Republic Of Congo Essay, Research Paper
A democracy, harmonizing to the Webster s lexicon, is a authorities in which the supreme power remainders in all the citizens entitled to vote and is exercised by representatives elected by them. However, a authorities s claims to be a democracy does non needfully do it a democracy. The Republic of Congo, a little state in south-western Africa, has democratic and republic facets in its parliamentary system. The authorities of the Republic of Congo has a inclination to alter apparently quickly when compared to that of a more stable system of authorities, such as that of Britain. The Republic of Congo is a comparatively little state with a land country of merely one hundred and 32 1000 square miles.1 One can acquire a better thought of the size of the Republic of Congo s size by comparing it with that of Britain, which is 94 thousand two hundred and 49 square miles.2 Even though Congo has more land country than Britain, Britain has a much greater population of 58.26 million whereas Congo has a population of 2.5 million.3 Seventy per centum of the people of the Republic of Congo live in or around the capitol metropolis of Brazzaville.4 With this much of the population in or around the biggest metropolis in the state, really small of the population is to farm what land is can be cultivated. Merely about three square stat mis of land in the full state is irrigated land.5 This is chiefly because of the fact that crude oil is Congo s most valuable resource. Congo foremost produced oil in 1957.6 Since that clip, the oil industry has become the largest country of concentration for the authorities. This, nevertheless, has led to the diminish in other of import countries such as nutrient production, medical specialty, and public wellness. The Republic of Congo imports most of the nutrient supply. Besides, harmonizing to the Consul to the Republic of Congo in the United States, medical installations are limited and medical specialty is in short supply.7 These jobs have been some of the factors that have reduced life anticipations, which is presently 44 old ages for males and 47 old ages for females, and increased infant mortality rates, which is presently at one hundred and six deceases per one-thousand unrecorded births.8 Experts believe that the Congo was uninhabited until the mass African migrations of AD 1500. Colony of the Congo led to the constitution of native lands that were undermined by the Portuguese slave trade in the sixteenth Century. As the Lusitanian laterality diminished, the Gallic laterality began to boom. The Gallic gained control of Congo in 1880 when the Gallic adventurer Brazza signed a pact with a local tribal leader. In 1883 the Gallic established a associated state, which is the relation of a strong state to a weaker state that is under its control and protection, and in 1910 merged Congo with several other Gallic colonial ownerships to go Gallic Equatorial Africa. During World War II, Congo gave strong support to France, so that in 1946 General DeGaulle granted Gallic citizenship to its dwellers. Gallic Equatorial Africa was dissolved in 1959, and in 1960 the Congo declared its independency but remained portion of the Gallic community.9 The Congo & # 8217 ; s first president, Fulbert Youlou, was driven from office by labour agitation. The military took over in 1963 and installed Alphonse Massamba-Debat as president. He was reelected, but, in 1968, he was deposed by a military junta. In January 1969, left-of-center Major Marien Ngouabi took power as president and established the People & # 8217 ; s Republic of Congo. He was reelected in 1975. The same twelvemonth, he signed an economic assistance treaty with the Soviet Union. In 1977, Ngouabi was assassinated. Former president Massamba-Debat was charged with the blackwash and so executed. Army Chief of Staff Colonel Joachim Yhombi-Opango took over as president and resumed diplomatic dealingss with the United States that ended a 12-year alienation. Yhombi-Opango resigned in 1979 and was replaced by Colonel Denis Sassou-Nguesso who was reelected twice.10 Sassou-Nguesso was the swayer of Congo for more than a decennary until he was forced to ordain political reforms in 1991. Besides, in 1991, Congo returned its name to the Republic of Congo and began to travel toward multiparty democracy as resistance parties became legal. In the election of 1992, Lissouba was elected president. Sassou-Nguesso claimed ballot fraud in the election.11Events have non gone swimmingly since Pascal Lissouba was elected president. In 1993 there were eruptions of tribal and cultural force. Contending broke out in early June 1997 when Lissouba tried to demilitarize military personnels that remained loyal to former Marxist president Sassou-Nguesso. This began a civil war. Lissouba feared Sassou-Nguesso would interrupt the planned elections of July 1997. 12 Due to the combat between Lissouba and Sassou-Nguesso, Sassou-Nguesso had gained control of about three quarters of the state by October of 1997.13 On October 15, 1997, Sassou-Nguesso declared triumph over President Lissouba, claiming that he was, at that clip, in control of most of the country.14 The current Fundamental law of the Republic of Congo was approved on March 15, 1992.15 The Constitution proposes a strong presidential term in a parliamentary system. The Fundamental law of Congo besides addresses many issues that fundamental laws of other states do non. For illustration, in Article 9, the Constitution says that the State has entire and lasting sovereignty over all wealths and natural resources. In add-on, the Constitution addresses other issues such as favoritism, particularly refering adult females s rights. In Article 31, the Constitution warrants that, for the same work, adult females are entitled to the same wage as men.The British Constitution, on the other manus, is unwritten. The footing for the British Constitution comes from four beginnings: common jurisprudence, codified Torahs, traditions and conventions, and commentaries written by constitutional authorities.16 The common jurisprudence rule includes Torahs that are understood by the bulk, such as freedom of look and sovereignty of Parliament, which means that Parliament may do or get rid of any laws.17 Statute Torahs are Torahs that override common jurisprudence and are efficaciously constitutional law.18 Traditions and conventions are non really Torahs, but have been in usage for so long that they are considered binding. Finally, commentaries are written by constitutional governments. These readings that the & # 8220 ; governments & # 8221 ; give are frequently used in good religion as coming from an & # 8220 ; authorization & # 8221 ; on the subject.The Constitution of the Republic of Congo divides the authorities into three basic classs: the executive, the legislative, and the judicial. The executive subdivision contains the President of the Republic and the Prime Minister. The legislative subdivision is made up of the Parliament. The judicial subdivision is made up of the High Court of Justice, the Supreme Court, and the Constitutional Council.The President of the Republic of Congo, under the Constitution, is the Head of State. There are both limitations and powers granted to the President by the Constitution. Article 73 trades with the Presidential mutual exclusivenesss. Under this, the President may non exert any other elected authorization, any public employment, civil employment, military employment, or any professional activity. He besides can non belong to a political party or a political association. The Fundamental law addresses the issue of final payments and payoffs by necessitating that, upon come ining office, the President must do an official declaration of all his ownerships. The powers, nevertheless, to a great extent outweigh the limitations. The President names the Prime Minister, who is so approved by the National Assembly. The President may engage and fire other members of the authorities with the advice of the Prime Minister. The President presides over the Council of Ministers. The President must subscribe all Torahs for them to take consequence. He may besides subject measures to the legislative assembly for argument. The President has the power to fade out Parliament and name new elections. He has the right of forgivenesss, may name embassadors, and is the Commander-in-Chief of the military.19These powers are important when compared to the Head of State in Britain, which happens to be the sovereign. In Britain, the sovereign holds really small power. The sovereign has the right to confer with with the Prime Minister, every bit good as, the right to fade out Parliament and name new elections, although, in pattern, this is merely done at the petition of the Prime Minister. The sovereign has the right, if no party has an absolute bulk in Parliament, to call the new Prime Minister. However, most of these powers are seldom used. The sovereign serves as more of a front man than a ruler.20The Prime Minister of the Republic of Congo, the Head of Government, has an outlined function in the Constitution. The Prime Minister assures executing of the Torahs and exercises regulative power. The Prime Minister names civil and military employees. There are besides, nevertheless, mutual exclusivenesss with the office of the Prime Minister. The Prime Minister may non exert any parliamentary authorization, may non busy any office of professional representation, may non busy any public employment, or any remunerated private activity. Finally, the Prime Minister may non belong to a political party or association.21The Prime Minister of Britain has significantly greater powers. The British Prime Minister, along with his cabinet, makes the policies. The Prime Minister is the leader of the party with the most seats in the House of Commons and must be a member of Parliament. The Prime Minister has the power to name elections and the power of appointment.22 These two powers are important in that the Prime Minister may, if in dissent with Parliament, fade out it and name new elections. This gives him significantly more control over Parliament. He besides has the power of assignment which will let him to name people who have political positions that are similar to his.The Parliament of the Republic of Congo is divided into two houses, the National Assembly and the Senate. These two houses of Parliament are responsible for go throughing Torahs. Each house has some independent powers of its ain, but fundamentally both Houses have similar powers. For illustration, merely the Senate shall O.K. the election of members of the Supreme Court and members of the High Council of the magistrate. The Senate plays the function of moderator and counsellor of the state. On the other manus, the National Assembly is entirely responsible for budgetary Acts of the Apostless. Both Houses, nevertheless, must go through Torahs and constitutional amendments. The measures that are passed must be precisely the same before being presented to the President for sign language. If these measures are non precisely the same, a joint committee is established, which will amend the measures. The measures will so be sent back through both Houses and so to the President.23Like Congo, Britain s Parliament is divided into two Houses: the House of Lords and the House of Commons. The two Houses are really different with really different powers. The House of Lords is the highest tribunal of entreaties. It can present, revise, or hold statute law, but most determinations can be overruled by the House of Commons. The House of Lords is given ample clip to discourse and debate issues. The House of Commons is responsible for debating statute law and go throughing laws.24 In Britain policy devising is done chiefly by the Prime Minister and his cabinet. Parliament becomes a point of entree and argument refering the policy devising. However, the interplay between the media and public sentiment is the most of import influence in Britain.25The Congolese judicial system is defined under the Constitution. There are three chief subdivisions: the High Court of Justice, the Supreme Court, and the Constitutional Council. The High Court of Justice Judgess the President of the Republic, the memb
Ers of authorities, members of Parliament, members of the Supreme Court, and the Heads of Courts for offenses committed while in office. The Supreme Court exercises the right of judicial authorization. This gives it the right to hear entreaties passed up through the lower tribunals. The Constitutional Council assures the Constitutionality of Torahs, pacts, and agreements, every bit good as, regulates activities of public governments and regulates the election process.26Alternatively, in the British bench, there is no separate constitutional tribunal. Parliament decides Constitutionality and has supreme jurisprudence. Britain has no supreme tribunal. The House of Lords is Britain s highest tribunal of appeals.27
Subnational authoritiess in both the Republic of Congo and Britain are similar. Since both authoritiess operate on a unitary system, there are no demands for subnational authoritiess. These lower authoritiess are made up of territories, counties, metropoliss, and townships. However, the local authoritiess merely exist at the caprice of the national authoritiess. These subnational authoritiess have no existent power.Elections, in the Republic of Congo, are held otherwise for each office. The President of the Republic is elected for five twelvemonth footings by direct cosmopolitan right to vote, intending that anyone who is eligible to vote may straight vote for the President. He is eligible for reelection one clip. The Prime Minister, on the other manus, is non elected, but is appointed to office. The President appoints the Prime Minister with a bulk of blessing in the National Assembly. The one hundred and 25 members of the National Assembly are elected by direct cosmopolitan right to vote for five twelvemonth footings. The 60 Senators are elected by indirect cosmopolitan right to vote, which means that electors vote for a individual who votes for a individual, which becomes similar to a pyramid, for six twelvemonth footings. The Senators shall be renewable every two old ages by tierces, which means that every two old ages one-third of the Senate is up for elections. The members of the High Court of Justice are appointed for life by Parliament and the Supreme Court. The Supreme Court s members are appointed for life by Parliament. The Constitutional Council is made up of nine members: two magistrates elected by the High Council of the Magistrate ; two jurisprudence professors from the university elected by their equals ; two attorneies elected by their equals ; and three members named proportionally, one by the President of the Republic, one by the President of the National Assembly, and one by the President of the Senate. The members of the Constitutional Council are elected for six twelvemonth footings renewed every two old ages by thirds.28Britain has a different method of elections. The Monarch is non elected, but instead obtains the throne through household heritage. The Prime Minister of Britain is non elected, per Se, but is the leader of the bulk party in Parliament. This assumes that he or she was elected as a member of Parliament. The members of the House of Lords are non elected. The House of Lords is made up of 25 archbishops and bishops of the Church of England ; familial equals, such as Lord & # 8230 ; or Lady & # 8230 ; ; and life equals, which are chiefly public retainers that have been offered baronage for life by the sovereign. The six-hundred and 59 members of the House of Commons are elected for renewable five-year footings in individual member districts.29The election system in the Republic of Congo has encouraged a multiparty system. In fact, there are legion parties who are frequently in Parliament. The most of import party is the utmost left Congolese Labor Party, led by Denis Sassou-Nguesso. Then follows the Pan-African Union for Social Democracy which is a social-democratic party led by Pascal Lissouba. The conservative Congolese Movement for Democracy and Integral Development Party is led by Bernard Kolelas. There is a social-democratic Congolese Party of Renewal. There is a middle-of-the-road party known as the Rally for Democracy and Development, which is led by Yhombi Oyango. The socialist Rally for Democracy and Social Progress is led by Thystere Tchicaya. The middle of the roader Union of Democratic Forces is led by David Charles Ganao. The social-democratic Union for Development and Social Progress is led by Jean-Michael Bohamba-Yangouma. There is besides the social-democratic National Union for Democracy and Progress, the middle of the roader Patriotic Union for National Reconstruction, the middle of the roader Union for Congolese Democracy, and the middle of the roader Union for Democracy and Republic.30 These parties are comparatively new and non much is known about them.Britain, nevertheless, has some older and more constituted parties. There are three chief British parties: the Labor Party, the Conservative Party, and the Liberal Democrats. The Labor Party is presently the party in power, and is similar to the Democratic Party in the United States. The Conservative Party is the oldest party in Britain and is similar to the Republican Party in the United States. The Liberal Democratic Party, in their beliefs, falls in the center of the Labor and Conservative Parties.31Both the Republic of Congo and Britain have involvement groups that try to impact the policy-making procedure in each state. The chief subdivisions of these involvement groups are labour brotherhoods, concern groups, and environmental groups. Britain has the oldest, largest, and most influential environmental motion in the universe. Some of Britain s involvement groups include the Confederation of British Industry and the Trade Union Congress.32 The Republic of Congo has issues such as air pollution, H2O pollution from dumping of natural sewerage, and deforestation. Groups such as the Union of Congolese Socialist Youth, the Congolese Trade Union Congress, the Revolutionary Union of Congolese Women, and the General Union of Congolese Pupils and Students address these and many other issues.33Information about public issues is non ever readily available in Congo. There are five wireless Stationss and, as of 1987, four telecastings Stationss in the full state. Most of these are authorities owned and operated. There are really few telephones. Approximately one in every one hundred and fifty Congolese have a telephone. There are less than half that many televisions.34Britain, instead, is known as holding one of the most active and well-thought-of media in the universe. Most of Britain s media are national and trade with national intelligence and issues. This helps Britain to advance a more in-depth type of information to the public audience.35As in most states, there is a nexus between economic and foreign policy in the Republic of Congo. Congo, since the economic diminution began has been seeking to alleviate force per unit area from the authorities in an attempt to privatise many of the authorities owned trade goods such as H2O, electricity, and nutrient production. Part of the diminution was caused by an avidity to happen and bring forth more oil. The oil industry has brought many foreign companies such as Shell and Exxon into Congo, but this has been at the cost of other economic aspects.36Britain has somewhat different foreign and economic policy concerns. Since the World Wars, Britain has been in an economic diminution. This has been addressed to advance relationships with former settlements and the United States.37 The diminution is, nevertheless, still a job that may perchance be solved in the future.The history of the Republic of Congo clearly shows that Congo is capable to strong sentiments and rapid alterations. This is really different from the British, who value bargaining, compromising, and incremental alteration. The Republic of Congo has, in it s Constitution, republic facets, but military coup d’etats and rapid alterations do non ever let it to be a democracy in pattern. Therefore, one can see that merely because a state claims to be a democracy, it is non needfully a democracy. Endnotes 1. United States. Energy Information Administration. Congo. March 1996.2. McCormick, John. Comparative Politics in Transition. New York: Harcourt Brace College Publication, 1990.3. & # 8220 ; Republic of the Congo. & # 8221 ; CIA Factbook. Internet. Available hypertext transfer protocol: //www.odci.gov/cia/publications/factbook/cf.html4. & # 8220 ; Republic of the Congo. & # 8221 ; CIA Factbook. Internet. Available hypertext transfer protocol: //www.odci.gov/cia/publications/factbook/cf.html5. & # 8220 ; Republic of the Congo. & # 8221 ; CIA Factbook. Internet. Available hypertext transfer protocol: //www.odci.gov/cia/publications/factbook/cf.html6. United States. Energy Information Administration. Congo. March 1996.7. United States. Consulate to the Republic of Congo. Congo-Consular Information Sheet. June 24, 1996. Available hypertext transfer protocol: //travel.state.gov/congo.html8. & # 8220 ; Republic of the Congo. & # 8221 ; CIA Factbook. Internet. Available hypertext transfer protocol: //www.odci.gov/cia/publications/factbook/cf.html9. & # 8220 ; Professor Pascal Lissouba Congolese President. & # 8221 ; CNN Plus: Newsmaker Profiles. Online. Internet. 1997. Available hypertext transfer protocol: //cnnplus.cnn.com/resources/newsmakers/world/africa/lissouba.html10. & # 8220 ; Professor Pascal Lissouba Congolese President. & # 8221 ; CNN Plus: Newsmaker Profiles. Online. Internet. 1997. Available hypertext transfer protocol: //cnnplus.cnn.com/resources/newsmakers/world/africa/lissouba.html11. & # 8220 ; Professor Pascal Lissouba Congolese President. & # 8221 ; CNN Plus: Newsmaker Profiles. Online. Internet. 1997. Available hypertext transfer protocol: //cnnplus.cnn.com/resources/newsmakers/world/africa/lissouba.html12. & # 8220 ; Professor Pascal Lissouba Congolese President. & # 8221 ; CNN Plus: Newsmaker Profiles. Online. Internet. 1997. Available hypertext transfer protocol: //cnnplus.cnn.com/resources/newsmakers/world/africa/lissouba.html13. & # 8220 ; Republic of Congo authorities retains castle, airdrome in fighting. & # 8221 ; CNN Online. Online. Internet. October 12, 1997. Available hypertext transfer protocol: //www.cnn.com/WORLD/9710/12/congo/index.html14. & # 8220 ; Former Leader Claims Victory. & # 8221 ; ABC Online. Online. Internet. October 16, 1997. Available hypertext transfer protocol: //www.abcnews.com/sections/world/congorep1016/index.html15. Congo Page. Online. Internet. Nd. Available hypertext transfer protocol: //www.sas.upenn.edu/African_Studies/Country_Specific/Congo.html16. McCormick, John. Comparative Politics in Transition. New York: Harcourt Brace College Publication, 1990.17. McCormick, John. Comparative Politics in Transition. New York: Harcourt Brace College Publication, 1990.18. McCormick, John. Comparative Politics in Transition. New York: Harcourt Brace College Publication, 1990.19. National Constitution of the Republic of Congo.20. McCormick, John. Comparative Politics in Transition. New York: Harcourt Brace College Publication, 1990.21. National Constitution of the Republic of Congo.22. McCormick, John. Comparative Politics in Transition. New York: Harcourt Brace College Publication, 1990.23. National Constitution of the Republic of Congo.24. McCormick, John. Comparative Politics in Transition. New York: Harcourt Brace College Publication, 1990.25. McCormick, John. Comparative Politics in Transition. New York: Harcourt Brace College Publication, 1990.26. National Constitution of the Republic of Congo.27. McCormick, John. Comparative Politics in Transition. New York: Harcourt Brace College Publication, 1990.28. National Constitution of the Republic of Congo.29. McCormick, John. Comparative Politics in Transition. New York: Harcourt Brace College Publication, 1990.30. Elections in Congo-Brazzaville. Online. Internet. Nd. Available hypertext transfer protocol: //www.agora.stm.it/elections/election/congobra.htm31. McCormick, John. Comparative Politics in Transition. New York: Harcourt Brace College Publication, 1990.32. McCormick, John. Comparative Politics in Transition. New York: Harcourt Brace College Publication, 1990.33. & # 8220 ; Republic of the Congo. & # 8221 ; CIA Factbook. Internet. Available hypertext transfer protocol: //www.odci.gov/cia/publications/factbook/cf.html34. & # 8220 ; Republic of the Congo. & # 8221 ; CIA Factbook. Internet. Available hypertext transfer protocol: //www.odci.gov/cia/publications/factbook/cf.html35. National Constitution of the Republic of Congo.36. United States. Energy Information Administration. Congo. March 1996.37. McCormick, John. Comparative Politics in Transition. New York: Harcourt Brace College Publication, 1990.