Cancer is a group of diseases which is caused by out of control cell division, which may be due to a defect in a cistron, known as mutant. These faulty cistrons can so split and do tumor of cells taking to a tumor which can basically occupy tissues and spread to other sites of the organic structure ( Metastasis ) . Cancer can be either malignant, where the tumor is able to distribute and is therefore cancerous, or it can be benign where the tumor does non distribute to other parts of the organic structure and is hence non cancerous. There are assorted ways in which malignant neoplastic disease can be treated some of which include ; chemotherapy, radiation, cistron therapy, surgery, immunotherapy and endocrine therapy. This essay will concentrate on how the usage of antioxidants can either enhance or decrease the effects of chemotherapy.
Chemotherapy intervention purposes to interfere with cell division and therefore prevent cells from spliting uncontrollably. The intervention involved makes usage of assorted anticancer drugs and/or radiation where anticancer drugs, have different manners of action as they act at different phases of the cell division rhythm and can hence be given in combination. Anticancer drugs act to forestall proliferation of malignant neoplastic disease cells by damaging the Deoxyribonucleic acid and proteins via programmed cell death. Additionally, the paths of disposal of chemotherapy may be endovenous, unwritten, intra arterial or topical usage. The length of the intervention will nevertheless, depend upon how good the patient ‘s organic structure responds to the chemotherapy. Alongside cancerous cells, hair follicles and immune cells besides divide quickly and the effects of chemotherapy can hence hold inauspicious effects upon their growing, taking to hair loss, purging and other toxic effects. Some of these effects can later be reduced by the usage of antioxidants. Cancer Research ( online ) .
Antioxidants are phytochemicals, which are of course happening substances that are found in workss and within certain nutrients. For illustration, vitamin E ( leafy veggies and nuts ) , vitamin C ( oranges, Brassica oleracea italica and strawberries ) , Se ( fish, meat and eggs ) and ?-carotene ( carrots ) are all antioxidants that can be obtained in the day-to-day diet. American malignant neoplastic disease society ( online ) . Antioxidants which are besides referred to as ‘Free Radical Scavengers ‘ basically work by detaining the oncoming of reactive O species ( ROS ) which are generated by the interaction of radiation with H2O molecules. When the radiation onslaughts H2O, the H2O molecule loses an negatron and becomes an extremely reactive hydroxyl extremist, this so tries to derive an negatron from elsewhere, ( such as Deoxyribonucleic acid ) . Free groups are accordingly unstable molecules which have the ability to do harm. Lauren Pecorino ( 2008:239 ) . It is the coevals of these free groups, which can be found in the environment or in the metamorphosis which occurs in the organic structure that can damage DNA therefore taking to uncontrolled mitosis and finally malignant neoplastic disease. Antioxidants can ‘mop up ‘ and neutralize these free groups, therefore cut downing its actions of damaging DNA and other cells. National Cancer Institute ( online ) . The usage of dietetic and auxiliary antioxidants aboard endogenous antioxidants can sometimes assist keep a balance in the production of ROS.
Antioxidants in the diet purpose to assist ‘boost ‘ the immune system as they protect the cells from being damaged by free groups. However, many white blood cells in the organic structure really make usage of the free groups to enable them to kill viruses. Therefore, the usage of antioxidants that ‘mops up ‘ these free groups can forestall the violent death of the bacteriums, which shows that free groups can really be of some benefit and should non be destroyed. In add-on to this, the position that antioxidants can profit the immune system, has led to a big proportion of the population to take antioxidant addendums in an effort, to further prevent disease and better overall wellness. Whereas, the usage of high dosage antioxidant addendums ( transcending the recommended day-to-day allowance ) such as co-enzyme Q10 and green tea infusion may conversely hold negative effects, as they can cut down the ability of the cells of the immune system to contend an infection. This is because the high doses will halt the coevals of any free groups, which will therefore forestall the leucocytes from being able to take the viruses and bacteriums. In add-on to this, the usage of antioxidants can interfere with chemotherapy drugs such as alkylating agents that work by bring forthing free groups in the malignant neoplastic disease cells which in bend destroy them. ( Goldstein IM, 2000 ) . Consequently, this shows that the usage of antioxidants may suppress the action of the chemotherapy drugs and would therefore forestall it from holding any curative consequence. Similarly, this was supported by Brian D. Lawenda et Al. who claimed that antioxidant addendums can foster interact with chemotherapy, as they provide the protection of cells and therefore prevents the chemotherapy agents from shriveling the tumor. This in bend enables the cancerous cells to still last. It can therefore be seen, that the usage of antioxidant addendums in an effort to cut down the side effects of chemotherapy, may forestall the intervention from working expeditiously or wholly halt its effects. ( Brian D. Lawenda, 2008 ) . In contrast to this, findings from a survey carried out by ‘The Society of Integrative Oncology ‘ found that there was really no intervention of antioxidants with chemotherapy. In fact, it was found that the usage of antioxidants can really better the quality of life of the patient, as they cut down the toxic side effects of therapy. For that ground, this can be seen as an advantage, as the antioxidants would heighten patient conformity and guarantee that the patient completes the therapy. Cancer Treatment Centers of America ( online ) .
Many research workers have found that when a normal cell moves off from its typical environment, it dies via a sophisticated procedure known as programmed cell death. The decease of these cells therefore prevents them from proliferating and turning in other countries. However, it is further suggested that cancerous cells are able to travel off from their environment, utilizing an alternate energy beginning which enabled them to last with the deficiency of ATP. The endurance of these cells with deficiency of energy and O production leads them to bring forth free groups, which when treated with antioxidants in research lab environments, amazingly showed that they really enable the cancerous cells to last. ( Zachary T. Schafer, 2009 ) . This implies that antioxidants may really heighten the growing of the cancerous cells as they move off from their environment, therefore enabling the spread of the malignant neoplastic disease. For that ground, the usage of antioxidants can hold a rearward consequence on the free groups, because alternatively of extinguishing them, it can really increase its endurance. This in bend may cut down the efficaciousness of chemotherapy, because the chemotherapy will take to kill the cancerous cells, whilst the adjunctive usage of antioxidants will do the malignant neoplastic disease cells to last.
Further support is gained from Dr. D ‘ Andrea ( Assistant Clinical Member, Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, NY ) who favours that antioxidants should be avoided in chemotherapy. Dr. D ‘ Andrea looked at assorted research, which showed grounds that malignant neoplastic disease patients who were given antioxidants at the same time with chemotherapy showed a reduced endurance rate in comparing to those who were non treated with antioxidants. The statement is put frontward that there are a higher figure of surveies which indicate that antioxidants should non be used with chemotherapy, and for that ground patients should be advised non to utilize them. Many of the research which has been carried out make usage of in vitro surveies which seem to be undependable as they are conducted in controlled conditions which may therefore impact the cogency of the consequences. ( Gabriella M. D’Andrea, 2005 ) . Simone CB ( Protective Cancer Institute in Lawrenceville, USA ) on the other manus, carried out an in vitro and in vivo survey and found that patients who were taking prescribed antioxidants had reduced side effects, protection of the normal tissue and no intervention with the chemotherapy. Therefore, this shows that because the antioxidants are able to ‘mop up ‘ the extremely reactive free groups it will forestall farther harm to the other tissues and has no important intervention with chemotherapy, therefore beliing the findings of Dr.D’Andrea. Pub Med ( online ) .
In decision, the concurrent usage of antioxidants in the intervention of chemotherapy is a extremely controversial subject. However, no definite reply has yet been obtained. I believe that antioxidants should be used whilst undergoing chemotherapy, as they can heighten the immune system which will cut down the patient ‘s organic structure from being susceptible to an infection. In add-on to this, it will besides cut down the toxic side effects of the intervention which, in bend would guarantee that patients are able to get by with the intervention in order for them to go on utilizing it. Furthermore, many of the surveies are in vitro ; therefore the findings can non ever be applied to worlds therefore cut downing the cogency of the consequences. For that ground, more in vivo surveies should be carried out. Overall, more research and clinical tests need to be carried out in order for a more convincing reply.