Chapter 1: Introduction
In the civilisation of twenty-first century, human existences are non merely focused on the basic demands but besides pursuit the higher choice life. From the outgrowth of competitory concern universe, car makers and assembly programs needed to be active in order to guarantee that consumers have high purpose to buy their merchandises. We can clearly cognize that the people are toward the end of comfy and gratifying life compared those occupants in the olden yearss.
Background information of state
The national auto undertaking, PROTON has been initiated with the originally conceived the thought and direct support of the so Prime Minister of Malaysia, Tun Dr. Mahathir Mohamed was incorporate on May 7th, 1983 ( hypertext transfer protocol: //www.proton.com ) . The first Proton auto, Proton Saga was launched on July 9th, 1985. The present theoretical account auto includes Gen2, Iswara, Wira, Waja, Savvy, Persona and Perdana. With the support by authorities, Malaysia has a reasonably strong car industry. Beside Proton ‘s autos, the celebrated and good known autos besides been assembled in Malaysia such as BMW, Honda, Hyundai, Mercedes Benz, Nissan, Toyota, Volvo and etc.
The importance of the car industry is besides apparent from its significant part to the authorities bursary on direct and indirect revenue enhancements. It is estimated a sum of RM 13.14 billion. A 54 % of the sum is for the authorities one-year responsibility excise gross which about RM 7.0956 billion, 33 % of gross revenues revenue enhancement which about RM 4.3362 billion, 8 % of import responsibility about RM 1.0512 billion and a 5 % of corporate revenue enhancement estimated to be RM 0.657 billion ( hypertext transfer protocol: //www.proton.com ) . It the sense, it certainly will be the authorities ‘s involvement to see automobile industry in Malaysia to turn further.
Malaysia is largest car market in ASEAN ‘S with 90 % of that manufactured or assembled domestically and more than 500,000 vehicles sold yearly ( Cheng, 2006 ) . It shows that the major market for Malaysia is passenger car market. The new vehicle gross revenues for riders automobile in twelvemonth 2006 is 90.1 % compared with twelvemonth 1999 is 83.1 % ( Malaysian Automobile Association, 2009 ) . From twelvemonth 1999 to twelvemonth 2006, the highest car gross revenues in Malaya on twelvemonth 2005 which is 416,692 cars. Table 1.1 shows the new vehicle gross revenues in Malaya from twelvemonth 1999 – 2006.
In twelvemonth 1999 to 2006, we can see that Proton market portion had decreased from 64.98 % to 31.50 % in the twelvemonth 2006. This means that, the good known trade names companies had started to perforate in Malaysia car market. Throughout the 8 old ages, the highest increased in new vehicle gross revenues is Toyota 84.53 % follow by Honda 81.82 % , 3rd is Mercedes Benz 64.62 % , BMW 61.47 % and Nissan 59.50 % . We can cognize that trade names like BMW, Honda, Mercedes Benz, Nissan and Toyota cars gross revenues have been increased from twelvemonth to twelvemonth. Beside Proton vehicle, Perodua is besides one of the national auto undertakings in Malaysia. They had besides been increased in their vehicle gross revenues from twelvemonth 1999 – 2006 which is 56.46 % .
Car industry is the cardinal success factor on the economic system growing by making assorted sorts of occupations in different industry. Due to its growing and backward relation with about every section of the economic system, the car market has a strong and positive multiplier consequence and therefore propels advancement of a state ( hypertext transfer protocol: //business.gov.in ) . Since Malaysia authorities had invested in national auto undertaking to promote the engineerings and to spur the set up of a immense web industry and services to set Malaysia among the few developing states that are capable of bring forthing a broad scope of vehicles.
Harmonizing to Y.B. Dato Mustapa Mohamed Minister of Prime Minister ‘s Department ( 2004 ) , to vie internationally in car industry, we needed to put in research and development, upgrade the work force productiveness and production efficiency to be competitively priced, be client focused and supply satisfactory after sale services and to be sharply advancing their trade names to beef up their market portion places. Beside that, the car industry in Malaysia needed to better on inventions and practicality of designs, better safety characteristics, bettering public presentation, and fuel efficiency and be environment-friendly ( Mustapa, Dato, 2004 ) . Consumer are now besides considered comfort and the colourss are now for criterions of driving in all of the universe ( Mustapa, Dato, 2004 ) .
Malaysia authorities had introduced the ASEAN Free Trade Area ( AFTA ) in car industry to revise the gross revenues forecast in order to be more competitively. It is besides a manner to be greater integrating in ASEAN automotive industry ; Malaysia will cut down the ASEAN CEPT import responsibility to 5 % for measure uping vehicles ( Cheng, 2006 ) . It has been forecast that Proton might confronting difficult clip to viing against tariff-free imports from other ASEANcountries under the understanding ( Dilip Singh Mutum, 2003 ) . The celebrated trade names in the universe such as Honda, Toyota, BMW and Ford have been put up their fabrication works in Thailand for the Malaysia car market. The auto that have local content at least 40 % produced by foreign state may bask a discriminatory import responsibility ( Dilip Singh Mutum, 2003 ) .
Background of the Study
The car industry has become more competitory as the fast tendency turning car industry in Asia has drawn attending. Asia has been acknowledgement as a possible growing country for the car industry. A brands new auto publication has led to increased competition, significant monetary value cuts and lower borders in the car industry ( Silk Road, 2005 ) . These relationships are non confined to the chase of short-run economic jussive moods cost decrease but embracing inventions in design and engineering, originative research and development and quality betterment and after sale services ( Morris, Donnelley & A ; Donnelley, 2004 ) .
In the competitory car industry, rivals have to guarantee their merchandises are pulling to the consumers and high perceptual experience. The gross revenues of the car will heighten the company ‘s growing, profitableness and market portions. Many consumers make their buying determinations is non ever on the merchandises pricing, but is on merchandise features, quality and perceptual experience, even between with fast traveling consumer good ( FMCG ) ( Veloutsou, Gioulistanis & A ; Moutinho, 2004 ) . Some of the manufacturer tends to concentrate on their ain merchandise comparable quality with the international trade names, while others give less accent on the quality and concentrate on low monetary value merchandises. It is based on their mark market. This theory can be converted to merchandises marketed in internationally or locally. The British and German consumers with emphasize to the purchase purpose in cars, puting peculiar accent on quantifying the comparative importance of country-of-origin ( Diamantopoulus, Schlegelmilch & A ; Du Preez, 1995 ) . Therefore, the merchandise quality will do initiation on consumer by increased their purchase purpose attitude towards the trade name and willingness of the merchandise.
In the advanced and competitory car market, consumer perceptual experience and purchase purpose towards international trade name on determination devising is good set up. The car industries have to go on alter to beef up their merchandise image with a specific feature of the auto theoretical account. The car companies can be fiddle by design via the usage of ocular elements, which consists of design characteristic to place a trade name and design feature for specific theoretical accounts to stress individualism ( Liem, Zainal & A ; Warell, 2009 ) . In car industry, under the enormous force per unit area of offering a greater merchandise assortment at the competitory market pricing, the companies have progressively employed platform sharing scheme, where different trade names and theoretical accounts portion the same basic platform ( Chen, Kang & A ; Hung, 2007 ) .
Beside the invention of the cars, after gross revenues service besides play an of import function to initial the purchase of autos. It would well higher in gross revenues and net income border for the company. It creates significant chances for cross-selling, brand-building, and solidifying client trueness. Before a shop trade name additions client trueness, many stairss in the procedure have to be completed ( Zielke & A ; Dobbelstein, 2007 ) . The client must cognize the merchandise, launch some sort of involvement, and seek the merchandise the first clip, go satisfied and so establish a penchant which will creates the trueness of client ( Zielke & A ; Dobbelstein, 2007 ) .
The trade names is presently set abouting a societal alteration with its trade names looking less distant, less different, and less sole with high quality of life improving ( Anurit, Newman & A ; Chansarkar, 1999 ) . With the full luxury trade names trade name, it created competitory car industry in universe broad. The perceptual experience of the auto image had become the cardinal function in the purchase purpose when the quality of the auto is continue lifting. The premium trade names such as Lamborghini, Ferrari, BMW, and Mercedes-Benz must enlarge the properties and values that reflect altering societal values which influence purchasers emotionally, in order to keep their places in different parts of the planetary market ( Anurit, Newman & A ; Chansarkar, 1999 ) .
The intent of this survey is to analyze consumer perceptual experience towards international trade name in car industry and the factors that impacting the purchase purpose on car industry towards international trade name in Malaysia. It is to understand the perceptual experience towards the impact of international trade name in car industry.
Background of Problem Statement
In analyzing the populace ‘s perceptual experience towards their preferable trade name ( s ) , it is of import to understand the purchase purpose and how does it affects the determination devising and understand the factors impacting the purchase purpose. Beside that, merchandise image are of import and lead to the thought in the selling scheme. The trade name name was the most of import quality, followed by monetary value retail merchant repute ( Agawal, Teas, 2002 ) . These findings are valuable to sellers because they clarify whether or non marketing schemes related to market pricing, trade name name, and their retail merchant repute, can be standardized across civilizations and states ( Agawal, Teas, 2002 ) .
The research is on Malaysians perceptual experience towards international trade name in car industry and the affects of purchase purpose on car in Malaysia. Almost all new auto theoretical accounts are construction with trade name extensions, capitalising on current consumer perceptual experiences and positioning the new theoretical account within the trade name household ( Strach & A ; Everett, 2006 ) . Most of the Chinese auto purchasers are doing their first car purchase and shows the trade name trueness ( Silk Road, 2005 ) . In the car market, consumers ‘ perceptual experiences are more sensitive on the pricing that will impact the purchase purpose.
On the other manus, the perceptual experience towards the impact of international trade name in car industry is a trade name confederation combines the equity of two or more trade name names to make a interactive consequence ( Rodrique & A ; Biswas, 2004 ) . In add-on, the variables should be positively affected by the trade name confederation ( Rodrique & A ; Biswas, 2004 ) . The trade name names serve as a quality pledge device by wigwag merchandise quality better than the host trade name can by itself ( Rodrique & A ; Biswas, 2004 ) . Korean consumers perceptual experience were more strongly influenced by subjective norms instead than their attitudes, while US consumers purchase purposes were more strongly influenced by their attitudes than by the subjective norms ( Chung & A ; Pysarcik, 2000 ) .
In Malaysia, the car industries are really competitory and the measures of cars users are increasing every twelvemonth. Table 1.2 shows the gross revenues of cars in Malaysia in twelvemonth 1999-2003. From the tabular array, we can see that the non-national autos gross revenues have been increasing throughout the five old ages. We can cognize that nowadays the peoples are preferred on international trade name compared to the yesteryear. In twelvemonth 2003, KIA motor has become one of the national autos in Malaysia. In twelvemonth 2002 and 2003 entire national autos gross revenues have bead about 17 % which is 56,920 units. Compared with the International trade name autos gross revenues have been increase about 35.7 % which is about 16,663 units.
However, Malaysia ‘s car industries still are confronting positive and negative factors and impact which will greatly impact the purchase purpose in car industry toward international trade name. Therefore, I would wish to make the research on car industry in Malaysia.
In this research, we will concentrate and analyse the chief 3 job in this field which is:
- What is the Malaysians perceptual experience towards international trade name in car industry?
- What are the factors impacting the purchase purpose on car industry towards international trade name in Malaysia?
- What is the perceptual experience towards the impact of international trade name in car industry?
We define the research aim as:
- To analyze the Malaysians perceptual experience towards international trade name in car industry.
- To analyze the factors impacting the purchase purpose on car industry towards international trade name in Malaysia.
- To analyze the perceptual experience towards the impact of international trade name in car industry.
Scope of the survey
This survey will concentrate on all Malaysians particularly the pupils from Multimedia University and working grownups / immature executives. It will analyze the perceptual experience towards international trade name and the factors impacting the purchase purpose and the perceptual experience towards the impact of international trade name in car industry. The survey specifically will be focus on the Malaysians perceptual experience towards international trade name in car industry.
Significant of the survey
Through consumer behaviour position in car industry, the research of this survey prescribes the assembly program and maker with importance information about the perceptual experience is lending to the purchase purpose. With globalisation, companies compete across boundary lines and civilizations. It is of import for car industry to understand and calculate the perceptual experience. In add-on, the research will supply a utile tool in developing effectual selling programs. It besides provides some penetration of Malaysians perceptual experiences that arouse positive attitude towards international trade name that will act upon the consumers purchase purpose.
By carry oning this research, it will be great to research the perceptual experience towards the impact of international trade name in car. The research is value added to the theory of purchase purpose that it is non merely related to locally but besides internationally.
Through this survey, we are able to understand the factors that impacting to buy purpose on car towards international trade name in Malaysia. Furthermore, this survey can be used as a mention in Malaysia car industry for policy shapers, car maker and assembly programs.
Organization of the Research Report
There are five chapters to be organized:
Chapter 1 is the debut of this research. Background of survey and background of information state will be explained. Problem Statement and aim of survey will be defined in this chapter.
In Chapter 2, we will show a reappraisal of literature related to the perceptual experience of Malaysians towards international trade name in car industry and the factors impacting the purchase purpose on car industry towards International trade name in Malaysia. This chapter besides includes the perceptual experience towards the impact of international trade name in car industry.
The Chapter 3, research methodological analysis, which includes the description of research model used, questionnaire, trying program, and informations aggregation method and information analysis. In this chapter, hypothesises will be made.
In Chapter 4, we will analysis on the consequence of research findings. The beginning of the chapter is the background of the respondents. In the undermentioned portion, dependability analysis will be tested. In the 3rd portion, there is included with average analysis. The 4th is Pearson Correlation Analysis. The last portion of Chapter 4 is multiple arrested developments.
Chapter 5 is the part and decision of the survey. The following portion is suggestion for future research and restriction of survey will be determined. Recommendation for the hereafter survey is included. Last, decision for the whole survey will be given.
The intent of the literature reappraisal is to supply back uping grounds that is related to the research. This chapter discusses the relevant literature dominant to the enlargement of the conceptual theoretical account. Specifically, this literature reappraisal related to the perceptual experience and purchase purpose.
The Underlying Theory of Perception
Most of the consumers will judge based on the monetary value, shop name, and trade name name, to imply merchandise quality perceptual experiences has been demonstrated ( Agrawal & A ; Teas, 2002 ) . Study is an of import physique for fact-finding ethics-relevant characteristic of situational component in determination devising and the relationship between quality cues and sensed quality across different cultural groups ( Singhapakdi, Rawwas, Marta & A ; Ahmed, 1999 ; Agrawal & A ; Teas, 2002 ) .
In fact-finding the job of sensed value is of import because, when contrast with sensed quality, perceived value is immediate linked to consumer willingness-to-buy ( Agrawal & A ; Teas, 2002 ) . In extra, values are more complicated construct than the merely quality because it involves a tradeoff of spring and acquire constituents of a concern trade. Therefore, the value will act upon consumers buy purpose, which conversely is influenced by both quality and pecuniary forfeit needed to buy the merchandise ( Agrawal & A ; Teas, 2002 ) .
Harmonizing to Agrawal and Teas ( 2002 ) Figure 2.1 shows the relationship between perceived quality, perceived forfeit, perceived value and willingness-to-buy due to these four premises. The 2nd premiss will impact the first premiss, which is consumers ‘ perceptual experience of merchandise value will impact by consumers ‘ willingness-to-buy. Beside that, the sensed quality and pecuniary forfeit is besides affect by the consumers ‘ perceptual experience of value Therefore, Extrinsic cues such shop name, trade name name and monetary value will be affect by consumers ‘ perceptual experience of merchandise quality. Followed by, the monetary value would be affect by consumers ‘ perceptual experience of forfeit.
Agrawal & A ; Teas ( 2002 ) conclude that:
- Consumers ‘ perceptual experiences of quality and forfeit will act upon by extrinsic cues which is nonsubjective monetary value, retail merchant repute and trade name name ;
- The appraisals of perceived value will act upon by consumers ‘ perceptual experiences of quality and forfeit ; and
- Consumers ‘ willingness-to-buy will be influence by the perceptual experiences of value.
Harmonizing to Agrawal and Teas ( 2002 ) most of the consumers ‘ really frequent short of the in item information, involvement, expertness and clip to measure a merchandise ‘s quality. Pricing is besides one of the indexs of cost that causes consumers ‘ have to give up an chance cost in exchange for the other merchandises. The sensed quality and sensed forfeit intervene the relationship between pricing, retail merchant repute and trade name name and perceive value. The willingness to purchase a merchandise is more straight connected to comprehend value than sensed quality.
Beliefs, Attitudes and Behavioral Intentions Model
The intent of this research is to happen out the relationship between consumers ‘ perceptual experiences and purchase purposes. By utilizing the theoretical account of beliefs, attitudes and behavioural purposes it can specify the relationship between consumers ‘ perceptual experiences and purchase purposes ( Fishbein & A ; Ajzen, 1975 ) . Harmonizing to Fishbein & A ; Ajzen ( 1975 ) , as illustrated in Figure 2.2 it can specify the relationships between perceptual experiences and purchase purposes.
As home base in Figure 2.2, the foundation of Fishbein & A ; Ajzen ( 1975 ) theoretical account is touch down in the difference between beliefs, attitude, purposes and behaviours. Beliefs are the chief blocks in the theoretical account. Based on the first manus observation receive from outside beginning, a individual emulate of beliefs about an object. Then they joint the object with every properties.
Therefore, a individual ‘s forges beliefs about oneself, about other people, about establishments, behaviours. The overall of a individual ‘s beliefs serve as the message base that finally defines their attitude, purposes and behaviours. Attitude can be word picture as a erudite disposition to react in a changeless favorable or unfavourable manner with regard to given object. Meanwhile, a behavioural purpose indicates to a individual ‘s thoracic chance that they will execute some specific behaviour.
Harmonizing to Fishbein & A ; Ajzen ( 1975 ) conceptual model, a individual ‘s purposes, in the last declaration, are a map of certain beliefs. Some of these beliefs affect the individual ‘s attitude toward the behaviour. In elaborate, a individual mode toward executing a given behaviour is linked to their beliefs that executing the behaviour will steer to certain result and his assessment of those result. The credence is that the more favourable a individual ‘s attitude toward an object, the more they will suggest to implement positive behaviours and the less they will suggest to implement negative behaviours with regard to that object.
The criterion variable in Fishbein & A ; Ajzen ( 1975 ) theoretical account is the person ‘s behavioural purpose. Fishbein & A ; Ajzen ( 1975 ) stated that behavioural purposes curate as a individual ‘s attitude toward an intervening variable and clear behaviour. Fishbein & A ; Ajzen ( 1975 ) confident that the best prognosis of a given behaviour should be the individual ‘s purpose to cover in that behaviour. In order to calculate a concrete behaviour ( buy purpose ) , it is indispensable to mensurate the individual ‘s attitude and purposes toward executing that behaviour ( Fishbein & A ; Ajzen ( 1975 ) . Therefore, if there can calculate on the behavioural purposes, in the other manner it besides can calculate the existent behaviour ( Newberry, Klemz & A ; Boshoff, 2003 ) .
Consumer buttocks merchandises is based on the two properties. Merchandise linked properties and non-product properties are the two properties. Design, serviceableness and craft are the illustrations of merchandise linked properties ( Gutman & A ; Alden, 1985 ) . Built-in cues are the properties that should non be transformed without transforming the physical characteristics of the merchandise itself ( Gutman & A ; Alden, 1985 ) . Consumers ‘ find it difficult, if non impractical to measure the intrinsic cues exactly ( Gutman & A ; Alden, 1985 ) .
The 2nd component is extrinsic cues which are non-product linked properties. Extrinsic cue is one which forms component of the worth of the merchandise which is non unconditioned feature of the significant merchandise ( Gutman & A ; Alden, 1985 ) . When built-in cues are evident as being unpredictable, uncomparable or unavailable, the extrinsic cues are relied upon earnestly in the fortunes of hazards ( Gutman & A ; Alden, 1985 ) . Research have revealed that consumers depend on extrinsic cues such as trade name name ( Agrawal & A ; Teas, 2002 ) , monetary value ( Agrawal & A ; Teas, 2002 ) , seller repute ( Agrawal & A ; Teas, 2002 ) , publicizing ( Gutman & A ; Alden, 1985 ) and country-of-origin ( Gutman & A ; Alden, 1985 ) , in measuring the value of merchandises and trade names predating to buy. Brand is used peculiarly as built-in cues ( e.g. gustatory sensation, public presentation and design ) are non gettable ( Gutman & A ; Alden, 1985 ) . This research aims to concentrate on an imperative spread by fact-finding merchandise cue use among consumers in Malaysia as both built-in and extrinsic cues are predictable to act upon consumers buy purpose.
Built-in cues on Purchase Intention
Consumers will organize their possess perceptual experiences on merchandise cues, irrespective of their rightness as merchandise cues are chief advertisement variables that pressure purchase determinations of possible clients ( Singhapakdi, Rawwas, Marta & A ; Ahmed, 1999 ) . The constituents of cultural force per unit area and group conventionality have a weaker influence on attitudes than merchandise appraisal, and they are major forecasters for domestic merchandises but non for imported merchandises ( Chung & A ; Pysarchik, 2000 ) .
Harmonizing to Singhapakdi, Rawwas, Marta & A ; Ahmed ( 1999 ) Malayan and United State consumers will besides be compared in status of their personality ethical doctrines. Furthermore, the two groups of consumers will be compared about their attitudes toward concern, in most instances, and toward sales representative ( Singhapakdi, Rawwas, Marta & A ; Ahmed, 1999 ) . There were several primary differences between United State and Malaysia is chosen for the appraisal among these two states ( Singhapakdi, Rawwas, Marta & A ; Ahmed, 1999 ) . For illustration, the educating typology, the two civilizations are different in definite important values ( Singhapakdi, Rawwas, Marta & A ; Ahmed, 1999 ) . It has invariably found existent differences in moral perceptual experiences in United State compared to Malaysia ( Singhapakdi, Rawwas, Marta & A ; Ahmed, 1999 ) .
Beside that, a survey by Chung & A ; Pysarchik ( 2000 ) on cross-cultural differences within the apply of built-in and extrinsic merchandise cues on consumers ‘ appraisal and purchase purpose for an attire merchandise in China and Korea has reported that there were several differences in Chinese and Korean in measuring quality, worthy and purchase purposes. Findingss have exposed that design was a stronger predictor of purchase purpose among Korean consumer ( Chung & A ; Pysarchik, 2000 ) . In brief, Korean consumers become seeable to make up one’s mind value of an garb merchandise by comparing physical quality and design to monetary value suitableness, whereas Chinese consumers perceptual experience of value appear to be chiefly reliant on their monetary value perceptual experiences ( Chung & A ; Pysarchik, 2000 ) .
In add-on, the research by Diamantopoulos, Schlegelmilch & A ; Preez ( 1995 ) the possibility of standardising European advertisement has been questioned on the footing of trade and industry, cultural, and behavioural differences among European consumers. Particularly, it compares British and German consumers through observe to car purchases, interpolation demanding importance on quantifying the relation importance of country-of-origin and environmental cues in a multi-cue context ( Diamantopoulos, Schlegelmilch & A ; Preez, 1995 ) .
Built-in cues are conceptualized as the properties that should non be distorted or manipulated without altering the physical features of the merchandise itself ( Gutman & A ; Alden, 1985 ) . In built-in cues it might be hypothesized that built-in cues with little effect to consumers when measuring an car. Singhapakdi, Rawwas, Marta & A ; Ahmed ( 1999 ) survey have shaped an opposing effect. Their findings have exposed that built-in cues are possible to hold a better hit on merchandise appraisals than extrinsic cues ( Singhapakdi, Rawwas, Marta & A ; Ahmed, 1999 ) . Automobile purchase is a high part merchandise and it ‘s hard for consumers who do non hold any proficient background ( Singhapakdi, Rawwas, Marta & A ; Ahmed, 1999 ) . Since car is a physical merchandise, consumers more frequently assess merchandise by utilizing built-in cues such as colour, design and specifications of the car ( Gutman & A ; Alden, 1985 ) and extrinsic cues which is trade name name, retail merchant repute and monetary value ( Agrawal & A ; Teas, 2002 ) . Since it is epicurean, it is bought one time in a piece. It is evident to be unsafe and is highly self expressive ( Singhapakdi, Rawwas, Marta & A ; Ahmed, 1999 ) .
State of Origin on Purchase Intention
In given that to finding the work of state of beginning has develop into one of the extensively research constructs in publicity and consumers ‘ behaviour ( Peterson & A ; Jolibert, 1995 ) . It is one of the bulk extensively calculated phenomena in all the international concern, publicity, and consumers ‘ behaviour articulation ( Peterson & A ; Jolibert, 1995 ) . It is unambiguous that a merchandise ‘s state of beginning can coerce consumers ‘ appraising judgements of the merchandise ( Diamantopoulos, Schlegelmilch & A ; Preez, 1995 ) .
These researches have established that consumers from assorted states have different perceptual experience about merchandises produce in different states ( Diamantopoulos, Schlegelmilch & A ; Preez, 1995 ) . Besides, it is acknowledged that there is a better demand to find consumer ‘s attitude towards both domestic and foreign merchandises ( Ozsomer & A ; Cavusgil, 1991 ) . Several researches in this country have alert on what is called the state of origin effect, look intoing how consumers recognize merchandises sourced from a demanding state ( Peterson & A ; Jolibert, 1995 ) .
State of beginning is distinguishable as the state of green goods or assembly ( Ozsomer & A ; Cavusgil, 1991 ) . This refers to the concluding point of green goods which can be the same as the central office of the organisation making the selling of the merchandise or the trade name name ( Diamantopoulos, Schlegelmilch & A ; Preez, 1995 ) .
Precedent country-of-origin research is chiefly atilt towards consumer ratings of merchandise quality ( Diamantopoulos, Schlegelmilch & A ; Preez, 1995 ) . Consequences on American purchasers perceptual experience on merchandise made in Eastern Europe have shown that industrial purchaser normally felt that the quality of goods manufactured in West European states was higher than the quality of merchandises manufactured in the Eastern ( Huddleston, Good & A ; Stoel, 2001 ) . While country-of-origin properties have been calculated for over 20 five old ages, most of the research is restricted to uni-national merchandises linking a individual country-of beginning ( Ozsomer & A ; Cavusgil, 1991 ) .
In recent times, the minority research workers have ongoing to detect the country-of-origin ownerships in the circumstance of multi-country milieus, doing a unsimilarity among state of concept or assembly and the state of the company ‘s central office ( Huddleston, Good & A ; Stoel, 2001 ) . For illustration, Anurit, Newman & A ; Chansarkar ( 1999 ) found that with the purpose of designed for bi-national merchandises ; state of industry has superior ownerships on top of consumer ratings of merchandise quality than does the trade name name. In add-on, Ozsomer & A ; Cavusgil ( 1991 ) found that there is no benefit in by agencies of a state with evident greater design ability to better merchandise quality perceptual experience if the state assembly location is already evident to bring forth hapless quality merchandises. State of beginning might be less of import than has normally been supposed and they might go on chiefly in relation to appraisal of elaborate properties instead than overall ratings ( Huddleston, Good & A ; Stoel, 2001 ) . Consequently, there is no enquiry that state of origin effect does be and made-in typecast can be modify at least in the long-standing.
Analyzing information throughout the usage of structural mold, Diamantopoulos, Schlegelmilch & A ; Preez ( 1995 ) found rejection direct association of state of beginning on purchase purposes and this confirms Peterson & A ; Jolibert ( 1995 ) uncertainties that state of origin ratings has modest or rejection direct force per unit area on purchase purposes. This led research workers to reason that the force per unit area of state of beginning is more possible to work throughout auxiliary variables instead than straight on purchase purposes ( Diamantopoulos, Schlegelmilch & A ; Preez, 1995 ) .
Harmonizing to Diamantopoulos, Schlegelmilch & A ; Preez ( 1995 ) the connexion between country-of-origin ownerships and stigmatization has freshly attracted rehabilitated concentration. For auto makers, country-of-origin ownerships are of demanding significance ( Diamantopoulos, Schlegelmilch & A ; Preez, 1995 ) . Alternatively, they have achieved an highly world-wide organisation of industry procedures which makes it of all time more complicated for common consumers to happen out in which state a auto has really been built ( Diamantopoulos, Schlegelmilch & A ; Preez, 1995 ) . In malice of the immense figure of experiential research, there is still difference on the precise nature of the country-of-origin force per unit area ( Han, 1988 ) . Other merchandise properties might keep the country-of-origin effect, which appears to be situation-specific ( Darling & A ; Wood, 1990 ) .
Country Image on Purchase Intention
In the by and large success or failure of a merchandise state image would play an of import function on it ( Barrett, Lye & A ; Venkateswarlu, 1999 ) . Although state image can be defined as of the case in point cognition of by utilizing a merchandise in a specified state, state image is diverse from merchandise image or attitude toward the merchandise ( Kim, 2006 ) . It is really debatable to separate the merchandise image from the state image ( Kim, 2006 ) . Merely after the merchandise is evaluated like beginning of state image, it is counted as state image ( Kim, 2006 ) . Measuring the effect of state image on a precise trade name becomes multifaceted in this circumstance ( Barrett, Lye & A ; Venkateswarlu, 1999 ) .
Harmonizing to Sivakumar ( 2008 ) a individual feature are chiefly important to planetary selling is the of import influence that the image of a merchandise ‘s Country of beginning or the state that public believe it comes from has on consumer ‘s perceptual experience of the merchandise. Corporation image, state image evokes convinced rules, makings, and emotional triggers in consumers ‘ heads sing the possible rules of any merchandise that comes from a state ( Kim, 2006 ) . Beside that, indistinguishable to profitable trade name image, state image besides includes confirmed individualities and maps as a arrow of merchandise quality ( Kim, 2006 ) .
Parameswaran & A ; Pishardi ( 1994 ) conclude that in 1990 ‘s state of beginning has been recognized into three aspects.
- General Country Attributes ( GCA ) , consist of political strategy, economic attack, society, instruction phase, technological accomplishments, and rules of support.
- General Product Attributes ( GPA ) , consist of the cosmopolitan part of goods of the state, such as, standing, handiness, worth, service, and pleasant visual aspect of the state ‘s merchandises.
- Particular Product Attributes ( SPA ) , contain the exact facets of the merchandise itself.
The achievement of the trade name is needy on all of the above ( Parameswaran & A ; Pishardi, 1994 ) . In some instances, merchandises with small general state properties and general merchandise attributes ratings put up for sale really good because of the elevated particular merchandise properties public presentation ( Parameswaran & A ; Pishardi, 1994 ) .
Monetary value on Purchase Intention
Establishing and switching the sale monetary value of a merchandise is enormously compound multidisciplinary process associating industry, economic sciences, allowable and publicity considerations ( Rosa Diaz, 2006 ) .
In the procedure of set uping the sale monetary value, the chief function has most on a regular basis been in usage by cost limitations, which is why the superior portion of the surveies and methods developed in this country, have intense on these factors ( Rosa Diaz, 2006 ) . However, to put a monetary value in the sanctioned mode, the mark market, and the restrictions that this market involves, must besides be taken into history, and must be given suited weighting ( Rosa Diaz, 2006 ) . The cardinal constituent of the monetary value is depending on why and how that monetary value is construe and buttocks, it is non how much is sold ( Rosa Diaz, 2006 ) .
Harmonizing to Rosa Diaz ( 2006 ) the force per unit area of monetary value on consumers ‘ determinations depends on the method in which the monetary value is evident and buttocks. In this circumstance, the perceptual experience of a monetary value might be distinguishable as the process by which consumers alter monetary value signals into important cognitive constructions ( Rosa Diaz, 2006 ) . The monetary value analysis from an emotional point of position has to take some assorted theories into history ( Schindler & A ; Chandrashekaran, 2004 ) . One of these is the fluctuation degree theory, which considers consumers ‘ monetary value reaction to be reliant upon the connexion between the monetary value and the fluctuation degree or suggestion monetary value ( Schindler & A ; Chandrashekaran, 2004 ) . The closeness or modesty among these two degrees increase to assimilation-contrast ownerships, and this introduces a new impression into the analysis: satisfactory monetary value intervals ( Lichtenstein, Ridgway & A ; Netemeyer, 1993 ) . In brief, the appraisal of a sale monetary value is exaggerated by three other monetary values: the orientation monetary value and the superior and inferior bounds of the satisfactory monetary value interval ( Lichtenstein, Ridgway & A ; Netemeyer, 1993 ) . The consequence has been the acknowledgment of unaccessible factors which influence perceptual experience and appraisal of monetary values ( Schindler & A ; Chandrashekaran, 2004 ) .
In bend to supply a general thought, the factors recognized were foremost grouped into four general classs ( Rosa Diaz, 2006 ) . The common classs, the subgroups and the elaborate factors are shown in Table 2.2 ( Rosa Diaz, 2006 ) .
An extra critical important inquiry in this analysis is the world that non all consumers are the same, and they do non move in the same manner ( Lichtenstein, Ridgway & A ; Netemeyer, 1993 ) . Their features and state of affairs condition their behaviour, their buying determinations and, in demanding, their monetary value ratings ( Schindler & A ; Chandrashekaran, 2004 ) . This individualism are end and are hence more easy evident, while at times they introduce inquiries linked to behavior and the psychological science of disbursement which are, moderately, more hard to analyze ( Lichtenstein, Ridgway & A ; Netemeyer, 1993 ) . Last, buying determinations are taken in a circumstance where the corporeal state of affairs, the services gettable by the shop and the consumer ‘s image of the shop drama a primary duty ( Schindler & A ; Chandrashekaran, 2004 ) .
Chapter 3: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
In this chapter, the writer traveling to foreground the research methodological analysis will be used to roll up informations and informations analysis method to accomplish the research aims. From the old chapter ( Chapter 2 Literature Review ) , we had defined the suited variables to develop the research model. In overall, it covers the theoretical model of the survey. The account of the overall model and the hypotheses development are discussed. Following that, to depict the informations aggregation method applied in the present survey and it will advert about the informations beginning of the survey. An account of the sample choice and the questionnaire design is provided in this chapter. Last, the chapter ends with a treatment on the information analysis and measurings of the survey.
Based on the research model, the independent variables can be separated into three classs which are perceptual experience towards international trade name, purchase purpose and perceptual experience towards the impact of international trade name. The three independent variables will act upon the dependant variable which is the Malaysians perceptual experience towards international trade name ‘s autos.
The research theoretical account in this survey will be a synthesize theoretical account which will analyze the relationships between the independent variables against dependent variables. Figure 3.1 shows the relationship between independent variables and dependent variable.
Percept towards international trade name
Consumers ‘ perceptual experience towards international trade name has feel of import of the merchandise quality. Most of the consumers will judge the merchandise based on the monetary value, shop name ( retail merchant ‘s repute ) , and trade name name. The map of quality cues non merely on consumers ‘ quality perceptual experiences but besides on consumers ‘ value perceptual experiences and willingness to purchase involved to be observed more many-sided quality theoretical theoretical accounts ( Agrawal & A ; Teas, 2002 ) . Perceived value is important and extra direct linked to consumers ‘ willingness to purchase when it contrast with sensed quality ( Agrawal & A ; Teas, 2002 ) . Quality and pecuniary forfeit demand to buy the merchandise is affected by the value which it straight connected to act upon consumers ‘ willingness to purchase ( Agrawal & A ; Teas, 2002 ) .
Consumers purchase purpose can be defined in the theoretical account of beliefs, attitudes and behavioural purposes. Beliefs service as the message base that finally defines their attitude, purposes and behaviours. Attitude can be word picture as a erudite disposition to react in a changeless favorable or unfavourable manner with regard to given object. Meanwhile, a behavioural purpose indicates to a individual ‘s thoracic chance that they will execute some specific behaviour.
Percept towards the impact of international trade name
The perceptual experience towards the impact of international trade name is in footings of built-in cues, state of beginning, state image and monetary value. Without changing the corporeal features of the merchandise itself the built-in cues are the properties that can non be influence ( Singhapakdi, Rawwas, Marta & A ; Ahmed, 1999 ) . The worth of the merchandise which is non built-in feature of the material merchandise is forms fraction of extrinsic cue ( Gutman & A ; Alden, 1985 ) . The state of industry is named as state of beginning. The central office of the organisation duty the selling of the merchandise or the trade name will be the last point of green goods ( Diamantopoulos, Schlegelmilch & A ; Preez, 1995 ; Peterson & A ; Jolibert, 1995 ) . Consumers ‘ cosmopolitan perceptual experiences of quality for merchandises completed in a specified state are defined as state image ( Barrett, Lye & A ; Venkateswarlu, 1999 ) . Consumer uses monetary value as a beginning for contrast in judging another merchandise monetary value ( Lichtenstein, Ridgway & A ; Netemeyer, 1993 ; Schindler & A ; Chandrashekaran, 2004 ) .
The research model that mentioned earlier has three footings, which are perceptual experience towards international trade name, purchase purpose and perceptual experience towards the impact of international trade name. . Following the importance of information truth and dependability, it is of import to understand Malaysians perceptual experience towards international trade name ‘s autos.
Quality is conceptualized in look of the laterality or choiceness of merchandise public presentation. To sense and appraise built-in attributes at the clip of purchase is depends upon whether or non the ability of consumers to measure quality based on built-in properties ( Agrawal & A ; Teas, 2002 ) . To measure a merchandise ‘s quality based on built-in merchandise properties, most of the consumers frequently lack of the elaborate information, cognition, attending, and clip needed. Thereby, it is hypothesized that:
H0: Consumers ‘ perceptual experiences towards their favorability of trade name name are negatively linked to their perceptual experiences of merchandise quality.
H1: Consumers ‘ perceptual experiences towards their favorability of trade name name are positively linked to their perceptual experiences of merchandise quality.
The willingness to purchase a merchandise is more straight connected to comprehend value than sensed quality. Agrawal & A ; Teas ( 2002 ) specify perceived value and willingness to purchase is direct positive relation between each other. The empirical consequences of survey support the hypotheses. Hence, the hypothesis can be proposed as:
H0: Consumers ‘ perceptual experiences of value are negatively linked to their willingness to purchase.
H1: Consumers ‘ perceptual experiences of value are positively linked to their willingness to purchase.
The relationship between attitude and behavioural purpose in Fishbien ‘s ( 1975 ) theoretical account to modified for consumers in Confucian civilizations. Previous research designated a strong connexion between attitudes and behavioural purpose across merchandise classs and cultural backgrounds, the research workers have attempted to inspect the association between attitudes and behavioural purpose in observe to the choice of domestic or imported merchandises. Hence, the undermentioned hypothesis is proposed as follows:
H0: There will be a negative association between attitudes and behavioural purpose in the option of domestic and imported merchandises.
H1: There will be a positive association between attitudes and behavioural purpose in the option of domestic and imported merchandises.
Assorted surveies investigative the effectivity of Fishbein ‘s theoretical account has established the association between the cognitive belief construction and attitudes. Fishbein & A ; Ajzen ( 1975 ) found that cognitive construction was an of import predictor of attitudes. From this position, the hypothesis can be developed as:
H0: There will be a negative association between cognitive belief construction and attitudes in the option of domestic and imported merchandises.
H1: There will be a positive association between cognitive belief construction and attitudes in the option of domestic and imported merchandises.
The international concern news media and a figure of reappraisal articles have attempt to sum up the cardinal findings of state of origin consequence that has been extensively researched by ( Diamantopoulos, Schlegelmilch & A ; Preez, 1995 ) . The inescapably careful, specifically that country-of-origin influences consumer perceptual experiences, but that there is still doubt as to the precise nature of the relationship. Additional merchandise properties might reasonable to the country-of-origin consequence, which appears to be situation-specific and lone cue surveies are hence inappropriate in researching the affair. Insertion country-of-origin in the circumstance of extra merchandise properties and widening before developed hypotheses, the undermentioned propositions are tested:
H0: The relation worth of country-of-origin in order against extra merchandise attributes is diverges between auto purchasers.
H1: The relation worth of country-of-origin in order against extra merchandise properties is non diverges between auto purchasers.
In the research point out that consumers use monetary value non merely as an arrow of quality, but besides an arrow of cost ( Schindler & A ; Chandrashekaran, 2004 ) . Consumers have to give a certain measure of money in replace for the merchandise and linked benefits because of the monetary value are the arrow of cost. Most of the consumers function under budget limitations, the higher the monetary value of a merchandise, the higher the sensed pecuniary to be given up linked with buying the merchandise and the lower the handiness of money to buy other merchandises ( Rosa Diaz, 2006 ) . The hypothesis is proposed:
H0: Consumers ‘ perceptual experiences of monetary value are negatively connected to their perceptual experiences of pecuniary forfeit.
H1: Consumers ‘ perceptual experiences of monetary value are positively connected to their perceptual experiences of pecuniary forfeit.
The effect of monetary value on sensed quality has been examined by ( Lichtenstein, Ridgway & A ; Netemeyer, 1993 ) . Lichtenstein, Ridgway & A ; Netemeyer ( 1993 ) found that the higher sensed hazard is lead by the higher monetary value. It therefore perceived safety will be influence by monetary value every bit good. The hypothesis of this survey represents this:
H0: The lower the monetary value, the lower the sensed merchandise safety.
H1: The higher the monetary value, the higher the sensed merchandise safety.
In order to understand the Malaysians perceptual experience towards international trade name in car industry, the norm method to mensurate and analyze it will be questionnaire. The questionnaires of this survey are to place the primary aim of which factors impacting the purchase purpose and the perceptual experience towards the impact of international trade name in car industry. Therefore, it was developed to include the assorted constituents of the research model. As a technique to obtain the respondents remarks and responses, the undermentioned information is needed to be included in the questionnaires:
- Respondent ‘s profile sing their name, age and genders
- Percept towards international trade name.in car industry
- The importance factors that influence the purchase purpose towards on car industry towards Malaysians, and
- Respondent ‘s perceptual experience towards the impact of international trade name in car industry.
From the above treatment, the study consists of four subdivisions that participants respond utilizing a Likert graduated table. The questionnaire will implement the nominal graduated table and follow the sic point likert graduated table which is:
1 = Strongly Agree
2 = Agree
3 = Neutral
4 = Disagree
5 = Strongly Disagree
The pilot survey will be foremost developed before the existent study conducted by utilizing the questionnaire. After the questionnaire wholly formed the questionnaire will be sent to the expert in the country of survey stated by the pilot survey. To be tested and besides the formed questionnaire, the expert will inspect the association between variables. After the cogency of questionnaire is ensured by the expert we merely can carry on the existent study. In the procedure of surveying, he author will administer 200 set of questionnaire to the selected respondents. Harmonizing to the inquiries asked in the questionnaire the 200 selected respondents necessary to give their feedback based. The writer will use the Cronbach ‘s Alpha attack to give grounds the internal stability of the point, every individual of the variables. The Cronbach ‘s Alpha attack is a sufficiency signifier of cogency or dependability rating to reason the same point was mensurating the same thing ( Singleton & A ; Strait, 1993 ) .
In this survey, we are look intoing the factors impacting the purchase purpose and Malaysians perceptual experience towards the impact of international trade name in car industry. Therefore, a systematic sampling attack is being used. The population of this survey is the pupil of Multimedia University and working grownups / immature executives. A sum of 200 questionnaires will be distributed to roll up useable responses throughout the informations aggregation period. I believe that we will be able to obtain sufficient information with the sum of 200 respondents that required for the information analysis intent. To avoid prejudices during the procedure of carry oning the studies, the questionnaires will be indiscriminately distributed to the respondents.
Data Collection Method
In order to understand the factors that impacting purchase purpose and Malaysians perceptual experience towards the impact of international trade name in car industry, the chief primary informations aggregation method will be the questionnaires. Questionnaires are a manner to obtain informations needed from a big figure of respondents in a specific period of clip with it lesser clip devouring with high response rates and an efficaciously and expeditiously. Email is besides a method that enables us to make the respondents from the state broad and besides cost economy. The close format inquiries and Likert graduated table will be exist in the questionnaires. The Likert graduated tables were used to place the respondents ‘ understanding and dissension in the study questionnaires while the close format inquiries take the signifier of a multiple-choice inquiry. To be easier to cipher and analyse the statistical information we will obtain it by curtailing the country of reply set. The questionnaires will enter the respondent ‘s age and genders except the respondents ‘ forces information ; this is to assist to increase the dependability and truth of the informations collected.
After received all of the completed questionnaires from the respondents, the writer will be utilizing Statistical Package for Social Science ( SPSS ) to analyse the information that have been collected. There are few stairss taken to analyse the information. By utilizing Descriptive statistics it is to depict the informations such as frequence, per centum, norm, and standard divergence. Then, analyzing factor analysis will be conducted on all points in the instrument. It is really of import to guarantee that every of the measure points on the study are independently measured the theoretical concepts they were intended to mensurate. Therefore, the theoretical model constructed by the composite graduated table.
In the questionnaire, the background of the respondents such as age, gender and so on will be determined by the frequence analysis. Furthermore, the standard divergence and mean of the respondents ‘ responses towards the variables in this survey will be examined by the average analysis. The mean is mentioning to the mean mark of respondents ‘ responses of each variable. The variables allow the usage of parametrical statistical analysis is mensurating by Likert graduated table. Beside that, the sum consequence of all independent variables on the dependant variable in the survey is determined by multiple arrested development analysis. In order, to analyse the correlativity coefficient between one independent variable and one dependant variable will be measured by Pearson correlativity.
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