The research proposal you are about to read is constructed in order to depict the research undertaking I will put to death. I will put to death this research undertaking in order to finalise the educational plan ICT in Business at Leiden University. In this proposal I will give the aim and explicate the methodological analysis of this research. First, I will get down with an debut of the subject and the theoretical background.
The research will be hosted and supervised by Getronics Consulting and will be executed at the Business Unit Innovative Technology ( BUIT ) . The clip span of this research will be 24 hebdomads.
This research will be focused on the Dutch ICT consultancy industry. This industry suits my involvements and the cognition I gained during the educational plan ICT in Business.
Getronics Consulting is an ICT Consultancy house which operates in assorted markets like fiscal, industrial, educational, public and health care. Getronics Consulting advises companies on their ICT-strategy and executes ICT reorganisations based on cognition about current ICT-architectures. They streamline and integrate people, procedure and engineering in order to make a dependable ICT-architecture which is accessible anyplace at any clip. Getronics Consulting has already 20 old ages experience in IT Service Management and has a working force of 1400 experient professionals.
Getronics Consulting wants to be known as the sentiment leader in the country of prima criterions and advanced information and communicating engineerings. Business and ICT-trends are translated into concrete and useable merchandises and services. They province that every concern procedure needs another ICT attack and name themselves “ designers of the unseeable ” .
In their attack in bettering ICT-services, they consider all facets of the organisation: people, merchandises, spouses and procedures. From that position, Getronics Consulting offers support in puting up and optimising ICT organisations. The doctrine is to enable employees to make their work more efficient.
Business Unit Innovative Technology
The Business Unit Innovative Technology ( BUIT ) is a competency centre in the field of Web Content Management and ( coaction ) portals. The client base includes diverse organisations throughout the Netherlands changing from authorities, energy, media and logistical service suppliers. The tools used by BUIT are SDL Tridion and Microsoft SharePoint.
The executing of successful ICT undertakings is based on the coaction between Peoples, Process and Technology. These engineerings used by BUIT support the client needs in assorted ways and are portion of Enterprise Content Management ( ECM ) .
Enterprise Content Management
The Association for Information and Image Management ( AIIM ) , besides known as the ECM association defines ECM as:
“ The schemes, methods and tools used to capture, manage, shop, preserve, and present content and paperss related to organisational procedures. ECM tools and schemes allow the direction of an organisation ‘s unstructured information, wherever that information exists ” ( AIIM, 2008, “ What is ECM? “ , para.1. ) .
The solutions offered by BUIT are within the “ manage ” class. This class has five traditional application countries ( Kampffmeyer, 2004 ) :
- Document Management ( DM )
- Web Content Management ( WCM )
- Record Management ( RM )
- Workflow/business procedure direction ( BPM )
BUIT has the focal point on two application countries: coaction and WCM. The client demands are supported with different solutions ( Tridion & A ; SharePoint ) around the latter mentioned application countries.
Getronics Consulting brought construction into the attack of their undertakings. They based this attack on the experiences of undertakings executed in the yesteryear. These experiences are bundled into best patterns which are based on the eBusiness Development Cycle. The eBusiness Development Cycle consists of six stages. I will lucubrate on these stages to give an account of the most of import activities.
Knowing the mission, vision and ends of the client is of import in order to find in what way that organisation wants to travel. A clear concern instance is delivered which describes the added-value of the coveted solution. Second, a conceptual design is created. This design will depict the edifice blocks of the system in a functional every bit good as a proficient mode. A flexible and modular architecture is the cardinal thought which enables functionalities to be added in the hereafter with minimum versions. This design will besides work as a get downing point of the 2nd stage.
During this stage, several analyses will be done. First, together with the client, the beginnings of information which need to be opened up are identified. In other words, what sort of “ concern content ” does the client have and for what intent. Second, a prioritized list of the coveted functionalities is created. This papers will depict the need-to-haves and the nice-to-haves. Besides, a scan of the substructure is performed in order to compare the current substructure with the coveted substructure. This scan will place possible proficient constrictions.
After these analyses, the organisation itself will be analyzed in order to acquire a general image and to see how the new solution would suit in. The chief intent is to specify which processes, duties and undertakings are related to the help desk, proficient direction and functional- or application direction.
Finally, all he information gained from the analyses will be the input of the undertaking program. This program will be created based on the undertaking direction methodological analysis Price2.
During the design stage, several designs will be expanded in item. These designs are the basic foundation of what should be built during realisation. The designs to be delivered are: infrastructural design, graphical design, functional design and proficient design.
Acceptation standards will be written down by the client. These standards will be used at a ulterior phase in order to prove if the delivered merchandise matches the client ‘s standards.
Every execution needs its acceptation. Acceptation within the organisation is a important factor of the success of an execution. Therefore, an integrating program is created which describes the undertakings, duties and procedures in such a manner the client understands how they should cover with them.
The designs of the latter stage are approved and BUIT will get down with the execution of the substructure and the development of usage constituents. External functionalities and connexions will besides be realized.
Finally, all the realized functionalities will be tested harmonizing to the acceptation standards before the existent execution takes topographic point.
During this stage, bing content will be migrated to the new system harmonizing to the migration program. The users of these “ new ” functionalities will be trained decently. Besides, the enforced system will be tested in order see how it performs and what sort of influence it has on the environment. The users are the last 1s proving the system. Again, this is based on the acceptation standards. During this trial, the users will look into the serviceability and user interfaces of the system.
Bugs, found during the trials will be fixed and last but non least: the system will travel unrecorded including the communicating to the end-users.
The care stage is the operational state of affairs after execution of the complete system. The accent of this stage lies on proper certification in order to simplify and back up future developments and determinations. If necessary, backup- and monitoring procedures can be arranged. In the terminal, an rating of the undertaking and its end product will be executed.
The client petitions received by BUIT are particularly about on-line coaction and the publication of concern information ( Web Content Management ) . Today, these procedures are supported by cyberspace engineerings. The undermentioned subdivisions will lucubrate on these client demands.
Web Content Management
Customers have the demand to keep concern information in an easy and intuitive manner and do it accessible for those who are authorized to see the content. Information should non be scattered around the organisation accessible via different platforms, but via one cardinal platform. Organizational members should besides be able to add content to this platform.
Adding and keeping information is one thing, happening the information is another of import characteristic. Organizations have the demand to happen information via one cardinal hunt engine which mines different concern information beginnings.
Some information is confidential and should merely be accessible via the intranet. Organizations can besides hold the demand to portion information with the outside universe. Think about occupations, intelligence etc.
Collaboration, indispensable for bettering productiveness, becomes more and more of import as planetary market chances and competition addition ( Soriano, Lizcano, Ca & A ; Atilde ; ±as, Reyes, & A ; Hierro, 2007 ) . Today, there are all sorts of coaction platforms available. BUIT is specialized in Microsoft SharePoint. Microsoft SharePoint is an endeavor platform which supports organisations with coaction. SharePoint enables people to entree diverse resources of information via one platform regardless the devices they have available ( Microsoft, 2009 ) .
Interest in new engineerings
BUIT notices the outgrowth of new engineerings and is interested in how these new ‘tools ‘ are able to back up their current and near-future client demands. With these new engineerings I refer to Web 2.0 engineerings. BUIT ‘s premises about Web 2.0 are non rare. Some research workers come up with statements which add even more inquiry Markss.
Harmonizing to Tedennick ( 2006 ) Web 2.0 engineerings have the advantage of adaptability to the concern environment and reactivity to altering concern information demands. He argues that Web 2.0 engineerings may offer existent benefits in concern environments where information plays a critical function. Bughin and Manyika ( 2007 ) say that Web 2.0 engineerings rely on user coaction.
For BUIT, this raises a twosome of inquiries. What should we make with Web 2.0? Should we encompass Web 2.0, if yes, why? And what are the benefits of Web 2.0 when back uping our client ‘s demands?
Presents, new engineerings emerged under the label “ Web 2.0 ” . Web 2.0 is a label coined by O’Reilly ( 2005 ) to depict new forms which emerged due to the alterations occurred by the usage of cyberspace. These forms do non depict the engineering but describe the manner people portion information, contribute to collective cognition, collaborate and interact with each other. Although this account is non about engineerings, engineerings play a important function in Web 2.0. As Shah et Al. ( 2005 ) province in their essay about Web 2.0: “ The engineerings behind Web 2.0 provide a richer user experience and do usage of information in alone ways ” ( Introduction, para.1 ) .
Like many research workers and organisation the Association for Information and Image Management ( AIIM ) has besides his ain sentiments about Web 2.0. They province that: “ Many organisations see value in utilizing Web 2.0 tools or societal package within their organisations for improved coaction and invention, and this is so frequently referred to as Enterprise 2.0 ” ( AIIM, 2008, What is Web 2.0? , para.2 ) . The AIIM ( 2008 ) defines Enterprise 2.0 as: “ a system of web-based engineerings that provide rapid and nimble coaction, information sharing, outgrowth and integrating capablenesss in the drawn-out endeavor ” ( What is Web 2.0? , para.1 ) .
An of import nexus with this survey is that Web 2.0 seems to better coaction ( AIIM, 2008 ) . Organizations, chiefly located in the US are be aftering to keep and increase investings in engineerings which encourages coaction ( Bughin & A ; Manyika, 2007 ) . Unfortunately, the literature gives no grounds about the Dutch involvements and investings in Web 2.0.
Tredinnick ( 2006 ) has the most interesting statements sing the involvements of BUIT. He claims that “ The key to Web 2.0 is tackling the ways in which users use information to add value to information ( either through direct or indirect user-participation ) in making the information beginnings that they use ” ( p.232 ) . This is in relation with the current client demands. As you could read in chapter 2, in the most abstract signifier, clients have the demand to print information and enable the entree to multiple beginnings of information. Another decision of Tredinnick ( 2006 ) suggests a benefit for the client needs: “ Web 2.0 engineerings besides allow a far greater grade of coaction in the creative activity of content. ” ( p.233 )
Not merely Tedinnick negotiations about Web 2.0 benefits sing coaction. Soriano et Al. ( 2007 ) says that: “ Enterprise 2.0 provides endeavors with new theoretical accounts and tools for emergent coaction and co-creation ” ( Introduction, para.1 ) .
Clearly, Web 2.0 has a relation to client demands sing WCM and coaction. Unfortunately, we do non cognize which elements of Web 2.0 offer what sort of benefits. It would be interesting to cognize which specific Web 2.0 “ forms ” can offer benefits in back uping the client needs described in chapter 2.
Web 2.0 design forms
O’Reilly described his thoughts about Web 2.0 through seven design forms: 1 ) the web as a platform ; 2 ) tackling corporate intelligence ; 3 ) information is the following Intel interior ; 4 ) terminal of the package release rhythm ; 5 ) lightweight programming theoretical accounts ; 6 ) package above the degree of a individual device and, 7 ) rich user experience.
The web as platform
The cyberspace can be seen as a platform through which the users are connected and join forcesing with each other. The platform can be seen as the nucleus which binds the elements of Web 2.0 together. Facebook implemented the form: “ the web as a platform ” . Facebook, an on-line societal web enables people to link with each other and portion and entree information. Their mission is to “ give people the power to portion and do the universe more unfastened and connected ” ( Facebook, 2010 ) . Facebook ( 2010 ) besides provides the programmatic interfaces that make it easy, speedy, and efficient to portion and entree information.
Harnessing Corporate Intelligence
Today, the web connects 1.7 billion users with each other ( Internet World Stats, 2010 ) . The web enables these users to add content to the web and collaborate with each other. This means users are jointly take parting. They bring construction to information by labeling the information ( O’Reilly, 2005 ) . Arguing about subjects in their web logs ( short for Web Log ) and sharing their cognition trough on-line encyclopaedia like Wikipedia ( O’Reilly, 2005 ) .
Data is the following Intel interior
The web is all about determination, sharing and enriching information. Amazon, the online shop for books and electronics gets his information about books from ISBN register supplier R.R. Bowker. Amazon and its users enrich this information by adding screens, prevues, remarks and reappraisals about the books. The ISBN register is besides available to the rivals of Amazon, but the value added by virago and their users is difficult to copy by rivals. The enriched information is hence Amazons ‘ “ Intel interior ” .
End of the package release rhythm
Normally, package is released when wholly finished and tested. When this is non the instance, it gets labeled as “ Beta ” which indicates that the package is non wholly finished and needs some testing. In the universe of Web 2.0, users are the examiners and supply the seller with feedback, or even assist better the package by co-development. This beta version gets updated on a regular basis but ne’er becomes a “ concluding ” version. Sellers use existent clip monitoring to track user behaviour in order to do alterations in their package ( O’Reilly, 2005 ) .
Lightweight scheduling theoretical accounts
This form could besides be explained by Web Services and RSS ( Truly Simple Syndication ) . Web Services are protocols which make it easier for different systems to pass on with one another automatically in order to go through information or behavior minutess. For illustration, a retail merchant and provider usage Web Services to pass on over the cyberspace and update each other ‘s stock list systems ( Bughin & A ; Manyika, How Business Are Using Web 2.0: A McKinsey Global Survey, 2007 ) .These Web Services are lightweight and could be used to draw or force information between systems.
RSS enables users to aggregate information from assorted beginnings. Users can subscribe to web sites and web logs or other information beginnings. The content gets separated from its design and can be used anyplace.
Software above the degree of a individual device
In the Web 1.0 paradigm, the web was merely accessible via a individual device. Nowadays, the web is accessible via a broad scope of devices e.g. : nomadic phones, telecastings, game consoles, MP3-playes, PDA ‘s etc. These devices are connected to the platform which enables users to remain in touch virtually anyplace at any clip.
Rich user experience
Last but non the least the rich user experience form is about the profusion of an internet application. These applications are besides called: Rich Internet Application ( RIA ) . A RIA is an internet application, viewed via the web browser where the user experiences a richer environment which is comparable to a desktop application.
The aim of this research is to look into the benefits of Web 2.0 sing WCM and Collaboration activities. In other words, what is the benefit for an organisation to hold Web 2.0 support their Web Content Management and coaction activities? In order to see the benefits I will necessitate to compare the “ old ” state of affairs with the “ new ” Web 2.0 state of affairs. With the old state of affairs I refer to how the WCM and Collaboration activities are supported today. The new state of affairs refers to a state of affairs where an organisation implemented one or more Web 2.0 design forms in order to back up their activities.
Measuring the difference between the two state of affairss requires a measurement instrument. Having the proof in head, this should be the same instrument for both the state of affairss in order to do a valid comparing. Therefore, I will utilize the conceptual model described in chapter 5.
The first measure of this research is to happen out which procedures are demanding what sort of information belongingss and with what grade ( e.g. high truth of information ) . The 2nd measure is to look at new engineerings referred to as Web 2.0 and look into how they support WCM and Collaboration. The focal point is on the degree of information belongingss. So, how do Web 2.0 design forms execute sing the demanded information belongingss. It could be that a design pattern causes information to be better accessible.
This research will be relevant because ICT Consultancy companies like Getronics Consulting addition penetration in the benefits Web 2.0 might offer when back uping their client ‘s procedures related to Web Content Management and Collaboration.
Due to the abstract attack of this research, near-future procedures which require certain information belongingss could be matched with Web 2.0 design forms.
Presents, Web 2.0 is a hot research subject. Research workers are seeking to happen out how concerns are utilizing Web 2.0 ( Bughin & A ; Manyika, How Business Are Using Web 2.0: A McKinsey Global Survey, 2007 ) ; what impact Web 2.0 has on endeavor applications ( Adobe, 2007 ) and Web 2.0 & A ; Business – A arrow to the intranets of the hereafter? ( Tredinnick, 2006 ) . The study done by Bughin and Manyika tells us that the corporate universe has a clear involvement in Web 2.0 engineerings. Respondents of their study say they are utilizing Web 2.0 engineerings to: communicate with clients and concern spouses ; assist pull off knowledge internally ; portion and gather thoughts and for mechanization and coaction.
( Tredinnick, 2006 ) explored the application of Web 2.0 engineerings to concern intranets, and their possible usage in managing and developing concern information and cognition assets.
The latter mentioned writers lack to depict information belongingss required by the procedures of the organisations and how Web 2.0 affected these belongingss. New cognition could be created by happening out which and how Web 2.0 forms affect the information belongingss. Another issue from the latter mentioned documents is that they chiefly surveyed the US and merely some European states like: Germany, France and the U.K. Since this research will be executed inside the Netherlands based on organisational demands from Dutch companies, new cognition could be created.
Organizations have all sort of procedures which need to be supported. Today, many of those procedures are supported with IT solutions. Davenport ( 1993 ) defines a concern procedure as: “ A structured, mensural set of activities designed to bring forth a specific end product for a peculiar client or market ” ( p. 5 ) . In short, the nucleus of a procedure could be explained as:
Figure 1: Core rule of a procedure.
Depending on what sort of activity demands to be supported, accent is placed on different demands of information ( Davis, 1982 ) . One concern procedure could necessitate high truth of information while another procedure would necessitate less accurate but timely information. When these demands or “ belongingss ” of information are known, a suited solution for back uping the concern procedure could be selected. But how do we analyse which information demands are demanded?
Wang and Strong ( 1996 ) conducted research in order to develop a hierarchal model for forming informations quality dimensions. This model contains several information demands grouped into four classs. Wang and Strong ( 1996 ) conclude that “ the model could be utile as a checklist during informations demand analysis ” ( p. 23 ) . This peculiar statement is interesting since one aim of this research is to analyse which demands of information are demanded by WCM and Collaboration activities.
As you may hold noticed, the words “ informations ” and “ information ” are used interchangeably. The word information is a Latin noun, data point, intending something that is given ( Bovee et al. , 2002 ) . For information the definition that “ information is, or contains, input or pieces of information ( information ) organized to some intent ” will be used ( Davenport & A ; Prusak, Stonie, as cited in Bovee et al. , 2002, p4 ) . Therefore, informations and information will be treated synonymously throughout this proposal.
The position from which the demands of information will be measured is an organisational position. Other research workers ( Bovee et al, 2002 and Katerattanakul & A ; Siau, 1999 ) used this theoretical account to mensurate the quality of information based on a user position. Within the context of this research, the organisation can besides be seen as the user who requires information to be: e.g. accurate or seasonably. Again, this model proves to be a relevant tool required by this research.
The model contains 15 demands grouped into 4 classs. Wang and Strong ( 1996 ) stated that “ this model provides a footing for make up one’s minding which facets of informations quality to utilize in any research survey ” ( p. 22 ) . Sing this statement, I will hold to find the relevancy of each information demand.
For the instance surveies ( proposed in chapter 7 ) the information quality prosodies: truth, relevance, seasonableness, interpretability and handiness will be used. The latter prosodies are the most normally used prosodies harmonizing to the reviewed literature ( Bovee et al. , 2002 and Kahn et al. , 2002 and Lee et al. , 2001 and Griffiths, 2005 ) .
Figure 2: A conceptual model of informations quality ( Wang & A ; Strong, 1996 )
Main research inquiry
“ What is the benefit for an organisation to hold Web 2.0 support their WCM and Collaboration activities? ”
Some sub inquiries are posed in order to reply the chief research inquiry. These sub inquiries will derive more penetration about the separate constituents of the chief research inquiry.
- Which belongingss of information are of import sing the procedures which are presently supported by WCM and Collaboration?
- Which belongingss of information are offered by each Web 2.0 design form?
- How make the information belongingss offered by Web 2.0 forms lucifer with the information belongingss demanded by WCM and Collaboration activities?
Research methodological analysis
Obviously, the chief research inquiry every bit good as the sub-questions can non be answered without justified beginnings of grounds. You can conceive of that a certain “ get downing point ” is needed. Therefore, the methodological analysis for this research will be an explanatory multiple-case survey within Getronics Consulting and KPN. Herriott & A ; Firestone ( as cited by Yin, 2003, p.46 ) say that “ the grounds from multiple instances is frequently considered more compelling, and the overall survey is hence regarded as being more robust ” .
Harmonizing to Yin ( 2003 ) a instance survey is best used when inquiring inquiries such as “ how ” and “ why ” . Since the sub-questions one and two are non “ how ” or “ why ” inquiries, these inquiries are operationalized. The information aggregation methods will be face-to-face interviews, certification and archival records ( system informations ) .
As stated in the debut, two instance surveies will be conducted within two different companies. First the Knowledge Sharing & A ; Expertise Building undertaking within Getronics Consulting will be studied. Second, the societal media platform KPN1 Connect within KPN will be studied.
Knowledge Sharing & A ; Expertise Building ( KSEB )
Getronics Consulting late initiated the KSEB undertaking. Getronics Consulting has the demand to capture and continue cognition gained by its employees. When an employee is working on a undertaking and wants to cognize more about a peculiar topic, he should be able to happen the right co-worker ( s ) with the right expertness for turn toing this peculiar topic.
The KSEB platform will dwell of different portals: Personal ; Communities ; and Knowledge Base. The personal portal will incorporate a public profile and a web log with stations. The communities portal will incorporate a community wiki and a community squad site. News, a forum and shared paperss will be present on the squad site. The last portal, the cognition base will incorporate a class site with paperss.
The undertaking KPN1 Connect is initiated because of a specific demand. KPN had the demand to further communicating between all employees across the full organisation. They wanted communicating to go on in an organic mode instead than a horizontal/vertical mode which is based on the employee ‘s hierarchal position.
Therefore, a “ societal media ” platform was launched earlier this twelvemonth. This platform is an extension to their original intranet and enables employees to pass on with one another via weblogs ( web logs ) and short ( micro web log ) messages. Employees have their ain profile which contains: name ; map ; professional expertness ; professional involvements ; avocations ; and merchandise expertness. In short, they can post web logs ; short messages ; exposures ; pictures and reactions based on content posted by others. The platform besides recommends other employees based on the content of the employee ‘s profile. And, last but non least, a sophisticated hunt map enables employee to happen other employees and content posted by others.
Case surveies propositions
The propositions of a instance survey are of import in order to direct the attending into the right way within the range of the survey ( Yin, 2003 ) . For both the instance surveies the same propositions are posed. The propositions are:
- Getronics Consulting is utilizing “ Knowledge Sharing & A ; Expertise Building ” in order to back up WCM and Collaboration activities.
- KPN is utilizing “ KPN1 Connect ” in order to back up Collaboration activities.
- Getronics Consulting implemented at least one Web 2.0 design form into “ Knowledge Sharing & A ; Expertise Building ” .
- KPN implemented at least one Web 2.0 design form into “ KPN1 Connect ” .
- Web 2.0 design forms have an consequence on the belongingss of information.
With the instance surveies I hope to reply the sub-questions stated in chapter 6. The following table nowadayss how the sub-questions will be operationalized in a larger set of inquiries, and how they will be answered by each method.
Question q1 will be answered with three operational inquiries. By replying the first, grounds should indicate out which processes the company wants to back up and why with the usage of this peculiar system. The 2nd inquiry is about the analysis of the content. The analysis should bespeak what sort of information is stored and processed by the system, and how this information is tagged and related with each other. The intent of the 3rd inquiry is to look into what sorts of belongingss of information are demanded by the organisation. This is sing the procedures and the sort of content stored and processed by the system.
Question q2 will be answered with two operational inquiries. The first inquiry will research what sort of Web 2.0 design forms are implemented and with what purposes. The 2nd inquiry will mensurate how the enforced Web 2.0 design forms score harmonizing to the belongingss of information.
Analyzing the consequences
During the instance surveies, the information quality will be measured twice. First harmonizing to what the organisation is demanding. For illustration: organisation ten has the activity of publication content and ranks the truth of the information most of import. Second the information quality is measured harmonizing to what the Web 2.0 design form can offer. For illustration: design form “ rich user experience ” causes information to be better explainable.
By analysing both consequences the last sub-question will be answered:
( q3 ) How do the information belongingss offered by Web 2.0 forms lucifer with the information belongingss demanded by WCM and Collaboration activities?
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