Spiritualty is non restricted to the spiritual spheres nor to societal service. It is doing its presence felt in the kingdom of concern excessively. Smarter endeavors are happening originative methods to lasso in spiritualty into the workplace. A new attitude is emerging towards the workplace as a topographic point to carry through one ‘s deeper desires and intent.
The buzz-word of today ‘s concern houses is about ternary bottom line-a committedness to ‘People, Planet and net income ‘ . It clearly means that employees and environment are every bit of import as economic sciences ( 3Es: Employees, Environment, and Economics ) . Leadership initiates would state it ‘s all about conveying spiritualty and religious values into workplace. Corinne McLaughlin ( 2004 ) echoed the above positions in the article titled: ‘Spirituality and Ethical motives in HR’1.
The construct of ‘Spiritual Leadership ‘ in concern has a broad scope of positions. Spirituality in concern is ‘multi-dimensional ‘ as spiritualty in personal life is. The perkiness of spiritualty or religious feeling can be experienced by leaders through different ways ( actions ) as reported by some to Peter Pruzan et al. , ( 2007 ) 2. The wide dimensions of ‘spiritual leading ‘ detailed in this treatise are cited below:
Looking and listening within4
Populate it and Serve5
Balance and grace9
In another collection, edited by Carolyn Barker AM and Alexandra Payne ( 2007 ) 10 ; leaders from diverse back-grounds e.g. , Academia, Industry, Social Activism and Theology have contributed articles emphasizing the following religious dimensions.
Love, Joy and Humanity13
Market as God and work as Religion14
Finding truth in career15
Workplace as a lovingness community16
Spiritualty and love at work17
Jack canfield et Al. ( 2006 ) 18 edited and published a book titled “ Chicken Soup for the Soul at Work ” . The book contains the narratives / experiences explicating the religious niceties in the workplace happenings, as reported by employees of different organisations. The subjects of the different narratives are grouped under the undermentioned headers:
Love at work
The Power of Acknowledgement
Service: Puting New Standards.
Following Heart ( i.e. following one ‘s Heart )
Creativity at work
Get the better ofing Obstacles
In his seminal work, Moid Siddiqui ( 2005 ) 19 references the undermentioned qualities for leading effectivity:
The Power of Purpose
The Practice of Virtue
The Power of Awareness
Ability to See the Big Picture
The Perfect Balance
Knowing Cosmic Truths
Humility as a ‘Leadership Trait ‘
Following the Law of Karma
Ethical motives and Integrity
Purification of the Soul
Belief in a Higher Power.
Kenneth Blanchard and Norman Vincent Peale ( 1988 ) co-authored a book titled: “ The power of Ethical Management ” 20 which stressed the demand of the below mentioned leading qualities for effectivity of organisations:
Clear Conscience / Purpose
Further, the couple pointed out that today ‘s concern conditions require the outgrowth of a ‘new leading paradigm ‘ which is ‘high on rules ‘ . They have besides quoted the stating of Konosuke Matsuhita, Chairman of the Matsuhita Electric Company: “ My primary occupation is to pattern love. I am the psyche of this company. It is through me that our organisation ‘s values pass ” 21.
In their international best marketer, “ In hunt of Excellence ” , Tom Peters and Robert H. Waterman JR ( 2002 ) 22, inter alia speak of “ Hands-On, Value-Driven ” Companies which rose to the place of distinction. After pains-taking research, they have come to the decision that values are at the nucleus of first-class executing companies. They aver that clear uping the value system and take a breathing life into it are the greatest parts a leader can make23.
In the pioneering work, “ The 7 Habits of Highly Effective Peoples ” , Stephen R. Covey ( 2004 ) 24 covers the undermentioned rules:
Stephen covey ‘s thesis revolves round the procedure of internalisation of right rules for digesting success and felicity. He farther cites that the great psychologist Abraham Harold Maslow, towards the terminal of his life, kept ‘Self-transcendence ‘ in front of his theorized highest demand of ‘Self-actualization’25. Abraham Maslow ( 1943 ) arranged the patterned advance of human demands in a ‘hierarchical signifier ‘ from the lowest to the highest. “ Maslow ‘s Hierarchy of Needs ” is placed at Appendix 3.
Deepak Chopra ( 2000 ) , in his masterpiece26, “ The Seven Spiritual Laws of Success ‘ , explains the undermentioned ‘Spiritual Laws ‘ for success in life:
The Law of Pure Potentiality
The Law of Giving
The Law of ‘KARMA ‘ or Cause and Effect
The Law of Least Effort
The Law of Intention and Desire
The Law of Detachment
The Law of “ DHARMA ” or Aim in Life
As per the writer, true success is the experience of the marvelous and is the consequence of flowering of the ‘Divinity ‘ within oneself 27.
Management by Conscousness28 is an anthology and is edited by GP Gupta ( 2004 ) . It deals with some of the religious attacks of ‘Leaders ‘ for ‘Business Management ‘ . The volume contains articles on the undermentioned subjects.
Business and Spirituality.
The Yogic Approach to Management.
Management by Intuition.
Consciousness Approach to Business Management.
The Philosophy of Management ( The East and The West ) .
Human Values in Management.
The Spirituo-technical Approach to Management.
The common yarn that courses through different articles cited supra is the acknowledgment of Divinity in ‘MAN ‘ ( The first portion of the word ‘Manager ‘ ) and using the ‘Spiritual ‘ component for single, group, and organisational effectivity. It is apparent that ‘Soulless Management Practices ‘ adopted by most of the organisations ( i.e. their leaders ) are ensuing in the undermentioned maladies to the individual at work29.
High blood pressure
Mental upsets like hyper anxiousness, neuroticism, depression, self-destructive inclination etc.
Swami Someswarananda, in his book “ Business Management: The Gita manner ” 30 speaks of two basic types of leading, viz. , the ‘Artificial Leadership ‘ and the ‘Natural Leadership ‘ . Artificial leaders bank upon factors external to them i.e. , place, rank in hierarchy, academic grades, authorization etc ; whereas natural leaders depend more on their ‘inner qualities’31. The natural leading of the writer corresponds to the paradigm of ‘Spiritual Leadership ‘ .
Jack Hawley ( 2008 ) 32 explores the power of Dharmic Management and explains that the leading effectivity, to a big extent, depends upon ‘ populating with unity ‘ . The book consists of the undermentioned five parts33:
Respiriting: Reawakening to spirit in direction and life.
Idolizing: Love and Reverence in work and life.
Repowering: Realigining Beliefs, Thoughts, and Being.
Re Charactering: Strengthening Personal and Organizational Integrity.
Reinspiring: The Spiritual Core of leading.
Spirit, Truth, Character and Integrity are shown as indispensable elements necessary to rekindle life and significance in today ‘s unpredictable universe.
Contemporary direction minds like Peter Senge ( 1990 ) 34 opined, “ In these times of unprecedented planetary emphasiss, leaders of all kinds need to accomplish deeper degrees of lucidity and connexion with nature and their higher egos than traditionally required, in order to make concern as usual. So, it is non surprising that many are regenerating serious survey of ancient wisdom traditions of all kinds, including dateless texts like the “ Bhagavad Gita ” .
As stated by Peter Senge above, some leaders and leading experts explored the religious rules contained in the spiritual literature they are familiar with in their books, and the followers are the illustrations:
Kapil Kakar ( 2010 ) 35 tried to unknot the Secrets of Success through ‘Bhagavad Gita ‘ .
Swami Sadashiva Tirtha ( 2009 ) 36 wrote a commentary on ‘Bhagavad Gita ‘ which trades with secrets of achieving interior peace and harmoniousness of the the searcher.
Pujan Roka ( 2008 ) 37 examined the relevancy of ‘Bhagavad Gita ‘ to Effective Leadearship.
C. Gene Wilkes ( 2008 ) 38 dwells on the Principle of ‘Servant Leadership ‘ from the life of Jesus Christ.
( V ) Lorin Woolfe ( 2008 ) 39 offers leading lessons from tonss of scriptural figures, lighting their ability to face and overcome extraordinary challenges.
Some writers speak about Valuess and Ethical motives as the foundation on which modern concern organisations are to be run. They believe that such a foundation can merely take to sustainable competitory advantage of the concern endeavors. Following are some of the illustrations:
( I ) Bani P Banerjee ( 2005 ) 40 makes out a strong instance for ethical corporate administration by agencies of critical scrutiny of both eastern and western ethical systems.
( two ) S.K.Chakraborty ( 2003 ) 41 argues that values are every bit germane as accomplishments for the effectivity of leaders/managers in industrial and commercial organisations.
( two ) Manuel G.Velasquez ( 2002 ) 42 discusses a broad scope of issues connected with ‘Business Ethical motives ‘ viz. , Ethics and Business, The Market and Business, Ecology and Business, Consumer and Business and Employee Issues and Business.
( four ) S.K. Chakraborty ( 2000 ) 43 provides a position of vedantic ethical vision for managerial and corporate ethical morality.
Richard Bellingham and Julie Meek ( 2004 ) 44 effort to demo how, ‘Spiritual Leadership ‘ can assist in transforming ‘Dysfunctional Organizations ‘ into ‘Healthy Communities ‘ .
Professional / Trade Journals besides carry articles/research documents about the constructs of Spirituality applied to leading theories / patterns, periodically. Some of such themes/articles are cited below to convey out the scope of subjects touched by the modern-day research workers and industry leaders.
Mid-life psyche searching, corporate retrenchment, pursuit for stableness in an unstable universe, disposition toward holistic life, planetary religious Renaissance, Corporate Social Responsibility ( CSR ) motion, alteration in organisational constructions, and single religious waking up in the organisations are the of import factors runing in the context of leading ( C.Vijay Chandra Kumar, 2005 ) 45.
Leaders/Managers need qualities which are beyond ‘Emotional Intelligence ‘ and higher in nature for organisational effectivity. ‘Sthitaprajnata ‘ ( Settled Intelligence ) and ‘Nishkama Karma ‘ ( Settled Action ) are the tools for such achievement ( GRK Murthy, 2004 ) 46.
Leaderships shall bank upon Buddhi47 ( favoritism ) and Bhavana48 ( Divine manner of believing ) and become Sthitaprajna49 ( a individual of settled intelligence ) and Yukta Purusha50 ( A individual moved/motivated by the ‘Divine Will ‘ ) . The construct of ‘Emotional Intelligence ‘ developed by Daniel Goleman is compatible with that of ‘Sthitaprajna ‘ propounded in the Bhagavad Gita ( JM Ovasdi,2004 ) 51.
Consciousness and thereby one ‘s capacity for alteration can be expanded irrespective of the restrictions imposed by instruction, experience, authorization and appellation ( Ajit R Telang, 2004 ) 52.
‘Unethical concern patterns ‘ are the causes of many a ‘corporate prostration ‘ e.g. ENRON, WorldCom, Global Trust Bank etc. , and ‘there is a pressing demand to regenerate ‘Value Based Schemes ‘ for Corporate Success ( Radha Mohan Chebrolu, 2006 ) 53.
Nimbleness and capacity for alteration are the critical features for effectual operation of contemporary concern organisations and those in-charge of the Institutions shall be Entrepreneurs ( who create new concern ) , Managers ( who grow and optimize the concern ) , and leaders ( who can transform them at critical inflexion points ) . ‘Zeitgeist Leadership ‘ is the 1 needed for new millenary and ‘Zeitgeist ‘ is swerving towards ‘stakeholder delectation ‘ than ‘shareholder delectation ‘ ( Anthony J.Mayo and Nitin Nohria, 2005 ) 54.
Authenticity ( care of individuality ) in footings of earnestness, honestness, and unity on one-hand and the ability to alter like chameleons ( to accommodate the state of affairss and the followings ) on the other are the two great features needed for ‘great leading ‘ ( Rob Goffee and Gareth Jones, 2005 ) 55.
Doctrine of leading, personality and or manner of direction are non so much of import as compared to ‘Internal Action Logic ‘ i.e. , how a leader interprets and reacts to the followers/surroundings when his/her power or safety is challenged. Self-awareness can impact motion toward effectual action logics. Leaderships can be classified into seven classs viz. , Opportunists, Diplomats, Experts, Achievers, Individualists, Strategists and Alchemists. The former three types give ‘below mean public presentation ‘ whereas the latter four types give ‘medium to high public presentation ‘ ( David Rooke and William R. Tobert, 2005 ) 56.
Leadership is a frame of head one tends to follow when confronting a important challenge. The transformative issues to be addressed are whether one is consequences centered, internally directed ( values driven ) , other focused ( seting corporate good above one ‘s demands ) , and externally unfastened ( receptive to outside stimulation that signal demand for alteration ) . Leadership is about cardinal stance or province of head ( Robert E.Quinn, 2005 ) 57.
Leadership effectiveness springs from the qualities of humbleness, fierce resoluteness, inclination to give recognition to others, and delegating balance to oneself. By following these dogmas, leader ‘s ain life and all those lives of others he/she touches will be better ( Jim Collins, 2005 ) 58.
Research in the Fieldss of ‘Neuroscience ‘ and ‘Stress Management ‘ prove that tools like ‘Meditation ‘ and ‘Alternating Between Most Productive Stress Level Engagement and Total Disengagement ‘ ( by making something absolutely unrelated like traveling for a walk, taking a shower etc. ) lead to quietude of the encephalon. Creative Insights/Breakthroughs are the consequences of such a province of composure ( Herbert Benson, 2005 ) 59.
True Corporate Social Responsibility ( CSR ) lies in acknowledging corporate societal chances ( CSOs ) and accomplishing Corporate Social Integration ( CSI ) . Companies can accomplish commercial success in ways that honor ethical values and regard people, communities and the natural environment. The moral concretion involved in ‘Sustainable Development ‘ is: run intoing the demands of the present without compromising the ability of future coevalss to run into their ain demands. CSR shall non be viewed as “ decorative ” exercising ( Michael E.Porter and Mark R.Kramer, 2006 ) 60.
High Intelligence Quotient ( I.Q. ) entirely is deficient to the undertaking of leading. Emotional Intelligence ( ability to accurately perceive and pull off one ‘s ain and other ‘s emotions ) , measured in footings of Emotional Quotient ( E.Q. ) is much more of import. Emotional Intelligence can be learned ( Daniel Goleman, 2004 ) 61.
Seeking ‘frank feedback ‘ and holding ‘compassion for the people ‘ are the indispensable demands of ‘Excellent Leadership ‘ ( Andrea Jung, 2004 ) 62.
Leaderships shall hold a high grade of ‘Cognitive Intelligence ‘ ( measured in footings of I.Q. ) and ‘Emotional Intelligence ‘ ( measured in footings of E.Q. ) . In add-on, they shall hold the capacity to supervise and command strong but subliminal prejudices that can skew their decision-making ( Howard Book, 2004 ) 63.
Sakam Karma ( Attached Involvement in Actions ) generates dissipative mental febrility for the karta ( actor ) and produces specious consequences. On the Contrary, Nikshkam Karma ( Detached Involvement in Actions ) prevents stress and burn-out and achieves first-class consequences. Hence Leaders shall be ‘Karmayogis ‘ ( who does work as a forfeit ) executing ‘Nishkam Karma ‘ . Even the ‘Entire Nature ‘ as a whole maps on the Nikshkam Karma ( NK ) Principle and Sakam Karma ( SK ) is declarative of disagreement of human action from ‘Nature ‘s Work ‘ ( Debangshu Chakraborthy and SK Chakraborty, 2006 ) 64.
Helping others to be successful, uninterrupted acquisition, handling others as one wants them to handle him/her, esteeming cultural diverseness and acting with unity are the central rules for success of the leader and his / her squad ( Malcolm Broomhead, 2007 ) 65.
2.2 SPIRITUALLITY IN BUSINESS: A GROWING MOVEMENT IN U.S.A. AND EUROPEAN NATIONS
The Contemporary “ Leadership Field ” is an “ American Merchandise ” – An American seed planted in American dirt and harvested by American Scholars, Educators and Consultants ( Barbara Kellerman, 2004 ) 66.
The unchecked materialist ethos of United States of America had produced many a ‘Sole Leadership Models ‘ in the past. Leader ‘s Personality Traits, Attitudes, Behaviors, Skills, Knowledge, Style, Followers, Situations and host of other factors were researched to order ‘Leadership ‘ constructs. Leaderships were thought to be expansive work forces, gifted people, visionaries, magnetic individuals, transformational heroes – who can, by all agencies ( including ‘people ‘ ) green goods and maximise stockholder wealth. In the procedure, they excessively can multiply their wealth, pamper their self-importances, stand tall amongst others, sit on the shoulders of the followings, and yet acquire branded as ‘Saviors of Society ‘ .
Though Leadership patterns based on such constructs increased society ‘s wealth, developed the economic system, helped the State to raise to the place of pre-eminence and predomination over the remainder of the universe, they besides produced the undermentioned ill-effects:
Intense competition amongst leaders and their organisations as if they are warring cabals ( e.g. , establishing run wars, monetary value wars etc. ) .
Draining of energies and verve of the leaders and their followings taking to disequilibrium and disease of the organic structure, head, and spirit.
Wastage of the Nation ‘s Wealth.
Depletion of Natural Resources.
Damage of the ‘Environment ‘ .
Sense of insecurity amongst the leaders and their followings, and the conflicting organisations they represent.
Frequent recessions of the economic system.
Drop in overall productiveness, quality, and employee battle degrees.
Loss of markets and market-share to the rival Nipponese companies which are more humanist and caring to their employees and other stakeholders.
Absence of significance and intent in life etc.
‘Cause-Effect-Cause ‘ is a rhythm. ‘Sole Leadership Models ‘ are the cause for such ill-effects. The effects became a cause for ‘soul seeking ‘ and the end point is the emerging paradigm of ‘Soul Leadership ‘ or ‘Spiritual Leadership ‘ . Spirituality motion gained impulse in the United States of America.
A proliferation of book rubrics reflects a turning national motion to convey religious values into the workplace.
The followers are the rubrics of some such books, other than those cited under the old subject ( i.e.,2.1: Spiritualty Movement in Business and Its Different Perspectives ) :
The psyche of Business,
Emancipating the Corporate Soul,
Working From the Heart,
The Stirring of Soul in the Workplace,
What would the Buddha do at work? ,
Spirit at Work,
Redefining the Corporate Soul,
The Corporate Mystic,
Leading with Soul, etc.
There are several Journals/Websites and associations based on spiritualty at work, and the followers is the exemplifying list:
Business Spirit ( web site: www.bizspirit.com/bsj/index.html )
The Professional Association for Peoples Involved with Spirituality in the Workplace ( ASAW ) and its web site: www.spiritatwork.org
Institute for Research on Unlimited Love and its web site: www.unlimitedloveinstitute.org
Avodah Institute, a faith-in-the-workplace group of Business Leaders and Senior Executives ( ‘Avodah ‘ is a Hebrew word intending both ‘work ‘ and ‘worship ‘ ) .
Spirit in Business.
The European SPES ( Spirituality in Economic and Social Life ) Forum.
The Association for Spirit at work.
The Baha’i Business Forums.
Particular involvement group on ‘Management, Spirituality, and Religion ‘ at the Academy of Management in U.S.A.
Religious Unfoldment Society ( SUS ) In the ‘World Bank ‘ .
Besides the above, the esteemed American Management Association ( AMA ) holds conferences on the subject of gaining from values-based corporate civilization and to happen out ways and agencies to tap into the dimensions of ‘Spirituality and Ethics ‘ as critical constituents for success.
Therefore ‘spirituality motion ‘ is get downing to transform Corporate America from the ‘inside-out ‘ . Turning figure of concern leaders / directors want their spiritualty to be more than merely faith and belief: they want it to be practical and applied. They want to convey their whole egos to work: organic structure, head and spirit integrated. Many concern people are happening that the bottom line can be reinforced by following value-based leading patterns. They can make good in concern by being good ( to the stakeholders / society ) – that is what they are convinced about now.
Across U.S.A. and Europe, people progressively want to convey a greater sense of significance and aim into their work-life. They want their work to reflect their ‘Personal Mission ‘ in life. Many concern organisations are happening the most effectual manner to convey Religious Values into workplace: that is to clear up the company ‘s Vision and Mission, and to aline it with a higher intent and deeper committedness to function both ‘Customers ‘ and ‘Community ‘ .
2.3 REASONS FOR SPIRITUALITY ‘S POPULARITY IN THE CORPORATE ARENA OF U.S.A. AND EUROPE
Research workers point to several cardinal factors for the rush of ‘Spirituality ‘ at workplace and they are as follows:
Corporate retrenchment and greater demand on staying work force, which created excessively much of emphasis and fatigue to be originative.
Globalization of markets which needed more creativeness, invention, and out-of- the-box thought.
Awakening of human Psyche and hungering for a greater sense of significance and intent in the work-life.
Need for instantaneous ( self-generated ) determination devising ( by Leaders/Managers ) in a turbulent, uncertainness ridden, information and services dominated economic system.
Emphasis on edifice better relationships with clients, employees, and other stakeholders of the concern.
Priority displacement of the best endowment, from ‘mere fatter wages ‘ to ‘culture of the organisations that reflect their interior values ; supply chances for personal development and community service ‘ .
Prolonged working hours which leave no/less clip available for religious/spiritual activities.
Inner impulse of the people for the public look of their religion, and the satisfaction desired therefrom.
Presence of more adult females in the workplace, which tends to foster ‘Spiritual Values ‘ better.
Occupation of higher echelons of concern organisations by ‘baby-boomer ‘ coevals ; as boomers begin to fear their ain mortality and are non satisfied by ‘rank-materialism ‘ .
Harmonizing to a 2011 ‘Gallup Poll ‘ , 91 % of Americans said that they have belief in ‘GOD ‘ or a ‘Universal Spirit ‘ ; and about 50 % said that they talked about their spiritual religion in the work topographic point that twenty-four hours ( in the past 24 hours ) .
2.4 TYPES OF SPIRITUAL PRACTICES FOLLOWED AT THE WORKPLACES IN USA AND EUROPE
Many people use supplication at work, for the undermentioned grounds:
For counsel in decision-marking.
To fix for hard state of affairss, when the leaders/managers/ others are traveling through a tough clip.
To give thanks for something good ( that has happened ) .
Timberland places CEO Jeffrey B Swartz uses his ‘prayer book ‘ and spiritual beliefs to steer concern determinations and company policy, frequently confer withing his ‘rabbi’67. Kris Kalra, CEO of BioGenex uses the Hindu sanctum text, the Bhagavadgita ( Song of God ) 68 to maneuver his concern out of problems/troubles.
The American Stock Exchange has a Torah69 Study Group ; Boeing has Christian, Jewish, and Muslim supplication groups ; and Microsoft has online supplication service. Wheat International Communications in Reston, Virginia has ‘morning supplications ‘ unfastened to all employees.
In some of the companies in the U.S.A. , services of free-lance ‘Chaplains ‘ are being used to advance the importance, and pattern of supplication in company determinations, and heightening the committedness to excellence. The leaders of such companies are emulating Jesus Christ ‘s illustration of concentrating on people, and non things ( ends ) . “ Do unto others in the workplace as you would hold them make unto you ” is what these are recommending and endeavoring for.
In add-on to supplication and survey groups, the undermentioned religious patterns besides are adopted at several companies:
Focus oning exercisings such as deep external respiration,
Active deep hearing,
Using intuition and interior counsel in decision-making,
Making purpose and action congruent, and
Building shared values.
Business Owners/Leaders are unhesitatingly asseverating that their concern success, in many instances, is attributable to ‘acting on their intuition ‘ .
‘Lotus ‘ laminitis and CEO Mitch Kapor patterns ‘Transcendental Meditation ‘ ( TM ) 70 and named his company after a word for ‘enlightenment’71. Apparel Manufacturer Patagonia provides yoga categories for employees on their interruptions, as does Avaya Telecommunications. A ‘Spiritual Unfoldment Society ‘ has been run intoing on a regular basis at the ‘World Bank ‘ for the past few old ages, with talks on subjects such as a ‘Meditation ‘ and ‘Reincarnation ‘ .
Companies such as ‘Evian Spring Water ‘ have successfully used the constructs of ‘Spirituality ‘ in their advertisement even e.g. , ‘Your organic structure is the temple of your spirit ‘ . The Service Master Company with six million clients worldwide puts its Religious Values up-front in its ‘Annual Report ‘ . It starts with a scriptural quotation mark: “ Each of us should utilize whatever gift he/she has received to function others, dependably administrating God ‘s grace in its assorted signifiers ” .
2.5 SPIRITUAL ORIENTATION TOWARDS EMPLOYEES IN U.S.A. AND EUROPEAN BUSINESS ORGANIZATIONS
Organizations have started recognizing that people ( employees ) are the most of import resource, and the ultimate competitory advantage flexible joints on the quality of the human resource acquired, retained, and developed. Increasing figure of concern people find that the cardinal country for using Spirituality is in how employees are treated. Southwest Airlines, one of the few air hoses remaining profitable since the 9/11 terrorist onslaught in U.S.A. , says, “ Peoples are our most of import resource ” . Company policy is to handle employees like household members, cognizing that if they are treated good, they in bend will handle clients good. Anita Roddick, laminitis of ‘The Body Shop International ‘ with shops all over the universe, intentionally built a soap mill near Glasgow, Scotland because it was an country of high demoralisation. She made a religious determination to use the unemployable and put 25 % of the net net incomes back into the community and she said, “ This is what keeps the psyche of company alive ” . “ The Men ‘s Warehouse ” , one of Fortune Magazine ‘s 100 best Companies to work for, supports homeless work forces in reentering the occupation market ( i.e. , assisting the helpless ) .
Tom Chappell, CEO of “ Tom ‘s of Maine ” which produces soaps and toothpastes stays mindful of net income and common good by giving off 10 % of its pre-tax net incomes to charities. The company gives employees four paid hours a month to volunteer for community service, and uses all natural ingredients that are good for environment. “ Saturn Auto Manufacturing ” says that the key to their success is their experiment in ‘Corporate Democracy ‘ and ‘Participatory Governance ‘ . Empowered and Autonomous squads make most company determinations.
‘Spiritually-oriented ‘ stuffs on personal alteration have been used in employee preparation for a long clip at the Bank of Montreal. Boatman ‘s – First National Bank, in Kansas metropolis on a regular basis provides ‘Spiritually-oriented preparation ‘ for its top Executives.
Directors and Union Workers of Southern California Con Edison attend Sessionss called ‘The Heart Shop ‘ with piano player Michael Jones to cultivate compassion, empathy for each other, creativity/innovation, and a new ‘Intelligence of the Heart ‘ . Boeing set up a series of week-long preparation plans with poet David Whyte for its ‘Top Executives ‘ to unleash finer feelings, do them pro-risk ( able to take hazards ) and maintain them excited and unfastened for alteration – alternatively of being horrified by/about it.
NYNEX Corporation established an office of ‘Ethics and Business Conduct ‘ to promote employees to populate by a set of nucleus principles/values: Quality, Ethics, and Caring for the single etc. This new focal point led to increase in net incomes, productiveness, and merchandise service quality. They in-turn affected the manner the company is perceived by clients and other stakeholders ( i.e. Brand Image ) .
2.6 Attempts TO PROTECT THE ENVIRONMENT BY U.S. , JAPANESE, AND EUROPEAN BUSINESS HOUSES.
Protection of the environment and the care of ‘Ecological Balance ‘ has become an of import issue. Though modern industry has provided alone stuff prosperity, it has besides created alone environmental menaces to the current public every bit good as future coevalss. Hence many companies started seeing their committedness to the environment as their ‘Spiritual Mission ‘ .
A 1995 ‘Vanderbilt University Analysis ‘ found that in ‘eight out of 10 instances ‘ , low fouling companies financially outperformed their dirty rivals. Ray Anderson, Founder of Interface Carpets ; the universe ‘s largest commercial rug maker, trained 1000s of employees in environmental sustainability with the end of tapering off the pollution degree to ‘Zero Percent ‘ in the coming few old ages.
‘Home Depot ‘ has introduced a line of wood merchandises grown through ‘sustainable forestry patterns ‘ . British Petroleum renamed itself ‘Beyond Petroleum ‘ and it is developing alternate versions/forms of fuel, and buttonholing authoritiess, for reversal of ‘Climatic Change ‘ . Starbucks Coffee has partnered with ‘Conservation International ‘ to work with its former providers in Mexico to advance ‘water and dirt preservation ‘ and decrease of ‘chemical fertilisers and pesticides ‘ .
At Hewlett-Packard, each merchandise has a steward whose occupation is to minimise its ecological footmark by cut downing packaging, toxic stuffs in the merchandise, and increasing recyclability/reusability. Mitsubishi Electric, America specified that their providers could non supply them with paper/timber from old-growth woods. Once they set the illustration, about 500 other companies followed their lead, and together they saved four million estates of wood.
In the twelvemonth 1986, The Caux Round Table ( CRT ) based in Minnesota, pioneered a list of rules for concern, an international codification of ethical values formulated by ‘Senior Business Leaders ‘ ; from Japan, Europe, United States, and Canada. The CRT rules are modified in the old ages 1994 and 2009 and they deal with elaborate stakeholder direction guidelines. The ‘United Nations ( UN ) Global Compact ‘ enjoys the support of the UN General Assembly and many National Governments including those of G8 ( i.e. , Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Russia, United Kingdom, and United States of America ) ; and pledges its support to human rights, labour criterions, environmental protection, and anti-corruption practices72.
2.7 SPIRITUAL UNFOLDMENT AT THE WORLD BANK
Toward the terminal of 1992, a religious survey group, christened as “ Religious Unfoldment Society ” ( SUS ) 73 was started in the universe bank with the following aims:
Promoting ‘Personal Transformation ‘ through Self-knowledge, and understanding and rousing higher consciousness.
Supplying a safe forum for the exchange of beliefs and thoughts that promote religious consciousness.
Promoting the integrating of higher consciousness into every facet of life.
Seeking to make within the ‘World Bank ‘ a consciousness of love and apprehension that contributes toward transforming the manner people interact with one another.
The ‘Washington Post ‘ featured the SUS in a magazine article and praised it as an institutional pillar for enlightenment74.
SUS instituted monthly speculation Sessionss, created particular involvement groups, held religious retreats, and published news-letters. In add-on to the above, the World Bank sponsored an ‘International Conference ‘ to research the nexus between ‘Spiritual Values and Sustainable Development ‘ .
The existent significance of the Conference and of the Spiritual Unfoldment Society was that the Bank Staff now have permission ‘to talk about religious values in development, and to convey their Black Marias and psyches to work. ‘
2.8 THE INDIAN CONTEXT
Equally far as India is concerned it has non made much inroads into the ‘Spirituality Trend ‘ due to its quest for ‘modernization ‘ , and overzealousness for ‘secularism ‘ .
It appears that Indian political every bit good as concern leading is extremely obsessed with the thought of secularism. In a hastiness to catch up with richness of the West, the state has forgotten its original central rules of spiritualty. It is to be borne in head that in societal life, both the layman and religious inherent aptitudes are critical demands. Responsible universe sentiment is progressively veering towards the decision that it is the vitalized religious inherent aptitude which can transform even the draw a bead oning secular states. It is obvious that ‘Indian Management Thought ‘ is manner behind the epoch-making turnaround in ‘western direction idea ‘ .
India is a treasure-house of ‘Spiritual Wisdom ‘ . The Vedas75, Upanishads76, Itihasas77, and host of other religious treatises of Hindu Religion contain crest gems of wisdom that can hold profound impact, if applied decently in concern organisations. Bhagavadgita ( The Song of God ) 78 clarifies the positions of Jnana ( Wisdom ) , Bhakti ( Devotion ) and Karma ( Action ) amongst several other issues of life, and its head purpose is Leadership Effectiveness.
Further, India is a runing pot of all faiths and civilizations. Apart from Hinduism ; Buddha, Mahavira, and Guru Nanak established their faiths and they excessively contain invaluable rules which will hold a direct bearing on leading effectivity. Christianity, Islam and other religions of the universe had come and long settled and became a portion of Indian ‘ethos ‘ . Much wisdom can be obtained from them excessively, for developing the paradigm of ‘Spiritual Leadership ‘ and edifying the leading patterns in concern organisations.
Truly talking, it is the instance of ‘poverty amidst plentifulness ‘ in the ‘Indian Context ‘ . However, to deliver the state of affairs some earnest attempts are taking topographic point, in few quarters as cited below.
S.K.Chakaraborty was the Retired Professor and Founder Convener of the ‘Management Centre for Human Values, Indian Institute of Management, Kolkata. The Centre enterprises to convey the message of ‘Management By Values ‘ ( MBV ) grounded in the Indian ethos to both Industry and Academia. It conducts in-house plans to the Leaders of Industry runing from the Chief Executive down to director ‘s two or three degrees below. Some progressive organisations like Bharat Heavy Electricals Ltd. , ( ( BHEL ) , Indian Oil Corporation Ltd. ( IOC ) , Bharat Electronics Ltd. ( BEL ) , Godrej & A ; Boyce Ltd. , Tata Iron and Steel Company Ltd. ( TISCO ) , and Reserve Bank of India ( RBI ) are delegating their ‘Senior Leaderships / Directors ‘ for such plans.
Swami Someswarananda is the president of Vivekananda Centre for Indian Management Indore, and Director of the Consortium Consultants, India. He is a taking advocate in Indian Management and is seeking to germinate appropriate direction manners based on ancient ‘Indian Valuess and Wisdom ‘ . He conducts in-house ‘Management Development Programs ‘ ( MDPs ) for the aspiring Companies. Some professional organisations like Tata Consultancy Services ( TCS ) , Larsen & A ; Toubro ( L & A ; T ) , Crompton Greaves ( CG ) , Eicher Motors, and Kirloskar are expressing involvement in prosecuting such attempts.
Swami Ranganathananda of Ramakrishna Mission, Swami Bodhamayananda and other monastics of Vivekananda Institute of Human Excellence, Hyderabad are besides working for the cause of value-based direction of personal and organisational lives.
Swami Sukhabodhananda and senior members of his Prasanna Trust, Bangalore are besides distributing the message of spiritualty for personal and organisational applications.
Ashoke Maitra, who was HR Director in the Times of India Group, founded: the ‘Centre for Human Resource Development ‘ , supplying confer withing services in Human Capital Management and Organizational Development ; and the ‘Sri Ramakrishna International Institute of Management ‘ , devoted to Holistic Management Education and Training for working professionals. These Institutes are located at Mumbai.
2.9 Corporate SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY – AN INDIAN PERSPECTIVE
Corporate Social Responsibility ( CSR ) is one of the religious dimensions of an organic organization.CSR comes into drama when the leaders look beyond the construct of “ stockholder wealth maximization ” and are concerned with “ stakeholder wealth and public assistance maximization ” . The interest holders are:
Suppliers and sellers
The populace at big ( Community ) .
In so making the leading is seeking to take attention of the ternary bottom line of- Peoples, Planet, and Net income.
Though India is one of the fast growth economic systems ; socio-economic jobs like poorness, illiteracy, unemployment, hungriness, deficiency of comfortss ( e.g. , electricity, drinkable H2O etc. , ) and favoritism against the down-trodden and the adult females are blighting the state. As Swami Vivekananda said, and Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi ( Mahatma Gandhi ) reiterated, “ The service of Narayana ( GOD ) is through the service of Daridranaryana ( the hapless ) . Though Government ‘s occupation it is to ‘uplift the multitudes ‘ , the Business Houses worth their ‘spirit ‘ are besides fall ining the disturbance and making their best.
Business houses like the Tata Group, the Aditya Birla Group, and Indian Oil Corporation have been involved in functioning the community since their origin. Hero Honda has set up ‘Vocational Training Centre ‘ for developing adult females in tailoring, embellishment, and knitwork, and the company helps such adult females to put up a production unit to sew uniforms for ‘Hero Honda ‘ employees. Besides this, Hero Honda has started ‘Adult Literacy Mission Scheme ‘ and set about the duty of executing matrimonies of underprivileged misss. Infosys, through its ‘computers @ schoolrooms ‘ enterprise ; donated 2,567 computing machines to assorted establishments across India, since the launch of the plan in January 199979.
The yearss of “ Corporate Irresponsibility ” are over. The populace now expects companies to act harmonizing to higher societal criterion. The concern decision- devising, in a turning figure of companies is now linked to “ ethical value conformity ” along with “ legal demands ” with regard to people, communities, and environment80.
The recent Government of India ‘s directive, towards passing 2 % of the three – twelvemonth mean net income for CSR activities, by the big companies, is a measure in the right way. Such a step channelizes concern net incomes back into the society ( which helped the companies to do money ) and helps the organisations ‘ integrating with it.
2.10 THE SPIRITUAL TRANSFORMATION OF BUSINESS LEADERSHIP ACROSS THE WORLD
‘Workplace Spirituality ‘ is doing great paces in the developed states of the West and Japan. It is easy catching up in India now. The current disruptive twenty-four hours corporations want and need people who are originative, independent and self-motivated. Leaders/Managers and their followings are now recognizing that in order to give at the degree of their highest productiveness, they must be to the full alive at physical, rational, emotional, and religious degrees ; and further they must be making what they love ( to make ) . The procedure indicates the metabolism, through which the organisations and the employees are undergoing. Further, it is natural that the construct of ‘Spiritual Man ‘ additions credence in the direction theory and pattern after the phases of: economic adult male, societal adult male, and self-actualizing adult male. ‘Spiritual Man ‘ transcends the barriers of the little ego ( single ego ) and becomes the Big SELF ( Supreme Self ) , possessing “ Universal Consciousness ” and working for the “ Good of the World ” .
From the ‘Review of Literature ‘ , it is apparent that an integrated, composite profile of a ‘Spiritual Leader ‘ is non made so far ; and therefore fresh penetrations from the religious position of the ‘World Religions ‘ are required to bridge the spread. The undermentioned subjects need geographic expedition to understand the mental makeup of ‘Spiritual Leaders ‘ , their development, and their effectiveness potency:
Personality Traits of Spiritual Leaders.
Motivations of Religious Leaders.
Attitudes and Beliefs of Spiritual Leaders.
Valuess and Behavior of Spiritual Leaders.
Communication and Styles of Leadership of Spiritual Leaders.
Self-Development of Religious Leaders.
Leadership Effectiveness of Spiritual Leaders.
Therefore, what remained undiscovered is the profile of the Religious Leaders in footings of the personality traits, motivations, attitudes and beliefs, values and behaviour, communicating and manners of leading, self-development, and the countries ( including steps ) of leading effectivity. The Leader ‘s interior universe of ideas and feelings, and the outer universe of communications and actions, and the ensuing effectiveness potency are non studied/researched methodically from an wholly ‘Spiritual Angle ‘ . The present research is taken up for the elaborate expounding of the constructs and procedures of Spiritual-based Leadership in concern organisations with mention to the above parametric quantities.
2.11 CHAPTER REVIEW AND END NOTES
Spiritualty is non confined to ‘Religious Field ‘ . It is exercising its influence in the sphere of concern besides. Business Leaders ‘ compulsive thrust for ‘profit maximization ‘ is giving manner to the construct of ‘Triple Bottom Line ‘ ( TBL ) i.e ; People, Planet, and Profit. Economicss, Ethical motives, and Spirituality are non treated as independent ( unrelated ) topics by some of the modern directions of concern. In fact, a kind of realisation is clicking about the inter-connectedness and inseparability of the three subjects for effectual operation of concern organisations.
For the organisations to work on religious lines, it is imperative that their leaders shall be Spiritually-based and incorporate. Though leading as a procedure involves leaders, followings ( subsidiaries ) , and the state of affairs ; leaders constitute the ‘driving force ‘ for organisational working. Therefore leaders must be precursors, examples, and tendency compositors for any alteration procedure.
Some Spiritual-based leaders are seeking to transfigure the workplaces and the concern doctrines to make an environment in which the ideal of chase of net income is non incongruent with the development of the people concerned, wellbeing of the society, and the raising of the planet ( Mother Earth ) . Religious Leadership in its truest sense does non halt at that place. It helps the leaders and their associates in their Self- realisation, which is the highest end of life.
Religious Leadership is about going, being and moving from the font of religious consciousness for the good of the universe. Religious Leaders need to get a different psychological composing, and an wholly different ‘Spiritual Frame of Mind ‘ for their world-view, action way, and work-goal. Subsequent chapters explore the determiners of Religious Leadership ( in idea, word, and title ) in footings of the followers:
Personality Traits of Spiritual Leaders.
Motivations of Religious Leaders.
Attitudes and Beliefs of Spiritual Leaders.
Valuess and Behavior of Spiritual Leaders.
Communicationss and Styles of Leadership of Spiritual Leaders.
Self-Development of Religious Leaders.
Leadership Effectiveness of Spiritual Leaders.
Every Religion is a ‘treasure trove ‘ of Spirituality, when it is stripped off its ‘Ritualistic ‘ outer screen. It is another point that even the ritual itself, in someway helps the spiritual disciple for his/her religious development. Coming back to the point of religious cognition and wisdom, all the faiths of the universe have tremendous sums of literature. But examination of the copiousness of full spiritual literature is beyond the capacity of a individual research worker. Hence representative sample of the universe ‘s four major faiths i.e. Hinduism, Christianity, Islam and Buddhism ( non written in the order of the size of the disciples ) is taken ; and their chief texts: The Bhagavadgita, The Holy Bible, The Holy Quran and The Dhammapada are explored for deriving penetrations.
Following chapter trades with the general personality traits, task-related personality traits, and religious personality traits of concern leaders. The former two types are from the predominating management/leadership literature whereas the 3rd type is generated from the religious literature of the Bibles chosen for the intent of research