Three samples of Carica papaia foliages ( Green, Yellow and Brown ) were collected indiscriminately from Ogbomoso town, Oyo province, Nigeria and analyzed for the phytochemical composing, vitamins and mineral components. Phytochemical showing revealed the presence of bioactive compound saponins, cardiac glycoside alkaloids and absence of tannic acids in the three samples.
Consequences showed that the works leaves contained the vitamins, ( mg/100g ) , vitamin B1 ( B1 ) : green leaves 0.94, xanthous leaves 0.41, brown leaves 0.52 ; vitamin B2 ( B2 ) : green leaves 0.13, xanthous leaves 0.04, brown leaves 0.06 ; ascorbic acid ( C ) : green leaves 16.29, xanthous green 9.62, brown leaves 11.26. Mineral analysis showed highest values ( mg/kg ) of Ca, 8612.50 ; Mg, 67.75 ; Na, 1782.00 ; K,2889.00 ; Mn,9.50 in the green foliages, and Fe, 147.50 in xanthous foliages as compared to other elements examined. Therefore green papaya foliage gave a beginning of indispensable foods while xanthous papaya was a beginning of Fe. Therefore pawpaw foliages can be manipulated in the herbal intervention of assorted diseases and as a possible beginning of utile elements for drugs preparation.
Keywords: Carica papaia leaves, minerals, vitamins, phytochemicals, curative belongingss.
Carica papaia Linnaeus, ( papaya ) , belongs to the household of Caricaceae. Papaya is non a tree but an herbaceous succulent workss that posses self back uping roots. ( Dick Gross, 2003 ) . Papaya is a big perennial herb with a rapid growing rate. The workss are normally ephemeral, but can bring forth fruit for more than 20years. The papaia has a instead complicated agencies of reproduction. The workss are male, hermaphroditic, or female ( Bruce and Peter,2008 ) .The male trees are uncommon, but sometimes occur when householders collect their ain seeds. Hermaphrodite trees ( flowers with male and female parts ) are the commercial criterion, bring forthing a pear shaped fruit. These workss are self pollinated ( Jari,2009 ) .
Carica papaia workss produce natural compounds ( annonaceous acetogenins ) in foliage bark and branchlet tissues that possess both extremely anti-tumour and pesticidal belongingss. It was suggested that a potentially moneymaking industry based merely on production of works biomass could develop for production of anti-cancer drugs, pending Food and Drug Agency blessing, and natural ( botanical ) pesticides ( Mc Langhlin,1992 ) . The high degree of natural self-defense compounds in the tree makes it extremely immune to insect and disease infestation ( Peter, 1991 ) .
Carica papaya L. foliage tea or infusion has a repute as a tumor-destroying agent. ( Walter Last, 2008 )
The papaia fruit, every bit good as all other parts of the works, contain a milky juice in which an active rule known as papain is present. Aside from its value as a redress in indigestion and kindred complaints, it has been utilized for the elucidation of beer. The juice has been in usage on meat to do it tender, ( Wilson, 1994 ) .
The seed is used for enteric worms when chewed. The root is chewed and the juice swallowed for cough, bronchitis, and other respiratory diseases. The green fruit is used as a redress for ulcer and powerlessness, ( Elizabeth, 1994 ) .
Fresh, green papaya foliage is an antiseptic, whilst the brown, dried pawpaw foliage is the best as a tonic and blood purifier. ( Atta,1999 ) . Chewing the seeds of mature papaya fruit besides helps to unclutter rhinal congestion, ( Elizabeth, 1994 ) . The green green papaya has a curative value due to its antiseptic quality. It cleans the bowels from bacteriums, more so that ( merely a healthy bowel is able to absorb vitamin and minerals, particularly vitamin B12 ) . The tea, prepared with the green papaia foliage, promotes digestion and aids the in intervention of complaints such as chronic dyspepsia, corpulence and fleshiness, arterial sclerosis, high blood force per unit area and weakening of the bosom ( Mantok,2005 ) .
The aim of this survey is to compare the phytochemical and alimentary contents of different coloured Carica papaia leaves from the same works as a footing to reding the traditional medical specialty practicians, herb users, herb Sellerss, wellness establishments and husbandmans on the wellness and economic importance of Carica papaia leaves.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Beginning of works stuffs
The works stuffs which include fresh green papaya foliages, fresh xanthous papaya foliages and dry brown papaya leaves ( the 1s that fell on the land ) were obtained indiscriminately from the Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, research farm land, Ogbomoso, Oyo State, Nigeria.
The foliages were washed, cut into little pieces and Suns dried for five yearss. The samples were ground into pulverization and stored each in an air tight bottle prior to utilize for analysis.
The analysis for tannic acid, saponins, cardiac glycosides and alkaloids were carried out harmonizing to standard methods, ( Sofowara,1993 ; AOAC 1980 ) .
Minerals were determined by digesting the ash with 3M Hydrochloric acid utilizing the atomic soaking up spectrophotometer for Calcium, Magnesium, Manganese and Iron and the fire photometer for K and Na ( Egan, Kirk & A ; Sawyer, 1981 ) .
The composing of the non-water-soluble vitamins, vitamin B2 and vitamin B1, were determined by the method of Scalar ( 2000 ) , while ascorbic acid content was determined by the method of AOAC, ( 1980 )
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
The Phytochemical analysis of the foliages ( Table 1 ) showed that the foliages contained saponins, cardiac glycosides, and alkaloids. Tannin was absent in the foliages. The presence of saponins supports the fact that papaya foliage has cytotoxic effects such as permealization of the bowel as saponins are cytotoxic, ( Okwu & A ; Okwu, 2004 ) . It besides gives the foliages the acrimonious gustatory sensation. Saponin has relationship with sex endocrines like Pitocin. Oxytocin is a sex endocrine involved in commanding the oncoming of labor in adult females and the subsequent release of milk ( Okwu and Okwu, 2004 ) . Another of import action of saponins is their expectorant action through the stimulation of a physiological reaction of the upper digestive piece of land ( David, 1983 ) . Alkaloids are the most efficient therapeutically important works substance. Pure isolated alkaloids and the man-made derived functions are used as basic medicative agents because of their analgetic, antispasmodic and bacterial belongingss ( Stray, 1998 ) . They show pronounced physiological effects when administered to animate beings. The presence of alkaloids in the foliages shows that these workss can be an effectual anti-malaria, since alkaloids consist of quinine, which is an anti-malaria ( Robinson, 1985 ) . The cardiac glycosides, therapeutically have the ability to increase the force and power of the heart-beat without increasing the sum of O needed by the bosom musculus. They can therefore increase the efficiency of the bosom and at the same clip steady extra bosom beats without strain to the organ ( David, 1983 ) . Lack of ascorbic acid is associated with strivings in the joint and defect in skeletal calcification, anemia, manifestation of abject bleeding from mucose membrane of the oral cavity and GI piece of land ( Hunt et al. 1980 ) . This map of ascorbic acid histories for its demand for normal lesion healing. There is besides an interesting ability of ascorbic acid as an antioxidant, to forestall or at least minimise the formation of carcinogenic substances from dietetic stuff ( Hunt et al, 1980 ) . As a consequence of the presence of ascorbic acid in Carica papaia leaves, the works can be used in herbal medical specialty for the intervention of common cold and other diseases like prostate malignant neoplastic disease ( Okwu and Okwu, 2004 ; Okwu and Ekekes 2003 ) . Other vitamins though in hint sum are indispensable for organic structure metamorphosis ( Njoku & A ; Akumefula, 2007 ) .
Table 1: Phytochemical Screening of papaya foliages
Green foliage Yellow leaf Brown foliage
Saponins + + +
Tannins _ _ _
Cardiac glycoside + + +
Alkaloid + + +
+ Represent nowadayss, – No activity ; Consequences are agencies of three findings.
Table 2: Mineral Composition of the papaya leaves on dry weight footing ( mg/kg )
Consequences are agencies of three findings.
Table 3: Vitamin Compositions of the papaya leaves on a dry footing ( mg/100g )
Consequences are agencies of three findings.
In table 2, the consequence of the mineral composing clearly showed that Carica papaia leaves contain rich beginning of mineral elements. This consequence becomes so of import when the utility of such minerals like Ca, Mg, Na, K, Fe and Mn in the Carica papaia leaves indicates the utility of the foliages in the curdling of blood, the proper operation of the bosom and nervous system and the normal contraction of musculuss. Magnesium, aid in the assimilation of P. Lack of Mg can be responsible for tetanilla, TB, diabetes, malignant neoplastic disease and all nervous diseases ( Claude and Paule 1979 ) . Possibly this is the ground why papaya leaves particularly the green 1s are being employed in the intervention of the above listed diseases ( Atta, 1999 ) . Potassium is necessary for muscular failing which is associated with malaria, and besides slows down induration of the vascular system. It contributes to the battle against bacteriums and cleanses the digestive system. Sodium takes portion in the metamorphosis of H2O, promotes digestion, assimilation, osmosis, cleanses the digestive system, combats stomach sourness and alkalise the blood ( Claude and Paule,1979 ) . This is the ground behind the brown papaya foliage being used as a cleansing agent in herbal redress ( Atta, 1999 ) . The presence of Iron signifies that the foliages can be used against anemia, TB and upset of growing. ( Claude and Paule, 1979 ) . Iron is an energiser but extra can do fatigue but we barely have extra if taken from natural beginning ( Gbolahan, 2001 ) .
Manganese, harmonizing to Claude and Paule ( 1979 ) is necessary for the operation of the pituitary secretory organ, the pineal secretory organ and the encephalon. It promotes hepato-renal map, combat anemia and it is besides indispensable for growing. Since these foliages contain these elements in different concentrations, the measure and the type of foliage to be taken will depend on the curative demand of the person and they can besides be combined for an effectual consequence in such instances as diabetes, malignant neoplastic disease, fibroid and TB. The xanthous foliage is every bit used as anti-anaemic agent while the brown foliage is used as a organic structure cleansing agent, ( Atta, 1990 ) .
This survey has shown the phytochemicals, vitamins and minerals composing of green, xanthous and brown Carica papaia leaves. This partially shows the usage of this works in herbal medical specialty, as a rich beginning of phytochemicals, coupled with the presence of the indispensable vitamins and minerals. Carica papaya foliages can be seen as a possible beginning of utile nutrient and drug points. The presence of alkaloids in them explains the ground why it is being efficaciously used as an anti-malaria agent. The xanthous Carica papaia foliage is every bit used as anti- anemic agent while the brown foliage is used as a organic structure cleansing agent ( Atta, 1999 ) .