the media view black people?

Literature reappraisal.

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This subdivision introduces some academic literature that shows how the media has represented black people over the old ages taking to demo how the media represents Black people late. In add-on, the literature reappraisal aims to demo whether black people are portrayed in negative or positive ways and how the media influences the beliefs of the populace.

Hazell and Clarke ( 2008 ) have analysed from qualitative and quantitative informations that, the media portrays black people both positively and negatively. In add-on, The Opportunity Agenda ( 2011 ) , besides agrees that the media positions black people both positively and negatively. However, The Opportunity Agenda farther debates that the media largely represents black people in pessimistic ways and that black people continue to be underrepresented and framed by the media. In comparing, Punyanunt-Carter ( 2008 ) besides dispute the manner the media pictures black people and alternatively argues that the media often portrays them with features that are stereotypically negative.

The negative portraiture of black people in the media is something that the populace is good cognizant off – whether we choose to believe it or non. Gunter, 1998 ( cited in Punyanunt-Carter, 2008 ) analysed that the portraitures of inkinesss in telecasting was more positive than that of Whites. He ( Gunter, 1998 ) observed that white people portray aggressive characters than inkinesss. In add-on, he noticed that white people were more likely to be victims than inkinesss.

However, Smith ( 2013 ) argues that the stereotypes and images environing the lives of black people are negative. He grounds that the negativeness is seeable and it is conveyed to the populace as the media is now easy accessible. He ( 2013 ) further argues that there are typical functions that a black individual dramas, for illustration, in films they frequently play the buddy of a white individual or the comedic individual. Furthermore, Smith ( 2013 ) views the portraiture of a black individual as a violent drug covering condemnable every bit good as a mobster as the most detrimental.

On the other manus, Vassell ( 2009 ) argues that, the media has really empowered black people through newspapers, magazines, wireless, telecasting and the cyberspace. He perceives the cyberspace as the sturdiest plus of authorising black people as it syndicates all of the above mentioned. Furthermore, Vassell ( 2009 ) contends that the media reflects and reinforces an individuality for black people outside a civilization dominated by their white opposite numbers. Similarly, Allen ( 2001 ) points out that for black people, the media serves as an influential and powerful beginning that showcases the individuality and constructs of a black civilization.

Additionally, Robertset Al., 1999 ( cited in Fujioka, 2005 ) argues that minority members are more frequent users of the media than Whites, where Greenberg and Brand, 1994 ( cited in Fujioka, 2005 ) argue that cultural minorities may oppugn the content of the media. Questioning whether the content shown in the media arouses suggestions from Davis and Gandy, 1999 ( cited in Fujioka, 2005 ; Punyanunt-Carter, 2008 ) that black people have developed schemes that they use in order to cover with the bias positions of the media. This is to protect themselves from possible negativeness instigated by the media.

Furthermore, Berry and Mitchell-Kernan ( cited in Fujioka, 2005 ) have suggested that the media is a scheme used to inform us where each cultural group stands in the societal construction. Nevertheless, Davis and Gandy ( 1999 ) besides argue that black people are portrayed negatively when black members of the audience decide to face unpleasant media presentations ; therefore the unfavorable judgment of black people additions in the media. Likewise Fujioka ( 2005 ) points out that the media presentation of black people can be understood in a model of self-identity and self-categorisation.

Conversely, the literature by Van Dijk ( 2000 ) suggests that, bulk group members talk about minorities’ everyday ; from the intelligence media to the TV-programmes. He ( Van Dijk, 2000 ) to boot argues that a civilization dominated by Whites is because of the assorted types of physical, societal or symbolic control.

As Epps-Johnson ( 2011 ) pointed out, black people are presented in the media within specific narratives that usually relate to offense. However, they are non painted as the jurisprudence guardians ; instead they are labelled as the jurisprudence surfs. Gamson et Al, 1992 ( cited in Epps-Johnson, 2011 ) argues that the messages that the media portrays can move as a instructor of values, which will motivate followings of the media to believe stereotypes about certain cultural groups. In add-on Hall, 1997 ( cited in Epps-Johnson, 2011 ) argues that “stereotyping reduces, essentialises, naturalises and holes ‘difference.’ Hall besides argues that stereotypes “divide the normal and acceptable from the unnatural and unacceptable, and so it excludes or expels everything which does non suit, which is different…( Hall, 1997 as cited in Epps-Johnson, 2011 ) .

Furthermore, The Black Image in the White Mind by Robert M. Entman and Andrew Rojecki is a book that sets out to analyze how the media shapes up the beliefs and attitudes of Whites towards inkinesss. Entman and Rojecki ( 2000 ) declare in chapters 4 and 5 that the functions given to black people in the intelligence coverage are limited. Entman and Rojecki ( 2000 ) further argue that within the intelligence media, the focal point is more on urban communities where black people are the victimizers and Whites are the victims. In add-on, the Chapters 6, 7 & A ; 8 highlight three chief issues – poorness, affirmatory action, and black political power as illustrations that influence the intelligence media. They claim that these influences are what so lead to public ignorance and racial misinterpretations.

Similarly, Van Dijk ( 1988 ) declares that the representation of minorities in the media “indirectly favour the development of stereotyped, prejudiced or racist interpretative models among the populace at large” . However, the International Communication Association ( 2001 ) argues against the book by Entman and Rojecki, and insists that media portraiture of black people is complex and controversial.

Barn, 2001 ( cited in Shock absorberet Al.2011 ) states that black people, particularly immature black people have been disadvantaged. He ( Barn, 2001 ) claims that the media coverage of issues such as educational underachievement is the ground for black people being disadvantaged within the society. It appears they may be convinced beliefs from the society which places black people at a disadvantage. Daviset Al.1946 ( cited in Hochschild, 2007 ) argues that “light coloring material goes with higher position and the Negroid visual aspect with lower status.” In comparing, Hochschild ( 2007 ) besides claims that people with dark tegument are more likely to be affected negatively in society every bit good as be represented in a disapprovingly manner.

In comparing, the capable affair of coverage from the Government’s Reach Program, 2011 ( cited in Slideshare, 2012 ) reported that 66 % of the intelligence narratives that feature black people are about offense. In add-on, the study besides showed that 5 % of the coverage is about favoritism and 4 % about gang civilization. Subsequently, 11 % of intelligence coverage is about accomplishment whilst merely 3 % is about black people as positive function theoretical accounts.

Furthermore, the study conducted by Mintel Ltd ( 2011 ) reported that, 80 % of the respondents admitted that their race is of import to them whilst 82 % admitted that it is of import to them how black people are represented in the media. They besides admitted that they wanted to see the media present them in a positive mode. In add-on, less than 20 % of the respondents felt that Black civilization today is represented in an encouraging manner by the media.

On the other manus, Fujioka ( 2005 ) asserts that the media represents black people in negative ways. She ( Fujioka, 2005 ) says that a national study conducted showed that about half of the black respondents felt the intelligence on offense treated them below the belt, whilst 62 % were left disquieted with the media representation of Black people. Wood ( 2003 ) besides agrees that black people are treated below the belt in the media ; she argues that black people are presented in two ways, either highly positive, or highly positive, which is more common.

In the book Iconic: Decoding Images of the Revolutionary Black Woman, the writer Lakesia Johnson argues that the media invariably relies on ‘outmoded’ and ‘outdated’ negative stereotypes to picture and command black adult females ; she claims that they are controlled because they produce fear due to the power they possess ( 2012 ) . In add-on, Johnson ( 2012 ) besides argues that black females have had to work twice every bit difficult to antagonize negative stereotypes that are initiated by the media. Furthermore, she ( Johnson, 2012 ) holds on to the belief that the music industry produces commodities out of black adult females in this profession ; nevertheless, she contends that some adult females have embraced this intervention to heighten their callings.

Although Sanders ( 2012 ) claims that non all representation of black people is negative, he maintains that most of the positiveness is about famous persons. In add-on, Sanders ( 2012 ) besides argues that famous persons are regarded as holding a higher societal position ; therefore it does non cut down the stereotypes that are caused by the media.

Similarly, Hudson, 1998 ( cited in Epps-Johnson, 2011 ) pointed out that the media besides influences the manner black people view themselves every bit good as how they are perceived in the society. Hooks, 1992 ( besides cited in Epps-Johnson, 2011 ) argues that the media representation influences how other groups respond to black people. In the same manner, Fujioka ( 2005 ) besides points out that black people have indicated that the media has made a connexion between the portraiture of black people and how Whites view and understand them in existent life, therefore they have adopted the negative stereotypes and applied it to their position of black people.

On the other manus, The Cosby Show, a popular American Television show, showed a in-between category black household where the male parent was a physician and the female parent, a attorney. Blackett ( 2013 ) insists that the programme showed a glance of what could be possible in the hereafter, though it was set in the US. However, although the show gained positive reappraisals every bit good as high popularity amongst white viewing audiences, many inkinesss were upset by the black household in the show. They felt that it did non reflect what many inkinesss experience in their personal lives ( Fujioka, 2005 ) .

In 2008, the publication ‘Powerlist: Britain’s 100 most influential black people’ prompted histrion and play author Kwame Kwei-Amah ( 2008 ) who was featured in the list to province:

“the importance of this list is that it has societal relevancy at a clip when our headlines are everlastingly crowded with black stabbings”( cited in Shock absorberet Al., 2011 ) .

However, in 2013, a similar publication which was ‘Powerlist: Britain’s most influential black people, ’ provoked Karen Blackett, who was besides on the list, to oppugn whether there is a demand to underscore ‘black’ in a multicultural UK. She argues that campaigners should have in general power lists along with other ethnicities. Blackett ( 2013 ) besides argues that although black people have come a long manner with their callings, they are still considered to be lower than their white opposite numbers. Furthermore, Blackett ( 2013 ) claims that the power list shows how the media has separated black people despite black people holding the same profession as others in general power lists.

To summarize, media representation of black people has been an influence towards the society, and the stereotypes and portraiture of black people has led to people following certain beliefs and attitudes towards them. Although the media does see black in both negative and positive ways, it is the negativeness that has been represented that stands out and as a consequence at that place have been criticisms towards black people. In add-on, the media has the power to do or interrupt and has a powerful influence over the attitudes of people and because of this ; a cuneus between societies has been formed. This cuneus has unluckily caused society to see white people as superior and as a effect, black people are placed below white people. The literature reappraisal has shown that although the media empowers black people and gives them a self-identity, black people are still prejudiced and they still hold themselves back. In add-on, the portraiture of black people has non merely caused stereotypes but there has besides been a prejudice towards black people, which has led to non merely misinterpretations and ignorance but besides people believing the stereotyped ways that the media uses to portray black people.

Bibliography

Allen, L.R. ( 2001 ) .The construct of ego: A survey of black individuality and self-pride,Detroit: Wayne State University Press

Blackett, K. ( 2013 ) ‘Do we truly necessitate black-only ‘power lists’ in the UK? ’The Telegraph.[ Online ] . Available at: www.telegraph.co.uk/women/womens-life/10420922/Do-we-really-need-black-only-power-lists-in-the-UK.html ( Accessed On: 20 April 2014 ) .

Shock absorber, S. , Moore, K. and Jewell, J. ( 2011 ) . Media representation of black immature work forces and male childs. [ Online ] . Available at: www.cardiff.ac.uk/jomec/resources/media_representations_of_young_black_men_and_boys.pdf

Davis, J.L. and Gandy, O.H. ( 1999 ) ‘Racial individuality and media orientation, ’Journal of Black surveies,29 ( 3 ) , pp.367-397

Entman, R, M. and Rojecki, A. ( 2000 ) . ‘The black image in the white head: media and race in America’Chicago: University of Chicago Press

Epps-Johnson, T. ( 2011 ) . ‘Fleeting Racialisation? : Media representation of African American during the California proposition 8 campaign’ ,Department of media and communications,pp.2-35

Fujioka, Y. ( 2005 ) . ‘Black media images as a sensed menace to African American cultural individuality: Header responses, perceived public perceptual experience, and attitudes towards affirmatory action’ ,Journal of Broadcasting and Electronic Media,49 ( 2 ) , pp. 450-467

Hazell, V.and Clarke, J. ( 2008 ) . ‘Race and gender in the media: A content analysis of advertizements in two mainstream black magazines’ ,Journal of Black Studies,39 ( 1 ) , pp. 5-21

Hocschild, J.L. ( 2007 ) . ‘The tegument colour paradox and the Amerian racial order’ , [ Online ] . Available at: www.scholar.havard.edu/jhochschild/publications/skin-color-paradox-and-american-racial-order ( Accessed On: 20 April 2014 )

International Communication Association ( 2001 ) . ‘Book Reviews’ , Review ofThe black image in the white head: media and race in America,by Robert Entman and Andrew Rojecki.Journal of Communication,pp.196-227

Lakesia, J.D. ( 2012 ) ‘Iconic: Decoding Images of the Revolutionary Black Woman,Texas: Baylor University Press

Mintel Group ( 2011 ) . ‘Portrayal of inkinesss in the media’ , [ Online ] . Available at: www.reachingblackconsumers.com/2011/09/portrayal-of-blacks-in-the-media/ ( Accessed on: 20 April 2014 )

Punyanunt-Carter, N.M. ( 2008 ) . ‘The sensed pragmatism of African American portraitures on television’ ,The Howard Journal of Communications,19, pp.241-257

Drum sanders, J. ( 2012 ) . ‘Media portraiture of black young person contributes to racial tension’ , [ Online ] . Available at: www.thegrio.com/2012/05/29/media-portrayal-of-black-youth-contributes-to-racial-tension/ ? onswipe_redirect=no ( Accessed On:20 April 2014 )

Slideshare ( 2012 ) . ‘Representation of black people in the media’ , [ Online ] . Available at: www.slideshare.net/beckyzombified/representation-of-black-people-in-the-media ( Accessed On: 20 April 2014 )

Smith, D.T. ( 2013 ) ‘Images of Black Males in Popular Media’The Blog,14 March. Available at: www.huffingtonpost.com/darron-t-smith-phd/black-men-media_b_2844990.html ( Accessed On: 20 April 2014 )

The Opportunity Agenda ( 2011 ) . ‘Media representations and impact on the lives of black work forces and boys’ [ Online ] . Available at: www.racialequalitytools.org/resourcefiles/Media-impact-onLives-of-Black-Men-and-Boys-OppAgenda.pdf

Van Dijk, T.A. ( 1988 ) .News analysis: instance surveies of international and national intelligence in the imperativeness. Discourses[ Online ] . Available at: www.discources.org/OldBooks/Teun % 20A % 20Van % 20Dijk % 20- % 20News % 20Analysis.pdf ( Accessed On: 21 April 2014 )

Van Dijk, T.A. ( 2000 ) . ‘Mediating Racism: The function of the media in the reproduction of racism’ , [ Online ] . Availableat: www.discourses.org/OldArticles/Mediating % 20Racism.pdf ( Accessed On: 20 April 2014 )

Vassell, O. ( 2009 ) . ‘No other but a Black can stand for the Black: how black newspapers ‘founded’ black American and black Britain’ ,Journal of afroeuropean surveies,3 ( 1 ) pp.1-18

Wood, J.F. ( 2003 ) .House negro versus field Black: The inscribed image of race in telecasting intelligence presentations of Afro-american Identityin Coleman, R.R.M ( ed. )State it Loud! : African American Audiences, Media and Identity.New York: Routlege, pp.95-114.

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