Mohamed Atta, Marwan Al-Shehhi and Salem Al-Hazni, what do these names have in common? Why are they of any concern to Canadians? The above names have become synonymous with terrorist act and are associated with how North Americans now cover with terrorist act and perceive themselves sing planetary issues. These are but a few of the names of the work forces who carried out one of the largest terrorist onslaughts on American dirt. Furthermore, they have created one of the greatest alterations in idea and policy by western states on terrorist act and the menaces they may confront. Canada has non been immune to these alterations and realisations. With the loss of 22 Canadian Citizens in the 9/11 onslaughts at that place, was a greater urgency that they excessively could be a direct mark and face similar terrorist Acts of the Apostless ( 9/11 Commission, 2004 )
“ As the 9/11 Commission reported in 2004, all of the 9/11 terrorists arrived in the United States from outside North America. They flew in to major U.S. ( United States ) airdromes. They entered the U.S. with paperss issued by the United States authorities, and no 9/11 terrorists came from Canada. ” ( National Post ) These remarks were a alleviation to the Canadian authorities and citizens to chase away the rumours, frights and myths about what had transpired. However, the belief by many U.S. politicians and citizens still remains even after cogent evidence to the reverse was provided. This position is supported when bureaus such as C.S.I.S. study that with the exclusion of the United States, Canada has more active terrorist groups than any other state in the universe. ( Canadian Security Intelligence Service, 2008 ) This is a concern for The United States, a state that has experienced terrorist act firsthand and 1 that has been targeted straight by terrorist groups such as Al-Qaeda, and when Canada is seen as being soft on terrorist act is a cause for concern to them.
In February 1998, the 40-year-old Saudi expatriate Usamah Bin Ladin ( Osama Bin Ladin ) and a fleeting Egyptian doctor, Ayman al Zawahiri, issued a ‘fatwa ‘ ( an Islamic spiritual edict issued by theA ulema ) to all Muslims. In their Fatwa they claimed that America had declared war against God and his courier. They decreed that the slaying of any American, anyplace on Earth, is the “ single responsibility for every Muslim who can make it, in any state in which it is possible to make it. ” ( Lehrer, ND )
Three months subsequently, when interviewed in Afghanistan by ABC-TV ‘s John Miller, Bin Ladin elaborated on his fatwa. He claimed it was more of import for Muslims to kill Americans than to kill other heathens. “ It is far better for anyone to kill a individual American soldier than to waste his attempts on other activities, ” he said. Asked by the newsman whether he approved of terrorist act and of onslaughts on civilians, he replied: ” We believe that the worst stealers in the universe today and the worst terrorists are the Americans. Nothing could halt you except possibly revenge in sort. We do non hold to distinguish between military or civilian. Equally far as we are concerned, they are all marks. ( Miller, 1998 ) , ( Interview Osama Bin Laden, 1998 )
These remarks have far making effects non merely on Americans, but besides many other states around the Earth including Canada which support the United States. Canada has been seen by some experts as being soft on Crime and a oasis for terrorists. After the 9/11 onslaughts, Canada enacted Bill C-36 which was introduced to the Canadian Parliament on October 15, 2001. This act is now called the Anti-Terrorism Act ( ATA ) , which has non been to the full accepted by Canadians and the tribunals and has faced some challenges and unfavorable judgment. Some would reason that the Act and subsequent alterations in the name of National Security was simply enacted to pacify American Authorities. This attack could be seen as is described by ( Miljan, 2008, p. 29 ) as ‘Globalization ‘ in that these Torahs were out of the authorities ‘s control and were influenced by non merely the desire to protect its citizens but besides to run into the construction of establishments of planetary administration. A failure on the portion of our Government could hold resulted in serious economic and political recoil by the United States.
When Bill C-36 the Anti-Terrorism Plan was implemented, it had five clear aims:
to forestall terrorists from acquiring into Canada ;
to protect Canadians from terrorist Acts of the Apostless ;
to convey frontward tools to place, prosecute, inmate and punish terrorists ;
to maintain the Canada-U.S. boundary line secure and unfastened to legalize trade ; and
to work with the international community to convey terrorists to justness and turn to the root causes of terrorist act.
( Foreign Affairs and International Trade Canada, 2003 )
This act was meant to be seen as directing a message to the United States, that Canada was serious about covering with terrorist act and assisting its neighbour and ally. However, it has besides been viewed by some as traveling against the Charter which is the jurisprudence of our Land and the really cloth of what Canada stands for.
What has resounded since the events of September 11, 2001 has been echoed throughout the universe. The ‘Attack on Terrorism ‘ has been used as a pretense in the sentiment of some to let states to utilize force on other kingdoms and to ordain powers which give authoritiess and governments wide powers at place. These governments aid in beef uping security and safety, yet the inquiry remains, at what cost? Has the cost been excessively high, have we given up to much of our freedom which would intend that terrorists have won? We will analyze how the Anti-Terrorist Act emerged and how it is viewed and evolved.
Canada has made readjustments on its policies and Torahs towards terrorist act post the 9/11 onslaught. K. Roach contextualizes the policy readjustments in footings of Canada ‘s geographical dealingss with the US. Roach explains that Canada ‘s close propinquity with the US makes it more vulnerable to terrorist act and an easy mark for accusals that it cuddles terrorists. The ATA ( Anti-terrorist Act ) is the chief revamp on Canada ‘s attack to terrorist act. Before the debut of ATA, Canada had relied chiefly on Criminal and Immigration Torahs. Under the ATA there is a wide definition or range of terrorist act compared to the I.R.P.A. ( Immigration and Refugee Protection Act ) and that under the ATA, a Public Safety Act has been enacted. The definition under ATA is as follows:
( a ) an act or skip, in or outside Canada,
( I ) that is committed
( A ) in whole or in portion for a political, spiritual or ideological intent, nonsubjective or cause, and
( B ) in whole or in portion with the purpose of intimidating the populace, or a section of the populace, with respect to its security, including its economic security, or obliging a individual, a authorities or a domestic or an international organisation to make or to forbear from making any act, whether the individual, authorities or organisation is inside or outside Canada, and
( two ) that is intended
to do decease or serious bodily injury to a individual by the usage of force,
( B ) to jeopardize a individual ‘s life,
( C ) to do a serious hazard to the wellness or safety of the populace or any section of the populace,
( D ) to do significant belongings harm, whether to public or private belongings, if doing such harm is likely to ensue in the behavior or injury referred to in any of clauses ( A ) to ( C ) and ( E ) , or
( Tocopherol ) to do serious intervention with or serious break of an indispensable service, installation or system, whether public or private, other than as a consequence of lawful protagonism, protest, dissent or arrest of work that does non affect an activity that is intended to ensue in the behavior or injury referred to in any of clauses ( A ) to ( C ) ,
and includes a confederacy, effort or menace to perpetrate any such act or skip, or being an accoutrement after the fact or guidance in relation to any such act or skip, but, for greater certainty, does non include an act or skip that is committed during an armed struggle and that, at the clip and in the topographic point of its committee, is in conformity with customary international jurisprudence or conventional international jurisprudence applicable to the struggle, or the activities undertaken by military forces of a province in the exercising of their official responsibilities, to the extent that those activities are governed by other regulations of international jurisprudence.
( B ) `terrorist group ” agencies
( a ) an entity that has as one of its intents or activities easing or transporting out any terrorist activity, or
( B ) a listed entity,
and includes an association of such entities.
( degree Celsius ) For the intents of this Part, a terrorist activity is facilitated whether or non
( a ) the facilitator knows that a peculiar terrorist activity is facilitated ;
( B ) any peculiar terrorist activity was foreseen or planned at the clip it was facilitated ; or
( degree Celsius ) any terrorist activity was really carried out.
( Department of Justice Canada, 2009 )
Some advocates favour the new and improved ATA over Canada ‘s inordinate trust on condemnable and in-migration Torahs, which in their positions tend to step on due procedure and the rights of the accused. ( Roach, 2005, pp. 511-533 )
‘Understanding & A ; Reacting to the terrorist Phenomena, ‘ this study brings to attending that Canadian response to terrorist act does non affect a individual strand but is a tangle of issues. One of the complexnesss it presents is the trouble of specifying what constitutes terrorist act. Although the ATA sets the standards, terrorist act remains a fluid and encompasses excessively many possibilities ( ex. Based on the definition, a spiritual group protesting in the streets may be considered a terrorist ) . Hanniman, the writer of this study, expounds the complex Canadian response to terrorist act and provinces that there should be cooperation between authorities and the populace. The National Security Policy reflects the multi-faceted terrorist act response Hanniman is speaking approximately, as it tries to protect the state and its occupants from terrorist onslaughts and guarantee that Canada does non go place to terrorists. ( Hanniman, A community based multi-faceted response to the terrorist menace in Canada, pp. 313-325 ) This could be seen in what is outlined in the Marxist theory, where certain categories of people could be targeted. In this, we see many Muslim and Middle Eastern communities which have lower socio-economic and political standing will have on the brunt of these new Torahs. ( Miljan, 2008, p. 26 ) . The article is an appraisal on how Canada is making in its anti-terrorism command. The chief point of the paper: Canada is non doing good in its efforts to better the defence against terrorist act. Harmonizing to CSIS, ( Canadian Intelligence Security Service ) despite attempts to convey down terrorist incidents since September 2001, deficient grounds demonstrates a diminution in the figure of terrorist groups ( ex. Hezbollah, Tamil Tigers, Kurdistan Worker ‘s Party ( PKK ) , which proliferated in the 90s. Collacott discloses that the root cause of the weaknesss of Canada and that is the slack execution of ATA is the root cause of Canada ‘s weaknesss. As grounds, the writer remarks that, there exists no prohibition on terrorist groups and surveillances outnumber apprehensions. The US is cognizant of this job and expresses concern, as it fears that Canada may be a launching tablet for terrorist act. ( Collacott, 2006 )
There are downsides to Canada ‘s anti-terrorism policies and Torahs among which are the maltreatment of human rights and curtailment of freedom. The article focuses on the abhorrent side to the war on terrorist act as it tells the personal narrative of Suleyman Goven who claimed to be psychologically tortured by CSIS after being accused of being portion of Kurdistan Workers Party. The article besides slams Bill-C42 ( Secure Flight plan ) which demands air hoses to supply names of riders if it lands or flies over a province. Critics argue this violates the right to privateness. ( Liem, 2011 )
Reid Morden, a former CSIS head, condemns the reintroduction of two anti terrorist act steps into the ATA, which are the pre-emptive apprehension of suspected terrorists sans warrant of apprehension followed by a three-day detainment and the forced visual aspect of informants before a justice as the latter demands information on a terrorist or terrorist group. ( CBC News, 2010 )
This digest of interviews tackles the impact of the 2001 anti-terrorism act. The papers points out civil autonomies which can be undermined because of the measure. ( ex. specific groups and organisations ( ex. Arab and Muslim Canadians ) can go easy marks ) . The deficiency of full cogent evidence answerability mechanism is one other job to ATA. The papers besides summarizes the factors, which makes Canada vulnerable to terrorist act ( porous US boundary line and Canada ‘s engagement in the Afghan war ) . ( Department of Justice Canada, 2010 )
Due to modernisation and the new menaces of terrorist act, we have become a hazard society, wherein the traditional ways of reacting to threats no longer use ; therefore control is non in the manus of citizens. In this scenario, the writer justifies the usage of force and inhibitory actions as he states “ aˆ¦in order to cut down the menace of terrorismaˆ¦we may commit a legal government that is inhibitory of civil autonomies ” . ( Schneiderman, 2002, p. 70 )
Harmonizing to the ICLMG study, certain facets of Canada ‘s anti-terrorism policies and Torahs violate certain articles of ICCPR ( International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights ) every bit good as the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedom. ( Tasse & A ; Allmand, 2008 )
The names Atta, Al-Shehhi and Al-Hazni some of the work forces associated to September 11, 2001 have effected what terrorists have desired all along, FEAR. Canada along with many other states have had to curtail autonomy in certain locales and conditions with an attempt to battle the menace of terrorist act. There will ever be contention in the stairss taken, with some reasoning that the Torahs do non travel far plenty and with others claiming it has gone excessively far. Based upon the events of the past decennary or so, it is non a affair of ‘IF ‘ Canada will see the same types of events as the United States but ‘WHEN ‘ . Will all the steps that have been taken or non taken topographic point be plenty? Did Canada truly think through its attack to terrorist act, or was it merely a articulatio genus dork reaction to pacify the United States, merely clip will state.