Peoples spend a batch of clip at work therefore there is nil to be surprised that they are anticipating for some kind of wages which besides further depict their administration is satisfied with their work. The biggest assets of organisations are motivated employees and it is because occupation satisfaction and motive is clearly linked. Today direction are focus on effectual use of human resources in accomplishing organisational ends and aims. The forces section straight concern in forming human resources demand of the concern. Basically he tries to maximum end product to the concern by conveying endowment employees by developing and development, conveying endowment employees by developing and development some kind of fillip or wagess and makes people to work in full satisfaction.
Today employee motive is one of the of import issues in every concern organisation. Business are seeking its employees to work and execute good by conveying different motivational factors. In short they use seeking to make “ will to work ” . Directors ever should believe in motivational manner, make good usage of motive so that his employee can follow him and complete work with willingness.
Motivation is willingness to exercise high degree of attempt to fulfill single demands. It is besides concern to why people do things and what are things that are driven them to make those things. Many research shows that motivated staff or employees are happy in workplace, less absent, loyal and enthusiasm are some features of motivated employee. We can state they are more satisfied from their work. Hence it can lend in the development of organisation.
Motivation is the set of forces that cause people to act in certain ways ( Ricky Griffin ) . The cardinal component in motive is attempt, ends and need. Effort motivates people to make hard. It energized to do attempts. Effort energizes behavior. Goal directs the behavior. The attempts are directed towards end accomplishment. Every person have need and motive is procedure of fulfilling those demands. Today motive is one of the cardinal elements of the direction. Every clip it promote employee for higher productiveness. It helps in cut downing accident, employee turnover and absenteeism. Once the employee ‘s are motivated alteration is seen efficaciously and work is done efficaciously. Motivation is a psychological procedure. It is concern with single demands, motivations and thrusts. Motivation is complex. Individual are different therefore it is difficult to foretell. Motivation is a uninterrupted procedure. Once one demand is fulfilled automatically another demands emerged. Peoples have many demands. Motivation is situational which means motives differ from clip to clip and individual to individual. We can besides state motive is permeant. It means motive is the undertaking of all degrees of directors. Every director should actuate its subsidiaries. After that you can increase or higher the productiveness. Motivation is end oriented. It leads to action. It includes attempts to accomplish ends
Motivation besides can be positive or negative. Positive motive refers to inducements and wagess for person who is executing better whereas negative refer to penalty to individual who perform hapless. Motivation besides can be extrinsic or intrinsic. Extrinsic motive are externally induced and intrinsic are self generated. As an illustration fiscal inducement for a occupation good done is extrinsic and sense of satisfaction for a occupation good done is intrinsic.
There are several theories sing motive. Some of them are like Hierarchy of Need Theory by Abraham Harold Maslow, Motivation-Hygiene Theory by Frederick Herzberg, Mayo Theory by Elton Mayo, Taylor Theory by Frederick Taylor, Theory X and Theory Y and so on. The reappraisal on theories is done below. However, the research is already familiar in the beginning with those theories. One thing besides should be considered that the motive theories are rather old but still popular and used in field of work motive. These above theories are chosen by the research workers and rather helpful in the research inquiry. As all the motive theories someway inter connected with each other and really utile in term of work motive in present context. Harmonizing to Molander ( 1996 ) it can be possible to place human demands and from this designation of his demand we can cognize what motivates him as person and besides the procedure to carry through their demands.
Theory of Hierarchy of Needs ( Abraham Maslow )
Abraham Maslow advocated theory of hierarchy of demands. It besides indicates that demands motivate persons. He arranged human demands in a hierarchy. Harmonizing to him an person progresses measure by measure up in the hierarchy of demands. The bottom demands are pressing demands so are satisfied first. It is besides a physiological demand as an illustration nutrient, shelter, air and vesture. After fulfilling single BASICs need their motive alterations and they want for something more as higher in order to be motivated? Hence, in order to actuate single foremost we need to cognize where the employee is placed within the hierarchy. The basic things of Maslow ‘s theories are adult male is a desiring being. Human existences ever want for more. Their demands are ne’er completed. They continuously want more and more. Once your demand is fulfilled automatically another comes in. Needs makes people to work hard, it influence their behavior. Hence, need motivates for large attempts. Maslow besides suggested that satisfied necessitate ne’er motivates single. Human needs have a hierarchy. They are besides arranged in hierarchy and they are fulfilled measure by measure. Here needs should be satisfied in order. The human demands are five and they are physiological demands, safety demands, societal demands, esteem demands, and self-actualization demands. Lower order demands are physiological demands and safety demands. They are most indispensable demands of single whereas higher order demands are societal demand, esteem demands and self-actualization demands and they are least indispensable.
Motivation-Hygiene Theory ( Frederick Herzberg )
Motivation-Hygiene theory was advocated by Frederick Herzberg. Herzberg conducted and interview with 203 comptroller and applied scientists in Pittsburgh USA. As a consequence of research, he came up with motivation-hygiene theory. He tests those satisfiers staff are productive staff. His theory is besides called as two factor theory. Those two factors use Hygiene and incentives factors. He besides suggested that good working environment creates satisfaction on employees whereas bad working environment creates bad working environment. Herzberg besides claimed that all goblin factors do n’t actuate employees. The attitude of single towards occupation determines satisfaction. The two dimensions of occupation satisfaction are hygiene and motivative factors.
Hygiene factors are extrinsic factors. It is besides called as dissatisfies. It is ever related to occupation context. Job dissatisfaction is caused by the absence of this factor and occupation satisfaction is caused in the presence of this factor. There are some factors in workplace which can do single happy which may do work environment inordinate bureaucratism as an bossy. The some hygiene factors are salary, position, occupation security, company policy and disposal and interpersonal relationship. In the presence of hygiene factor cause satisfaction while in the absence it causes dissatisfaction, which besides lead to absenteeism, grudges and employee turnover. Maintenance factor is besides called to hygiene factor.
Motivating factors are intrinsic factors. They are besides concern with occupation content. The presence of such intrinsic factors causes occupation satisfaction. But in the absence besides it does non do occupation dissatisfaction. The factors like accomplishment, acknowledgment, work itself, duty, promotion, growing are some common motivation factors which besides encourage in increasing attempt and public presentation.
Theory X and Theory Y
The theory X and theory Y was given by Mac Gregory. He suggested that there are two types of employees. They are lazy employees and ambitious employees. Theory X represents the lazy employee. Difficult workers, ambitious workers represent theory Y. He besides suggested that to increase the public presentation of lazy employee, they should be motivated. His theory is besides emphasized on control and penalty to those workers who doubt like working and avoid plant. He assumed ambitionless, seeking to acquire drive from duties, avoiding work are some features of theory X employees. Hence to actuate this employees direction should follow difficult regulations like tight control, twenty-four hours to twenty-four hours observation of their work, are some other attacks. Theory Y employees are self motivated. This people besides can be motivated by good working environment, responsibilities and duties.