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This chapter will analyze updated literature on determiners, motives and barriers of export public presentation in little Nigerian houses. As mentioned in chapter one, export concern is an of import concern worldwide. It is critical to analyze bing researches to accomplish the research inquiries, purposes and aims. The literature is reviewed to derive the context of replying the research inquiry of “ what are the factors that determine export public presentation of little Nigerian houses ” , “ what actuate export public presentation of Nigeria little houses and “ what are the barriers to export public presentation of little houses in Nigeria ” ?

A figure of researches had been done to place Nigeria ‘s SME { Small and medium endeavors } ( Ayanda & A ; Laraba, 2011 ; Aremu 2010 ; Okpara & A ; Wynn, 2007 ) , export concern in Nigeria ( Opara, 2010 ; Esu & A ; Awara, 2010 ; Edozien, 2010 ; Onafowora & A ; Owoye, 2008 ) , deciding, motives and barriers of export public presentation ( Leonidou, 2004 ; Czinkota, 1994 ; Diamantopoulos, 1999 ; Zou & A ; Stan 1998 ; Leonidou et al. , 2007 ; Stewart & A ; McAuley, 1999 ) individually but this research linked all to accomplish meaningful consequence.

This literature reappraisal is divided into five parts. The first portion includes a reappraisal of little and average concerns in Nigeria. The 2nd portion involves export concern in Nigeria. The 3rd, 4th and 5th parts are narrowed down to the research inquiries which include the determiner, motive and barriers of export public presentation.

The export barriers are in several signifiers and are subjected to different phases of export public presentation which includes internal and external barriers. The export motive is besides divided into different classs. The inside informations of the literature reappraisal on the assorted sorts of export determiners, motives and barriers are discussed below.

Wide ranges of research have been reviewed and each of the research includes qualitative and quantitative research documents.

Small and Medium concern in Nigeria

Small and medium concerns in developed and developing states have led and will go on to take to many important benefits and development of economic system such as employment coevals, increased degree of modernisation, distribution of income etc. Small and medium concern in Nigeria was discovered in 1946, when the developmental demands of Nigerians were identified ( Ayanda & A ; Laraba, 2011 ) . Small and medium concern in Nigeria is seen as relief of poorness, unemployment decrease, engine for making and developing entrepreneurial qualities ( Aremu, 2010 ) . As the concern environment in Nigeria alterations continuously due to technological inventions and globalization procedure, little and medium concern are forced to seek for new competitory advantage to increase and keep market places. The addition part of little and medium concern sectors in Nigeria ‘s export portfolio aid in making foreign exchange and cut downing the unfavorable status of balance of payment ( Aremu, 2004 ) . SMEs in Nigeria have adopted structural accommodation programme which the larger houses refuse to follow in order to make full the supply spread ( Olorunshola, 2003 ) .

States in the universe have different definition for sorting little and medium concern sectors. Each of the definitions depends on the policies and demand that governs the little and medium concern. Most states base their definition on the three factors which include ; volume of production or concern turnover, capital investing on works machinery and figure of staffs employed ( Aremu, 2004 ) .

“ In 1990, the Federal Government of Nigeria defined little graduated table endeavors for the intent of commercial loan as those endeavors with one-year turnover non transcending N500, 000 and for merchandiser loan as those for the intent of commercial loan as those endeavors with capital investing non transcending N2 million ( excepting cost of land or a upper limit of N5 million ) ” . Besides the “ Central Bank of Nigeria in its pecuniary policies round No. 22 of 1988 position little graduated table industry are those endeavors which has one-year turnover non transcending 500,000 naira ” ( CBN ; 1988 ) .

The cardinal bank of Nigeria introduced recognition guidelines in order for little concerns to have loans from commercial Bankss and merchant Bankss. Furthermore, many strategies and developmental fiscal establishments were established to help little concerns in Nigeria such as ; the Nigerian industrial development bank, World Bank SME, Nigerian bank of commercialism and industry, Nigerian export-import bank to promote export loans to little concerns and Nigeria export publicity council to administrate export responsibilities ( Okpara & A ; Wynn, 2007 ) .

Some of the grounds why most of the little and medium concern dice in Nigeria is because of unequal market research, deficient capital, unequal substructures, deficiency of focal point, rawness, deficiency of concern schemes, deficiency of proper book maintaining and records, inability to divide concern and household ( Brasil, 2005 ) . The above job of little and medium concern in Nigeria is similar to other developing states.

2.3 Export Business in Nigeria

The importance of export concern in Nigerian economic system has been seen as an agent of development. Historically, export concern in Nigeria chiefly focuses on excavation, traditional agribusiness and other similar merchandises before the find of rough oil ( crude oil ) in 1950s ( Opara, 2010 ) . During this period, the authorities grosss rely strongly on revenue enhancements on exports ( Osuntogun et al. , 1997 ) . Between 1960 and 1970, agricultural trade goods mostly sustained the Nigerian economic system export net incomes ( Onafowora & A ; Owoye, 2008 ) . In 1960, the non oil export merchandises provide 85 % of entire export net incomes and 63 % of gross domestic merchandises ( Opara, 2010 ) . Nigeria joined the administration for crude oil exporting states ( OPEC ) in 1970 ( Onafowora & A ; Owoye, 2008 ) . The fabrication, agricultural and oil sector attained a positive GDP growing rate of 5 % per twelvemonth between 1987 and 1992 ( Moser et al. , 1997 ) .

Furthermore, a group of Nigerian expert in 1976 travelled to Japan and South Korea to analyze export policy in both states and through the surveies, Nigerian Export Promotion Council ( NEPC ) was established in 1976 by the authorities to advance authorities policies, proctor and co-ordinate operation of export activities of good and service made in Nigeria ( Edozien, 2010 ) . After the constitution of the Nigerian export publicity council ( NEPC ) , many of the Nigerian houses embraced the demand to export into international market. Nigerian export publicity council registers new entrants into exporting concern in Nigeria ( Esu & A ; Awara, 2010 ) . In 2008, NEPC identified two types of exporters in Nigeria: fabrication exporter ; industry merchandises and at the same clip export merchandises internationally. Second, export merchandiser ; the exporter buys goods from maker domestically and export the merchandise brought internationally ( Esu & A ; Awara, 2010 ) . From the study conducted by Nigerian export publicity council on Nigeria export potencies and foreign market chances, it was identified that Nigeria has comparative advantage to bring forth and provide fabrication and agricultural trade goods non merely to African states but besides to other developed states ( Ogunusi, 1986 ) . Besides Ogwo ( 1998 ) , identified that Nigerian non oil export as market chances to bring forth and provide states such as bomber Saharan Africa, Asia, northern Africa, ECOWAS, European brotherhood, eastern Europe, North and South America, Mediterranean and in-between E. In malice of the chances of Nigeria ‘s export concern, some of the exportation houses face different export barriers.

This research focuses more on the non oil export than the oil export in Nigeria and some of the Nigerian export trade goods of non oil export are in 8 classs which comprise of the followers:






Glass sheets

Carbon black

Drilling equipment

Palm meat etc.

Agricultural COMMODITIES:






Vegetables & A ; oil

Charcoal etc.



Music etc.

Solid Minerals:

Iron ore






Pyrite etc.





Metal carvings

Wood cravings

Talking membranophones



Anti biotics

Anti malaria

Anti pyretics

Anti histamine





Bitter foliage

Yam flour

Land spiny lobster

Land melon

Plantain flour etc.




Sugar cane



Beginning: ( Adeyemi ; 2012 ) Export concern in Nigeria site

Export Performance of Small Firms

Export public presentation is an indispensable usher for any exporting house to analyze its degree of achievement both in place and foreign markets ( Das, 1994 ) . Export public presentation is of great importance to three major groups: authorities, who see exporting as a manner of making employment, assemblage of foreign exchange militias, heightening social prosperity, bettering productiveness and engine for economic growing ( Czinkota, 1994 ; Diamantopoulos, 1999 ) ; concern directors of export houses, who view exporting as a tool for increasing corporate growing, competitory advantage, fiscal public presentation, capacity use and endurance of house in high globalized market ( Kumcu et al. , 1995 ; Samiee & A ; Walter, 1990 ) ; and selling research workers, who see exporting as a promising country for constructing theory in international selling ( Zou & A ; Stan 1998 ) . Export public presentation illustrates the consequence of export behaviors under different environment and organizational status ( Diamantopoulos, 1998 ) .

Another attack to the categorization of export success is to categorise public presentation in footings of non-economic and economic results ( Katsikeas et al. , 2000 ) . Noneconomic results are potentially of involvement to exporting research workers, since they may play cardinal interceding functions in determining economic results. For case, a house ‘s grade of internationalisation is partly a map of the figure of state markets it operates in: houses runing in more state markets may happen they are less vulnerable to fluctuations in demand go oning within single markets, and so may be better able to sit out market dazes. Simultaneously, such houses may be better positioned to capitalise on growing chances originating in markets in which they already operate. Consequently, it would non be unusual for exporters to hold as a formal strategic objective the enlargement of their export operations into new markets, and as a consequence, market enlargement ends might lawfully be translated into non-economic effectiveness steps of export success. From this treatment, one can clearly see that non-economic factors may go of import export public presentation indexs. However, the export public presentation indexs of greatest involvement are the economic steps: these contain sales-related dimensions, such as gross revenues growing and grosss relative to rivals ( market portion ) , and profit-related dimensions, such as net income borders, ratios, and growing tendencies. Ultimately, all profit-oriented concerns are seeking success in footings of economic public presentation dimensions and, justifiably, economic export public presentation indexs receive most research attending. In footings of patterning determiners of export success, economic public presentation indexs are the ultimate endogenous variables, with non-economic indexs playing of import but subservient mediating functions. Economic public presentation indexs can be of the effectivity sort or the efficiency sort, or both at the same time, since the operational differentiation between effectivity and efficiency is frequently obscure ( Oliverira et al, 2012 ) .

Numerous surveies have been conducted on house ‘s export public presentation to place the interrelatednesss among export public presentation determiners. The moral force of these place a theoretical account dwelling three variables: background, step ining and outcome variable ( Axinn, 1994 ; Da Rocha & A ; Christensen, 1994 ; Cavusgil & A ; Zou, 1994 ; Holzmuller & A ; Kasper, 1991 ) .


Background variables Intervening variables Outcome variable

Targeting Marketing factors scheme factors

Export public presentation

Managerial factors Environmental Organisational

factors factors

Beginning: Adopted from ( Katsikeas et al. , 2000 )

The background consists of environmental, organizational and managerial factors that affect export public presentation indirectly ; step ining consist of aiming and selling scheme factors that affect export public presentation straight and outcome variable which consequence to house ‘s export public presentation ( Katsikeas et al. , 2000 ) .

Export public presentation takes different steps and this has been widely explored by many research workers. The measurings of export public presentation are incorporated into three sub dimensions: fiscal public presentation, satisfaction gained and strategic export public presentation ( Zou et al. 1998 ) . Harmonizing to Cavusgil & A ; Zou, ( 1994 ) , the fiscal export public presentation steps include growing, export gross revenues and profitableness. The fiscal step is largely used at the international degree ( Evangelista, 1994 ) . Leonidous et al. , ( 2002 ) argues that measuring export public presentation can be a complex issue because houses do non regularly describe their fiscal inside informations of their exportation activities. Besides, some of the little and average houses may miss proper export accounting mechanisms. Harmonizing to Diamantopoulos & A ; Schlegelmilch, ( 1994 ) , measuring the utility of export public presentation depends on the credibleness of export public presentation steps and utilizing the export public presentation step can be really complicated because export public presentation can be operationalised and conceptualised in many ways. On the other manus, some research suggest utilizing multiple step of export public presentation is wise, to capture the elaborateness of export success ( Cameron, 1986 ; Shoham, 1996 ; Bijmolt & A ; Zwart, 1994 ) .

Determinants of Export Performance

The determiners of export public presentation are of two theoretical attacks ; the resources based paradigm which is classified as the internal factor and the eventuality paradigm, classified as the external factor. The resource based theory is directed on how export house sustain competitory advantage by the alone package of resources ( Conner & A ; Prahalad, 1996 ) . The resource based paradigm indicate out the issue of how better export public presentation can be achieved in relation with other houses in the same market place. It besides suggests that better and increase export public presentation is attained from working and geting the alone resource of houses ( Dhanaraj & A ; Beamish, 2003 ) . Resource based paradigm assumed that export public presentation of a house is based on its size, competences and experience ( Zou & A ; Stan 1998 ) . On the other manus, the eventuality paradigm suggests that export public presentation and house ‘s schemes are influenced by the environmental factors. The theory is rooted in the construction, behavior and public presentation model of the administration and it relies on two parts: the administration may depend on their environment for beginnings ( Pfeffer & A ; Salancik, 1978 ) , and the administration can pull off to develop and keep proper schemes ( Hofer & A ; Schendel, 1978 ) .

The cardinal determiner of export public presentation consists of internal, external unmanageable factors and selling scheme. The internal factor is divided into four parts ; house features and competences, merchandise features, direction features and direction attitudes and perceptual experiences ( Zou & A ; Stan, 1998 ) . The external unmanageable factors are besides divided into three parts ; industry features, domestic market features and foreign market ( Zou & A ; Stan, 1998 ) . The last cardinal determiner of export public presentation which is marketing scheme is made up of the 4Ps ; merchandise version, monetary value version, publicity version and distribution version ( Zou & A ; Stan, 1998 ) .


Selling Scheme

*Product version

* Price version

* Promotion version

* Distribution version

External FACTORS

* Industry features

* Domestic market feature

* Foreign Market


* Firm feature and competences.

* Product feature

* Management feature

* Management attitudes and perceptual experiences

Beginning: ( Zou & A ; Stan, 1998 )

Export Stimulations

Export stimulation is relevant to both direction of a house, particularly little and average house operation and policy shaper. Export stimulations are referred to as attending evokers, motivations and inducements. It besides referred to as those indispensable elements that influence the initial and the prolonging export activities ( Leonidou et al. , 2007 ; Stewart & A ; McAuley, 1999 ) . The nature of export stimulation has seen to hold affected the internationalization of many houses ( Welch & A ; Wiedersheim-Paul, 1980 ) . The exposure of many houses to export stimulations are shown to be organizational larning procedure in which house are able to acquire information needed to spread out ( Tan et al, 2007 ) . The equal maps of export stimulation are controlled by the functions of background variables i.e. the environment, administration and the director ( Leonidou et al. , 2007 ) .

Export stimulation is divided into two parts ; internal and external stimulations. Internal stimulation are factors that influence the endogenous of houses. The internal stimulations are nonsubjective, debatable and rational oriented. The internal stimulations are divided into countries that are functional in the administration such as production, human resources, selling and research and development. External stimulations are factors that influence the environment in which the house operates. The external factors are referred to as the authorities, the competition, the market, the clients, the mediators and assorted ( Leonidou et al. , 2007 ) . Apart from the internal and external factors, export stimulations can besides be classified as proactive ( pull factor ) and reactive ( push factor ) stimulation. Proactive stimulations are the usage of house ‘s involvement to derive market chances into foreign market ( e.g. exceeding direction involvement ) ( Johnston & A ; Czinkota, 1982 ) . The proactive stimulation is besides strategic, deliberate, positive and aggressive oriented. Reactive stimulations are referred to as the response to internal or external force per unit area in export activities ( e.g. high domestic competition ) . The reactive stimulation usage timeserving, tactical and inactive method in come ining the international market place ( Johnston & A ; Czinkota, 1982 ) . Export public presentation of the initial and prolonging export activities can be influence by the internal proactive, external proactive, internal reactive or external reactive ( Albaum et al. , 2004 ) . The measuring of each of the stimulations can be perceived by house ‘s export directors. In the early phase of exporting, houses are influenced by external and reactive factors and in the development phase ; houses are influenced by internal and proactive factors ( Leonidou et al. , 2007 ) . The consequence of the assorted export stimulations is non changeless but alterations from one phase to other ( Czinkota & A ; Johnston, 1981 ; Barker & A ; Kaynak, 1992 ) .


Internal Factors









Export public presentation

External Factors

Market related





Export Marketing Strategy ;

Type of scheme

Beginning: ( Stewart & A ; McAuley ; 1999 )

Export Barriers

An export barrier is described as the internal ( e.g. company attack to export activities and house ‘s resources ) and external ( e.g. place and foreign environment ) constraints that hinder houses from originating and spread outing export activities in the international market ( Leonidou, 2004 ) . The internal export barrier is divided into informational, selling and functional barriers. Informational barrier is referred to as jobs of reaching and placing the foreign market chances due to deficient information ( Morgan & A ; Katsikeas, 1997 ) .

Marketing barrier consist of company ‘s pricing, merchandise, distribution, promotional and logistic. Functional barrier is referred to deficits of working capital, insufficiencies of export directors and deficiency of production capacity ( Leonidou, 2004 ) .

External export barrier is besides broken down into governmental barriers, procedural barriers, environmental barriers and undertaking barriers ( Leonidou, 2004 ) . The barriers of export public presentation are in different signifiers and classs. Harmonizing to Katsikeas & A ; Morgan, ( 1994 ) , export barriers can be internal, external, informational and operational barriers. Furthermore, Leonidou ( 1993 ) , sort export barriers to domestic and foreign barriers. In 1995, export barriers are categorised into four parts ; internal domestic, internal foreign, external domestic and external foreign barriers ( Leonidous, 1995 ) . The internal, external export barrier is referred to as the environment of export houses and domestic, foreign export barrier is referred to as state of export operation, that is export public presentation hinderances come from where the house is situated and in foreign market where the house carryout its export activities ( Leonidous, 1995 ) .

Export barriers can besides take the undermentioned dimensions ; deficiency of strategic resources, exogenic barriers and deficiency of information and cognition of export operations ( Arteaga-Ortiz & A ; Fernandez-Ortiz, 2010 ) . Lack of strategic resources is referred to insufficient managerial accomplishments and capablenesss to run in the international markets. It besides referred to as unequal fiscal resource. Lack of information and cognition are barriers of placing export chances in foreign market and troubles in understanding foreign concern practise and civilizations ( Pinho & A ; Martins, 2010 ; Blomstermo et al. , 2004 ) . Exogenous barriers consist of house ‘s environment. It is hard to announce and command the happening of this barrier ( Leonidou, 2004 ) . This undermentioned dimension of export barriers falls under the internal and external export barriers.

Export barriers can be experienced by three groups of houses: Non exporter ; houses who are non exporting soon but have future potencies. Current exporter ; houses who are soon involved in export concern activities but face barriers in their day-to-day export activities in foreign market. Last, ex-exporters ; consist of houses who used to export in foreign market in the yesteryear ( Leonidou, 2004 ) .






Selling Monetary value


Barrier Logistic

Procedural Promotion


Task Economic

External Environmental Political-Legal


Beginning: ( Leonidou, 1994 )

The nature of export barriers, every bit good as their combine importance and frequence occur otherwise from one phase to another phase ( Bilkey, 1978 ; Ford & A ; Leonidou, 1991 ) . Export barriers during the initial phase of export activities can do inactive or negative attitude toward foreign market operations and besides consequence to entire failure which makes the exporting house withdraw for good from exporting concern ( Leonidou, 2004 ; Wiedersheim-Paul et al. , 1978 ) . Knowing and taking appropriate measure to take or cut down export barriers in the initial and prolonging export phase is really of import to accomplish future success in the foreign markets.

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