Vidya Sabale et al. , ( 2009 ) investigated to pull out the mucilage from Fenugreek seeds and evaluated it as a binder for pharmaceutical dose signifiers. Mucilage was isolated from Fenugreek seeds by extraction, soaking and boiling with dual distilled H2O and precipitating by add-on of propanone and drying at 50-600 C under vacuity. The per centum output of mucilage was 20-25 % w/w. The solubility, swelling index, loss on drying of the mucilage were studied and pH was found to be 7.2 which is near to impersonal value. The rating of the mucilage for its binding belongingss in tablets was carried out utilizing Ibuprofen as a exemplary drug. Wet granulation technique was used for readying of granules utilizing Fenugreek seed mucilage as a binder at a concentration of 8 % , 9 % and 10 % w/v. The prepared granules were evaluated for squeezability index and flow belongingss which were compared with amylum as a standard binder at a concentration of 10 % w/v. The tablets were so evaluated for weight fluctuation, hardness, crumbliness, decomposition clip and in vitro disintegration profile. The tablets showed first-class physicochemical features and drug release was found to be more than 85 % within three hours. The tablets prepared utilizing 8 % and 9 % mucilage as binder could be considered as theoretical account concentration for readying of tablets than 10 % concentration which exhibited more hardness. Hence, Fenugreek seed mucilage ( 8 % and 9 % ) has the potency for being substituted as a binder for the more expensive amylum in tablet preparation.
Pranati Srivastav et al. , ( 2010 ) aimed to pull out pectin from dried orange fruit Peels to measure its adhering belongings in tablets utilizing paracetamol as exemplary drug. First the orange fruit Peel pulverization was subjected to soxhlet extraction and pectin was isolated utilizing ethyl intoxicant as precipitating agent. Four batches were formulated utilizing pectin in different concentration. A mention batch of amylum was besides prepared to execute the comparative survey and to measure the adhering belongings of pectin. Precompression and station compaction surveies were performed for each preparation. In-vitro release informations was subjected to assorted kinetic theoretical accounts. The consequences obtained for all pre-compression and station compaction parametric quantities were found within acceptable scope of pharmacopoeias. On the footing of drug release behavior it can be seen that the release of all four batches under survey was less than that of mention batch. Orange Peel pectin can move as first-class binder in dose signifiers. Since the orange Peels available at low cost it may turn out to be better binder over commercially used man-made binders.
Majid Saeedi et al. , ( 2010 ) aimed to pull out mucilage from Plantago fleawort seeds and it was evaluated for inertness and safety parametric quantities. Fleawort mucilage as a pharmaceutical binder was evaluated taking Paracetamol as exemplary drug. Physicochemical belongingss of the granules prepared with assorted concentrations of fleawort mucilage were compared with PVP and tragacanth. A concentration of 5 % ( m/m ) Fleawort mucilage was compared with 3 % ( m/m ) of PVP.
N. C. Ngwuluka et al. , ( 2010 ) evaluated dried and polished day of the month thenar fruit as a granulating agent in comparing with acacia and tragacanth. Physicoshemical word picture of the granules in add-on to quality control trials which includ uniformity of weight, hardness, crumbliness, decomposition and disintegration were carried out. The granules formulated utilizing the binders had good flow belongingss and squeezability. With addition in concentration of the binder, the binding ability enhanced bring forthing tablets with good uniformity of weight and hardness. The tablets manufactured with dried day of the month thenar were found to be less crumbly than tablets formulated utilizing acacia and tragacanth. Even though, the tablets did non disintegrate, the drug release from the tablets agreed the USP and BP specification for disintegration of paracetamol. Therefore, dried day of the month thenar fruit can be used as a pharmaceutical excipient.
Vijetha Pendyala et al. , ( 2010 ) aimed to pull out gum from Leucaena Leucocephala workss grown all over India. Its physicochemical belongingss such as pH, swelling capacity and viscousnesss at different temperatures utilizing standard methods were investigated. Leucaena Leucocephala bark gum appear to be colourless to reddish brown semitransparent cryings. 5 % w/v mucilage has pH of 7.5 at 28A°C. The gum is somewhat soluble in H2O and virtually indissoluble in ethyl alcohol, propanone and trichloromethane. It swells about 5 times its original weight in H2O. A 5 % w/v mucilage concentration gave a viscousness value which was unaffected at temperature scopes ( 28-40A°C ) . At concentrations of 2 and 5 % w/v, the gum exhibited pseudo plastic flow form while at 10 % w/v concentration the flow behavior was thixotropic. The result indicated that the swelling ability of Leucaena Leucocephala ( LL ) bark gum gave an information for its usage as a disintegrant in tablet preparation, as a hydro gel in modified release dose signifiers and the rheological flow belongingss gave an information for its usage as suspending and emulsifying agents owing to its imposter plastic and thixotropic flow forms.
Okoye. E. I et al. , ( 2009 ) investigated the mechanical belongingss and release belongingss of Paracetamol tablets, where Paracetamol was taken as the theoretical account drug and Anacardium occidentale gum, povidone and gelatin as binders. The brickle break index ( BFI ) , tensile strength ( TS ) , crumbliness ( F ) , decomposition clip ( DT ) and per centum drug released ( PDR ) were studied. At all concentration of Cashew gum the TS and BFI values of tablets were low. All the preparations showed crumbliness less than 1 % . The decomposition clip for Gelatin formulated tablets was more and least for povidone formulated 1s. The drug release was highest for Cashew gum at a binder concentration of 1 to 3 % and the drug release for povidone was highest at binder concentration of 4 to 5 % ( w/w ) .The drug release was lowest for Gelatin formulated tablets. Cashew gum better BFI than povidone or Gelatin
S. K. Singh and S. Singh ( 2009 ) investigated the seeds of cassia fistulous withers contain gluco-mannose hence an effort to measure the seeds for suitableness as tablet binder was considered and the present probe reports the isolation of mucilage of Cassia fistulous withers seed. The DSC and FTIR thermograms of drug and mucilage indicated no chemical interaction. Phytochemical and Physiochemical features of mucilage were studied which confirmed the mucilage nature. Diltiazem HCl was used as a exemplary drug. The granules prepared by mucilage were compared with xanthan gum, which was used as standard binder. The tablets showed good physiochemical belongingss and the release rate of the drug was more than 85 % within 3hr. It was noted that increasing the concentration of mucilage additions hardness and decreases the decomposition clip. All the preparations were prone to stableness surveies for three months as per ICH guidelines all four preparation showed stableness with fear to let go of form and other parametric quantities which confirm the usage of mucilage as excipient.
Oluwatoyin. A. Odeku ( 2007 ) evaluated Albizia gum as a granulating agent in tablet preparations which was compared with gelatin BP. Evaluation parametric quantities such as denseness measurings and compaction equations of Heckel and Kawakita were determined, while the rating of the tablets was carried out by happening the hardness and crumbliness of the tablets. Decomposition clip and disintegration clip were assessed to happen out the drug release of the tablets. As the concentration of the binder increased the hardness, decomposition and disintegration times of the tablets increased whereas their crumbliness decreased with addition in concentration. The mechanical belongings of the tablet was improved and the decomposition and disintegration clip was enhanced than those incorporating gelatin BP. This shows that Albizia gum could be used as a granulating agent when high mechanical strength and slower drug release rates are desired.
Emeje Martins et al. , ( 2007 ) evaluated Grewia gum as a granulating agent in paracetamol tablet preparations. Evaluation parametric quantities such as denseness measurings and the compaction equations of Heckel and Kawakita were determined. Slower oncoming and less sum of fictile distortion were seen in preparations incorporating Grewia gum than those incorporating PVP. As the concentration of Grewia gum increased the Db value besides increased. Elevated grade of wadding was seen in preparations incorporating Grewia gum than those incorporating PVP. The output values were found to be different in preparation incorporating Grewia gum as the binder concentration differed. The values increased between 1 and 2 % w/w and decreased between 2 and 4 % w/w. A additive relationship was observed between N/C and N for readyings incorporating Grewia gum over all concentrations ranges. This survey showed that Grewia gum compiled with the standard binder PVP used hence it can be used as an alternate binder in paracetamol tablet preparations.
G. C. Onunkwo and J. Okoye ( 1997 ) investigated a polyose gum obtained from the root of Anucurdium occiden was studied for usage as a binder in lactose-based tablet preparations incorporating tartrazine dye. Polyvinylpyrrolidone ( p.v.p. ) and acacia gum were employed as a criterions. The tablet physical belongingss studied were weight uniformity, crumbliness, hardness, decomposition and disintegration times. Amunfium occidenfale gum produced tablets with good hardness and crumbliness profile. However at concentrations of above 2 % w/w, it prolonged the decomposition and disintegration times.
Subas Chandra Dinda and Biswajit Mukharjee ( 2009 ) investigated the efficaciousness of Cordia obliqua fruit mucilage as pharmaceutical excipient in peculiar as tablet binder and emulsifier. The drug- excipient interaction was surveies utilizing FTIR ( Fourier transform infrared ) spectrum which ensured its safe usage as a tablet binder. Tablets were manufactured with assorted measures of Cordia obliqua fruit mucilage as tablet binding agent and a comparing was made against the tablets prepared with 5 % amylum paste as binder. Gum Cordia at a really low sum ( 1/25th of the amylum paste used ) was found to be effectual as tablet binder. For emulsifying activity survey, Castor oil was used as a exemplary drug and emulsified with Cordia obliqua fruit mucilage. The comparative stableness surveies were done with that of the emulsion prepared by gum acacia as standard emulsifying agent and it was found that the emulsion prepared with 1.5 % w/v of gum Cordia is more effectual in comparing to that of the emulsion prepared by utilizing 10 % w/v of gum acacia. Thus this gum will be a non-toxic, bio-degradable, inexpensive, economic and easy available as tablet binder and emulsifier in the list of pharmaceutical excipients.
Biswajit Mukherjee et al. , ( 2006 ) investigated the efficaciousness of gum odina as tablet excipient, in peculiar as a tablet binder. The drug- excipient interaction was surveies utilizing FTIR spectrum ensured its safe usage as a tablet binder. Tablets were manufactured with assorted measure of gum odina as a tablet binding agent and comparision was made against the tablets prepared with 5 % amylum paste as a binder. Gum odina at a really low sum ( 1/20th of amylum paste used ) was found to be effectual as tablet binder. This gum is a inexpensive, economic and easy available as a tablet binder in pharmaceutical excipients.
A. Oluwatoyin et al. , ( 2003 ) studied utilizing a 23A factorial experimental design the interaction belongings of nature of binder ( N ) , concentration of binder ( C ) and the comparative denseness ( D ) on the hardness and release belongingss of paracetamol tablets. Khaya gum as the “ low ” degree, and polyvinylpyrrolidone ( PVP ) as the “ high ” degree, was used as binding agent at concentrations of 0.5 % and 4 % w/w taking Paracetamol as a exemplary drug. The bond strength was dertermined by mensurating the oppressing strength of the tablet and the release belongingss of the tablets were measured by the decomposition and the disintegration times. As the concentration of the binder and the comparative denseness changed from “ low ” to “ high ” the hardness, decomposition clip and disintegration times of the tablets were increased. The consequence tells us that khaya gum could be utile as a granulating agent to bring forth tablets with good tensile strength and drug release profiles.
Anoop Kumar Singh et al. , ( 2010 ) evaluated the gum of Mangifera indica ( Mangifera indica ) as a tablet binder using paracetamol as a exemplary drug. To our cognition, no important work has been reported on Mangifera indica gum as a tablet binder. Paracetamol tablets were prepared by wet granulation technique utilizing Mangifera indica gum as a tablet binder. The prepared tablets were evaluated for physico chemical features. The crumbliness of the tablets ranges from 1.12 to 0.26 % and the decomposition clip from 3 to 8 min. The adhering efficaciousness of the Mangifera indica gum was compared with the standard binder gum acacia at similar concentration ( 5 % w/w ) . The tablets hardness prepared from Mangifera indica gum varies from 6.3 to 6.8 kg/cm2 which are comparable with the standard binder, gum acacia ( 4.8 kg/cm2 ) . In decision, MIG could be used good as a binding agent in the preparation of tablet dose signifiers.
Kuldeep Singh et al. , ( 2009 ) investigated the sustained-release belongingss ofA Mimosa pudicaA seed mucilage. Matrix tablets of diclofenac Na incorporating different extent of mucilage and dibasic Ca phosphate taken as dilutants were formulated by wet granulation method. The tablets had consistent physical visual aspect, mean weight, drug content, and equal hardness. The consequences ofA in vitroA release utilizing USP type II disintegration rate setup, in a disintegration media dwelling of 900A milliliter of 0.1A N HCl for 2A H followed by phosphate buffer ( pH 6.8 ) for 24A H at 37A°C and 50A revolutions per minute, revealed that as the sum of mucilage in the matrix was increased at that place was a lessening in the release of drug. The matrix tablets were found to let go of the drug which followed Higuchi square root release dynamicss, with the mechanism of release being diffusion for tablets incorporating high proportion of mucilage and a mixture of matrix eroding and diffusion for tablets incorporating smaller proportion of mucilage. The swelling and eroding surveies discovered that, as the proportion of mucilage in tablets was increased, there was an addition in per centum puffiness and a lessening in per centum eroding of tablets. On comparative rating, the disintegration profile for preparation incorporating mucilage to drug in the ratio of 1:40 was to be the same when compared to commercial sustained-release preparation of diclofenac.
D. Pande et al. , ( 2010 ) observed that the gum from Moringa oleifera can move as a granulating agent and release retardent in tablet preparations. The result of Ca sulfate dihydrate which is H2O indissoluble and lactose that is H2O soluble dilutant on the release of propranolol hydrochloride was carried out. The DSC curve of the drug, gum and its mixture showed no chemical interaction. Formulation of the tablets was carried out utilizing Ca sulfate dihydrate, propranolol hydrochloride as exemplary drug incorporating 10 % , 8 % , 6 % and 4 % w/v of gum solution as binder. The flow rate, Carr compressilbilty index, Hausner ratio, angle of rest, hardness, crumbliness and decomposition clip were determined. Tablets were prepared by wet granulation method utilizing propranolol hydrochloride as a exemplary drug at concentration of 10 % , 20 % and 30 % of gum as release retardent, Ca sulfate dihydrate as an excipient, Mg stearate was used as lubricator. Another batch of tablets was prepared by replacing lactose with Ca sulfate dihydrate. As the proportion of excipient increased the drug release increased and as the proportion of the gum decreased the drug release besides increased. The release follows Ficks jurisprudence. The release of the drug was non affected by the disintegration and eroding of the excipients.
R. H. Kale et al. , ( 2009 ) observed seeds of Delonix regia contain glucomannose hence an attempt to measure the seeds for suitableness as tablet binder was considered. Seeds collected from dried cods of D. regia was used for mucilage readying. The mucilage obtained was used for readying of Ca carbonate tablets. The tablets were evaluated for Hardness trial, Friability Test and decomposition clip and consequences were compared with standard Ca carbonate tablets ( Formulation A ) prepared utilizing 5 % w/v amylum paste as binding agent. Hardness of trial preparation was found to be 6.0 kg/cm3, the crumbliness loss was merely 0.26 % and the decomposition clip was 7 min. The belongingss were compared with standard preparation A. The consequences indicate that endospermic mucilage obtained from D. regia seeds possesses correspondent adhering belongingss.