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A complex is a stuff made from two or more different component stuffs holding different physical or chemical belongingss which do non unify in the coating construction i.e. the single components retain their belongingss. Nowadays, natural fibre complexs have gained increasing involvement due to their eco-friendly belongingss. A batch of research work has been done by the research workers in this field. Natural fibres are possible options for unreal fibres. The composite stuffs exist long before we came to cognize about its whereabouts and most significantly its significance. Wood is a complex of cellulose fibres in a matrix of lignin. The most crude semisynthetic composite stuffs were straw and clay combined to organize bricks used for structural intents. Silk has been an of import cloth in the fabrics industry due to its lustre and brilliant mechanical belongingss. Silk narration is easy available as the waste merchandise of fabric industry, so the complex is cost effectual and perfect use of waste merchandise.

1.2 DEFINITIONS OF COMPOSITES

A typical composite stuff is a system of stuffs composing of two or more stuffs, assorted and bonded on a macroscopic graduated table. Generally, a composite stuff is composed of support ( fibres, atoms, flakes, and / or fillers ) embedded in a matrix ( polymers, metals, or ceramics ) . The matrix stuff environments and supports the support stuffs by keeping their comparative places. The supports impart their particular mechanical and physical belongingss to heighten the matrix belongingss. The matrix holds the support to organize the coveted form while the support improves the overall mechanical belongingss of the matrix. The composite stuffs are supposed to transport the advantageous belongingss of all the components used to manufacture it. There are a few definitions proposed by assorted research workers.

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As defined by Javitz, “ Complexs are multifunctional stuff systems that provide characteristic non gettable from any distinct stuff. They are cohesive constructions made by physically uniting two or more compatible stuffs, different in composing and features and sometimes in signifier ” .

Kelly really clearly stresses that “ the composing should non be regarded simple as a combination of two stuffs. In the broader significance ; the combination has ain typical belongingss. In footings of strength or opposition to heat or some other desirable quality, it is better than either of the constituents entirely or radically different from either of them. ”

Berghezan defines as “ the complexs are compound stuffs which different from alloys by the fact that the single constituents retain their features but are so incorporated into the composite as to take advantage merely of their properties and non of their defects ‘ , in order to obtain an improved stuff. ”

Van suchetclan explains “ composite stuffs as heterogenous stuffs dwelling of two or more solid stages which are in intimate contact with each other on a microscopic graduated table. They can be besides considered as homogenous stuffs on a microscopic graduated table in the sense that any part of it will hold the same physical belongings complex. ”

1.3 CHARACTERISTICS OF THE COMPOSITES

Complexs are the stuffs which consist of one or more discontinuous stages embedded in a uninterrupted stage. The discontinuous stage is called as “ support ” which is normally harder and stronger than the uninterrupted stage, where as the uninterrupted stage is termed as the “ matrix ” .

1.3.1 Properties of composite

The followers are some of the belongingss of composite stuffs for which they are widely used:

The strength of the fibres and matrix interface important in finding the belongingss of the complexs.

The interfacial bond strength must be sufficient plenty for the burden to be transferred from the matrix to the fibres.

The interface must non be so strong that it does non neglect for improved stamina of the complexs.

Volume fractions of the complexs play a important function in finding belongingss. It is regarded as the most of import parametric quantity for finding the belongingss of the complexs.

Homogeneity is besides an of import feature that determines the extent to which a stuff may differ in physical and mechanical belongingss from the mean belongingss of the stuff.

The symmetry of the system is affected by the orientation of the support of the matrix in the complexs.

1.4 CLASSIFICATION OF COMPOSITES

Composite stuffs can be classified on the footing of different properties in assorted ways. In general there are two stages in a composite stuff. One is the primary stage called matrix which keeps the secondary stage, the support undamaged from the external forces. Based on the type of secondary stage the complexs are loosely classified into three classs. They are as follows:

Fiber reinforced composite stuff

Flake reinforced composite stuff

Particle reinforced composite stuff

Based on the matrix stuff, the complexs can be loosely classified into three classs. They are as follows:

Metal Matrix Composites

Polymer Matrix Composites

Ceramic Matrix Composites

PARTICLE-REINFORCED Complexs

Particle reinforced complexs consist of atoms of one stuff dispersed in the matrix of 2nd stuff. The atoms may be of any form and size. By and large the atoms are spherical, polyhedral, spheroidal, or guerrilla in form. The atoms which are incorporated into the matrix may be treated with chemicals or can be applied untreated. The atoms are frequently used to better the strength of the stuffs, modify the electrical and thermic conduction, cut down clash, addition wear and scratch opposition, better machinability and cut down shrinking.

Atom complexs are of two types. They are:

Complexs with random orientation of fibres

Complexs with preferable orientation of fibres

FIBER- REINFORCED COMPOSITES

A fibre is defined by its length which is much larger as compared to its cross-section. Fibers improve the break opposition of the matrix as a support holding a long dimension inhibits the growing of inchoate clefts normal to the support which might otherwise take to failure of the complexs. These are high public presentation fibre complexs made by cross linking of cellulosic fibre molecules with rosins in the stuff matrix. Fiber reinforcement enhances the strength and modulus of snap of the complexs. Hence it is necessary for the fibres to posses ‘ higher modulus than the matrix stuff, so that the burden is transferred to the fibre from the matrix more efficaciously. It is widely used in out-of-door deck floors, railings, fencings, landscaping lumbers, cladding and siding, park benches, modeling and spare, window and door frames, and indoor furniture.

These are complexs are once more classified into two groups based on the length of fibres used. They are as follows:

Continuous Fiber reinforced complexs

Discontinuous Fiber reinforced complexs

Continuous fibre reinforced complexs have uninterrupted fibres and they do non hold discontinuity which is different from the discontinuous fibre reinforced complexs. The discontinuous fibre reinforced complexs are once more of two types viz. aligned FRCs and random FRCs ( based on orientation of fibres ) .

Fig 1: Categorization of complexs

Fig 2: Categorization of complexs

1.5 NATURAL FIBER COMPOSITES

Natural fibre has attracted the attending of research workers worldwide as a possible support for complexs because of their easy handiness, easy procedure ability, low denseness, light weight, non abrasivity, and lower cost and eco-friendly features like segregation of C dioxide ( decrease of nursery consequence ) . The silk fibre produced by spiders, silkworms, Scorpios, touchs and flies may hold different composing, construction and stuff belongingss depending upon the specific beginning. These defects can be avoided by whirling under controlled conditions to bring forth unvarying cross-sectional country of silk fibre. Replacement of fibreglass with natural fibres removes concerns about the lung disease caused by the former which is a great measure towards sustainable development. These fibres are carnal or works merchandises ; the latter are basically micro-composites consisting of cellulose fibres in an formless matrix of lignin and hemi cellulose. Cotton, jute, silk, wool, hemp and sisal are some of the natural fibre complexs.

FIBER REINFORCED POLYMER COMPOSITES

These consist of polymer matrix embedded with high strength fibres. These are the most advanced complexs that are used.

Some of the characteristics of FRPCs are as follows:

Low cost

Simple Fabrication methods

High tensile strength

High stiffness

Good scratch, puncture and corrosion opposition

Good weariness strength

Restrictions of FRPCs are as follows:

Low operating temperature

Low thermal and wet opposition

High coefficient of thermic enlargement

Low elastic belongingss in cross way

1.6 COMPONENTS OF A COMPOSITE MATERIAL

1.6.1 Matrix Materials

The primary stage holding a uninterrupted character is called matrix. Matrix is normally more malleable and less difficult stage. It holds the spread stage and portions a burden with it. Matrix is composed of any of the three stuff types- polymers, metals or ceramics. The matrix forms the bulk signifier of the portion or the merchandise.

Most of the stuffs when they are in a hempen from show really good strength belongingss. In order to accomplish these belongingss the fibres must be bonded by suited matrix. The matrix separates one fibre from the other in order to forestall wear and scratch. It besides prevents the formation of new surface defects and holds the fibres in topographic point. A good matrix is one which possesses the ability to deform easy under applied burden, reassign the burden into the fibres and administer the emphasis concentrations equally. The natural fibres are embedded in a biopolymeric matrix system which serves the intent of keeping the fibres together thereby stabilising the form of the composite construction. This helps to convey the shear forces between the automatically high quality fibres, and to protect them against radiation and external forces. Polymers are classified into two classs viz. thermosets and thermoplastics. Both these assortments are suited for usage as matrix in the bio complexs. There are big figure of ways of modifying the matrices. So it is indispensable that the stuffs for matrix are chosen harmonizing to the demands. The standard for taking a suited matrix system for high public presentation building stuffs are the temperature in which it is to be used, sum of mechanical lading under consideration, fabricating engineering followed, etc. An of import standard for the choice of matrix is its adequately low viscousness for a good impregnation of the reinforcing fibres.

1.6.2 Support

The secondary stage is embedded in the matrix in a discontinuous signifier. The spread stage is normally harder and stronger than the uninterrupted stage and is called support. It serves to beef up the complexs and improves the overall mechanical belongingss of the matrix.

The chief intent of the support in complexs is chiefly bettering the mechanical belongingss of the neat rosin system. The assortments of fibres used in complexs have different belongingss and hence impart different belongingss to the complexs. For a big figure of applications, the fibres are needed to be arranged in a signifier of sheet called cloth to ease the handling procedure. The fibres can be oriented in different substitutions and combinations so as to accomplish different features of the complexs.

Chapter 2

LITERATURE SURVEY

LITERATURE SURVEY

Since the past few decennaries, involvements of research workers and applied scientists have been switching from traditional bulky stuffs to fiber strengthened polymer-based stuffs due to their uniqueness such as high strength to burden ratio, non-corrosive belongings and high break stamina. Recently natural fibres are used as a replacement for man-made fibre such as glass ; the primary ground being its advantages such as renewability, low denseness and high specific strength. These composite stuffs consisted of high strength fibres such as C, glass and aramid, and low strength polymeric matrix. Now they have dominated in assorted sectors e.g. , the aerospace, leisure, automotive, building and featuring industries. Unfortunately, these fibres have serious drawbacks such as non-renewability, can non be recycled, tend to devour big sum of energy during fabricating procedure, are non-biodegradable and wellness jeopardies caused due to inhaling. Biodegradation is the chemical dislocation of stuffs by the action of life beings which leads to alterations in physical belongingss. It is a construct of huge range, pealing form decomposition of environmental wastes affecting micro-organisms to host-induced of biomaterials.

It has been found that glass fiber-reinforced complexs are used at big for old ages together because of their low cost and moderate strength to supply structural stableness in assorted state of affairss. Now a yearss, the most concerning issue is the serious environmental job caused by the widespread usage of glass fibres. Due to the strong accent on environmental awareness these yearss, research workers are most interested in the replacement for these fibres that are reclaimable every bit good as environment friendly. Keeping in position the environmental statute law and the increasing consumer demands of stuffs, the industries in United States produce stuffs and merchandises by practising the 4Rs which are

Reduce the toxicity

Reuse merchandises

Repair what is broken

Recycle every bit much as possible

There has been a dramatic addition in usage of natural fibres such as foliages from flax, jute, hemp, Ananas comosus and sisal as support in recent old ages for doing environment friendly complexs. These recent surveies have examined molding status, mechanical belongingss and interfacial bonding. With the increasing planetary energy crisis and environmental hazard, works based fiber strengthened polymer complexs have attracted the attending of research workers towards them as they are the possible options for unreal fibre complexs, like glass and C. Although the strength of such fibres are lower than that of the general traditional advanced complexs but is sufficient plenty for domestic and family merchandises. Many efforts have been done in the past few old ages on utilizing jute, bamboo, sisal, coir, hemp, flax, Ananas comosus foliages, etc. , for reenforcing different sorts of thermoplastic and thermoset polymers to organize green complexs. These fibres are more often used and studied due to their natural copiousness, cost effectivity, one-year production rate and broad scope of belongingss. A big figure of literatures have been reported on complexs based on works based natural fibres. Animal based natural fibre complexs have been seldom reported.

Animal based natural fibres can besides be used as options for bring forthing biodegradable and environment friendly composite stuffs for bio-engineering and medical applications. The contents of these fibres are chiefly made by proteins, like wool, spider and silkworm silk. The silk fibres are environmentally stable as compared to the proteins because of their extended H bonding.

Silk fibres ( Bombyx mori ) spun out from silkworm cocoons consists of fibroin in the interior bed and sericin in the outer bed. Each natural silk yarn has a lengthwise striation, dwelling of two fibroin fibrils of 10-14 lm each embedded in sericin. The chemical composings are, in general, silk fibroin of 75-83 % , sericin of 17-25 % , waxes of approximately 1.5 % , and others of approximately 1.0 % by weight. Silk fibres are biodegradable and extremely crystalline with well-aligned construction. It has been known that they besides have higher tensile strength than glass fibre or man-made organic fibres, good snap, and first-class resiliency. Silk fibre is usually stable up to 140 0C and the thermic decomposition temperature is greater than 1500 C. The densenesss of silk fibers are in the scope of 1320-1400 kg/m3 with sericin and 1300-1380 kg/m3 without sericin. Silk fibers are besides commercially available in a uninterrupted fiber type.

Sang Muk Lee, Donghwan Cho, Won Ho Park, Seung Goo Lee, Seong Ok Han, Lawrence T. Drzal studied that fresh short silk fiber ( Bombix mori ) reinforced poly ( butylenes succinate ) bio-composites have been prepared with changing fibre contents by a compaction modeling method. The mechanical and thermic belongingss have been studied in footings of tensile and flexural belongingss, thermic stableness, thermic enlargement, dynamic mechanical belongingss, and microscopic observations. The consequences show that chopped silk fibers play a important function as support for bettering the mechanical belongingss of PBS in the present system. However natural silk fibers are used without any surface alteration which is usually done to better the interfacial bonding between the natural fiber and the matrix. The tensile and flexural belongingss of PBS matrix rosin are markedly improved with increasing the short fiber content in the complexs, demoing a maximal value at a fibre burden of 50 wt % .

The consequence of surface intervention on the inter-laminar break stamina of silk/epoxy complex has been studied by Maryam, Che, Ahmad, Abu Bakar. The multilayer woven silk/epoxy complexs were produced by vacuity bagging procedure. The silk beds was increased from 8-14. Two sets of samples were prepared. In the first set, the surface of the complex was treated with silane based matching agent and in the 2nd intervention there was no surface intervention. Both the samples were tested for manner I inter laminal break utilizing dual cantilever beams ( DCB ) proving method. It was found that the inter laminar break stamina of set I was higher than that of set II. Besides it was observed that the inter laminar break stamina goes on increasing as the figure of silk fibres is increased.

Raghu, Noorunnisa Khanam and S.Venkaita Naidu prepared chemical immune complex. This showed disconnected betterment in the silk fibre epoxy laminate. Hand lay up technique was used to fix both untreated and alkali treated silk-sisal unsaturated polyester-based intercrossed complexs. The chemical opposition of these intercrossed complexs to assorted acids and base was studied.

S.Padam Priya, S.K.Rai studied the assorted belongingss of the waste silk reinforced fiber complexs and the maximal strength in belongingss determined is observed for the optimal fabric burden.

Properties of Natural Fibers

Property

Jute

Sisal

Bagasse

Coconut

Sugarcane

Tensile Strength ( MPa )

250-350

280-750

20

120-200

170-250

Modulus of snap ( GPa )

26-32

13-26

1.7

19-26

15-29

Elongation at interruption ( % )

1.5-1.9

3-5

10-25

Fiber Diameter ( millimeter )

0.1-0.2

0.24

0.1-0.4

0.2-0.4

Fiber Length ( millimeter )

1800-3000

50-350

50-300

Water Absorption ( % )

60-70

78.5

130-180

70-75

Chapter 3

MATERIALS AND METHODS

3.1 PREPARATION OF COMPOSITE

3.1.1 Natural Materials Used

Polymer

The polymer used in the readying of composite is EPOXY. It is a thermosetting polymer. Because of its high strength, low viscousness and low flow rates, it allows good wetting of fibres and prevents misalignment of fibres during processing. Following are the most outstanding features of epoxy for which it is used.

Low volatility during remedy.

Available in more than 20 classs to run into specific belongings and processing demands.

Excellent adhesion to different stuffs

Great strength and stamina opposition

Chemical and wet resistant.

Excellent electrical insulating belongingss.

Low psychiatrist rates.

SILK FIBER

Both works based fibres and animate being based fibres have become potenstial options for bring forthing biodegradable, biomedical and bio-restorable composite stuffs for biotechnology and medical applications. Cocoons are natural polymeric complex shells made of a individual uninterrupted silk strand with length in the scope of 1000 – 1500 m. This protein bed called sericin resists has a batch of first-class qualities like opposition to oxidization, antibacterial nature, UV beam resistant, and absorbs and releases moisture easy. This protein bed can be cross linked carbon monoxides polymerized and blended with other unreal polymers to bring forth complexs with improved belongingss. In norm, the cocoon production is about 1 million metric tons worldwide, and this is tantamount to 400,000 metric tons of dry cocoon.

HARDENER

In the present work Hardener ( araldite ) HY 951 is used.

3.2 Calculation

For the readying of complexs with different composings of silk fibres and polymer, a unsmooth estimation of volume of silk fibre and polymer was made. The undermentioned computations show the different composings of silk fibre complexs.

Entire Volume of the Sample = 15*20*0.4

= 120 cm3

Entire Mass of the Sample = Volume * Density

= 120*1.4

= 168 g

Table 1: Composition of different samples

S.No.

Weight of Composite ( g )

% of fibre

Weight of silk fibre ( g )

Weight of polymer ( g )

1

168

2

3.36

164.64

2

168

4

6.72

161.28

3

168

6

10.08

157.92

4

168

8

13.44

154.56

3.3 SAMPLE PREPARATION

3.3.1 Mould Preparation

For the sample readying the first and first measure is the readying of the mold which ensures the exact dimension of the composite to be prepared. We have to fix molds for the readying of 2 % , 4 % , 6 % , 8 % fibre of the complex. A clean smooth surfaced wooden board is taken and washed exhaustively. The wooden board was covered with a non-reactive plastic sheet. After that the glass of equal size that of the mold was taken. The glass was placed on the wooden board. Square beads were cut in coveted dimension and were nailed around the glass. These beads must be nailed in such a manner that no polymer leaks out while projecting. The beads are carefully nailed so that the glass does non travel aside which ensures that the dimension of the mold is non distorted. After nailing the beads, the glass was swimmingly taken out go forthing behind the mold.

3.3.2 Silk Yarn Preparation

The natural waste silk narrations collected from the mill mercantile establishments are filled with soil, dust and are aggregated. The silk narrations collected were cleaned exhaustively with H2O and dried. Then the collections are gently dispersed with manus sitting patiently. After that the silk narrations were measured accurately for the readying of different samples.

3.3.3 Polymer-Hardener Mixture Preparation

For the fiction of good complexs the measuring of the components should be accurate and the mixture should be really homogeneous i.e. uniform. First of all accurate sum of polymer along with hardener was measured and assorted. Then this mixture was stirred exhaustively. Hardener must be measured really carefully because an excess sum of hardener can botch the complex.

3.4 Cast

The silk fibres prepared in the above stairss were put on the already designed mold. After seting the silk fibres in the mold, the polymer-hardener mixture was easy poured over it. The silk fibre due to its light weight and high volume gets swelled up. For that ground merely we roll a roller gently till the sample tantrums in the mold. Then we cover the sample with a non-reacting plastic screen and topographic point the glass on it such that no nothingnesss or air spreads leave behind. These nothingnesss weaken the composite and makes proving hard. For the complex of perfect dimension weight should be carefully put above it. Weight should be put in such a manner that no polymer hardener mixture seeps out of the glass. This sample is so left for 24 hours. The composite gets dried up in 72 hours in which the silk fibre and the polymers adheres itself tightly in the presence of hardener. After a twenty-four hours we put out the weights. Then the nailed beads are removed from the wooden board. Now we have the composite attached with the glass. The hardener has so strong consequence that it attaches the glass with the complex. This fond regard is easy and gently hammered on the boundary of its fond regard when the glass and the composite separate out. Then we see whether any unsought nothingnesss are left behind. We fill the nothingnesss with polymer and the sample is prepared. Then the samples were cut into coveted dimensions for experimental intents depending on the criterions.

Fig 3: Hand layup technique used for sample readying

3.5 EROSION Wear

The progressive loss of stuff from its surface is called wear. It is the response of the stuff to the external stimulation and can be mechanical and chemical in nature. Wear is an unwanted phenomenon that takes topographic point on the surface of the stuff and its effects on the dependability of industrial constituents is recognized widely ; besides, the cost of wear has besides been recognized to be high. The attempts in wear research were started around in 1960s in industries. The direct costs of wear failures, such as replacings of wear parts, increased work and clip due to have on, decrease in productiveness, every bit good as indirect losingss of energy and the increased environmental load, are the major jobs in mundane work and concern. In ruinous failures, there is possible menace to human lives. Although wear has been extensively studied scientifically, legion wear jobs exist in the industrial applications in the twenty-first century. This really reveals the complexness of the wear phenomenon

A typical wear manner named as solid atom eroding wear is defined as the loss of stuffs from the surface by the perennial encroachment of little solid atoms. Solid atom eroding is an utile phenomenon in sand blasting and high velocity scratchy H2O jet cutting but in enginnering systems like steam jets and turbines, grapevines and valves these cause serious jobs. Solid atom eroding is expected to take topographic point when difficult atoms entrained in gas or liquid medium impinge on the solid surface at a important speed. Complexs are frequently used as technology and structural constituents where erosive wear takes topographic point. The survey of eroding wear features of silk fibre complexs is extremely indispensable due to their operational demands.

3.6 EROSION WEAR TEST APPARATUS

Description of equipments

Major parts of air-jet eroding trial rig are:

Sand hopper.

Sand flow control boss.

Sand nozzle height accommodation

Vibrator tablet, pneumatic type

Conveyor belt system

Blending chamber funnel

Specimen keeping warmer blocks, specimen form and indexing unit

Double phonograph record assembly motor, upper phonograph record units slit, lower phonograph record without slit.

Dust roll uping unit

Display panel

Fig 4: Air Jet Erosion Test Rig

Table 2:

2 % composing

Pressure = 1 saloon

Pressure = 2 saloon

Pressure = 3 saloon

angle

90

Initial weight ( g )

Concluding weight ( g )

Difference in weight ( g )

Initial weight ( g )

Concluding weight ( g )

Differencein weight ( g )

Initial weight ( g )

Concluding weight ( g )

Difference in weight ( g )

3.43

3.41

0.02

2.49

2.47

0.02

2.41

2.39

0.02

3.41

3.40

0.01

2.47

2.46

0.01

2.39

2.36

0.03

3.40

3.39

0.01

2.46

2.45

0.01

2.36

2.34

0.02

3.39

3.39

0.00

2.45

2.45

0.00

2.34

2.31

0.03

3.39

3.38

0.01

2.45

2.44

0.01

2.31

2.29

0.02

angle

60

3.81

3.79

0.02

3.90

3.88

0.02

3.03

3.00

0.03

3.79

3.78

0.01

3.88

3.87

0.01

3.00

2.99

0.01

3.78

3.77

0.01

3.87

3.86

0.01

2.99

2.96

0.03

3.77

3.76

0.01

3.86

3.85

0.01

2.96

2.93

0.03

3.76

3.76

0.00

3.85

3.84

0.01

2.93

2.90

0.03

angle

45

3.69

3.67

0.02

3.70

3.68

0.02

2.90

2.88

0.02

3.67

3.66

0.01

3.68

3.67

0.01

2.88

2.84

0.02

3.66

3.65

0.01

3.67

3.66

0.01

2.84

2.81

0.03

3.65

3.64

0.01

3.66

3.65

0.01

2.81

2.80

0.01

3.64

3.63

0.01

3.65

3.64

0.01

2.80

2.78

0.02

4 % composing

angle

90

3.82

3.80

0.02

3.43

3.40

0.03

3.38

3.35

0.03

3.80

3.79

0.01

3.40

3.38

0.02

3.35

3.33

0.02

3.79

3.78

0.01

3.38

3.37

0.01

3.33

3.31

0.02

3.78

3.77

0.01

3.37

3.35

0.02

3.31

3.30

0.01

3.77

3.76

0.01

3.35

3.33

0.02

3.30

3.28

0.02

angle

60

3.65

3.63

0.02

4.48

4.45

0.03

3.46

3.42

0.04

3.63

3.62

0.01

4.45

4.42

0.03

3.42

3.39

0.03

3.62

3.61

0.01

4.42

4.39

0.03

3.39

3.37

0.02

3.61

3.61

0.00

4.39

4.37

0.02

3.37

3.36

0.01

3.61

3.60

0.01

4.37

4.34

0.03

3.36

3.33

0.03

angle

45

2.90

2.88

0.02

3.78

3.76

0.02

3.61

3.55

0.06

2.88

2.87

0.01

3.76

3.74

0.02

3.55

3.52

0.03

2.87

2.86

0.01

3.74

3.71

0.03

3.52

3.48

0.04

2.86

2.85

0.01

3.71

3.69

0.02

3.48

3.45

0.03

2.85

2.84

0.01

3.69

3.67

0.02

3.45

3.42

0.03

6 % composing

angle

90

4.20

4.18

0.02

4.27

4.25

0.02

6.19

6.15

0.04

4.18

4.16

0.02

4.25

4.24

0.01

6.15

6.12

0.03

4.16

4.15

0.01

4.24

4.23

0.01

6.12

6.10

0.02

4.15

4.13

0.02

4.23

4.22

0.01

6.10

6.07

0.03

4.13

4.11

0.02

4.22

4.21

0.01

6.07

6.04

0.03

angle

60

4.24

4.23

0.01

3.80

3.78

0.02

6.32

6.29

0.03

4.23

4.21

0.02

3.78

3.77

0.01

6.29

6.23

0.06

4.21

4.20

0.01

3.77

3.76

0.01

6.23

6.20

0.03

4.20

4.19

0.01

3.76

3.76

0.00

6.20

6.17

0.03

4.19

4.17

0.02

3.76

3.75

0.01

6.17

6.14

0.03

angle

45

6.46

6.44

0.02

4.50

4.47

0.03

4.01

3.96

0.05

6.44

6.43

0.01

4.47

4.45

0.02

3.96

3.93

0.03

6.43

6.42

0.01

4.45

4.44

0.01

3.93

3.90

0.03

6.42

6.41

0.01

4.44

4.42

0.02

3.90

3.88

0.02

6.41

6.40

0.01

4.42

4.40

0.02

3.88

3.85

0.03

8 % composing

angle

90

6.70

6.69

0.01

5.90

5.88

0.02

6.90

6.88

0.02

6.69

6.68

0.01

5.88

5.87

0.01

6.88

6.87

0.01

6.68

6.67

0.01

5.87

5.86

0.01

6.87

6.86

0.01

6.67

6.67

0.00

5.86

5.84

0.02

6.86

6.84

0.02

6.67

6.66

0.01

5.84

5.83

0.01

6.84

6.82

0.02

angle

60

6.14

6.12

0.02

6.69

6.68

0.01

6.28

6.24

0.04

6.12

6.11

0.01

6.68

6.67

0.01

6.24

6.21

0.03

6.11

6.10

0.01

6.67

6.66

0.01

6.21

6.19

0.02

6.10

6.09

0.01

6.66

6.65

0.01

6.19

6.17

0.02

6.09

6.07

0.02

6.65

6.64

0.01

6.17

6.14

0.03

angle

45

6.09

6.08

0.01

6.84

6.83

0.01

6.45

6.42

0.03

6.08

6.07

0.01

6.83

6.80

0.03

6.42

6.39

0.03

6.07

6.07

0.00

6.80

6.80

0.00

6.39

6.37

0.02

6.07

6.06

0.01

6.80

6.78

0.02

6.37

6.34

0.03

6.06

6.05

0.01

6.78

6.76

0.02

6.34

6.30

0.04

Chapter 4

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Chapter 5

Decision

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