This chapter elaborates and explains about process and method used to carry through the aims of this survey. The Flow Chart 3.1 shows the item of undertaking methodological analysis for this survey. Good planning should be made to guarantee the advancement of this survey swimmingly and absolutely.
This undertaking begins with placing the job and aims of this survey. The background of this survey should be understood and studied through the literature reappraisal. All the information for literature reappraisal gained from the diary, articles, book, authorised cyberspace, theses and study from other organic structures include newspaper and magazine. Methodology of this survey been carried out to ensureA everythingA runsA smoothlyA as planned.
After all the information required obtained, the types of rheology trial and the processs of the trial is determined. At the same clip guarantee all the equipments needed for the trial available and in a good status. Dry fly ash is used to modify bitumen and samples used were collected from Kapar power works. Bitumen assorted with fly ash by wet procedure utilizing hot home base and blending scaremonger at 160 A°C. AfterA sampleA preparationA is completed, so the rheology trial of bitumen samples conducted.
In informations analysis, trial consequences from the modified bitumen are compared with the informations obtained from the rheology trial of the unmodified bitumen for both class of bitumen used. The decision for this survey is made based on the comparing of rheology belongingss between modified and unmodified bitumen.
-Bitumen been mixed by wet procedure utilizing hot home base and blending scaremonger.
Data analysis and treatments
-Comparison of the consequence between modified and unmodified bitumen
& A ;
Figure 3.1: Flow chart of the Project Methodology
3.2 Information Collection
Information related to this survey is collected from assorted types of beginnings. The ground of this attack is to understand and research more about the background of this survey. Information collected must be sufficient to forestall from deficiency of information. All the information besides should be understood to guarantee the way of survey can be carried out accurately. Besides, it besides can do the procedure of this survey faster and swimmingly. Discussion with lectors on this survey besides added in the thought how to carry on this survey.
3.3 Material Collection
Two of import stuffs needed for this survey, there are bitumen and samples of dry fly ash that used as a additives in bitumen. Bitumen grade 60/70 pen and 80/100 pen used in this survey provided by main road technology lab in UiTM. For the samples of fly ash used taken from SultanA SalahuddinA AbdulA AzizA PowerA Station at Kapar. Merely dry fly ash is taken and used in alteration of bitumen.
3.4 Laboratory Work
Lab works consists of sample readying procedure and conducted rheology trial of the bitumen.
3.4.1 Samples readying
Samples readying consists of sample for modified bitumen with fly ash and unmodified bitumen as control samples.
Two classs of bitumen is used in this survey are 60/70 PIµN and 80/100 PIµN. The entire figure of sample required is 48 that are 24 for each class of bitumen. Two samples of bitumen used for each per centum of fly ash added in every trial conducted.
Table 3.1: Table show No of Samples Used.
0 % ( control )
0 % ( control )
18.104.22.168 Fly Ash
Modified bitumen was prepared by added by blending bitumen with assorted sum of fly ash. Three degree of fly ash content were used, viz. 2 % , 4 % and 6 % by weight of bitumen. Variation in fly ash added is to acquire optimal value of additives used.
3.4.2 Mixing Procedure
Wet procedure used to add the fly ash in the bitumen. Normal bitumen will be prepared at 160A°C. Bitumen was heated in the oven about 150A°C. Then bitumen was transferred to the hot home base and scaremonger for the commixture procedure. After the bitumen reach 160A°C, fly ash will be added to bitumen. The mixed of fly ash and bitumen utilizing blending stirrer take about 60 proceedingss to guarantee that fly ash will be good dispersed in bitumen.
Figure 3.2: Picture Show Hot Plate and Stirrer Mixing
3.5 Rheology Test
Rheology trial conducted to find the belongingss of bitumen. There are penetration trial, ductileness trial and softening point trial.
3.5.1 Softening Point Test
The aim of softening point trial is to find the temperature of the bitumen when it becomes soften ( AASHTO T 53-80 )
Balls-Steel balls 9.5 millimeter ( or 3/8 in. ) in diameter, each holding a mass of 3.50 A±
Bath-An 800 milliliter low signifier Griffin beaker of heat immune glass ;
Ringing Holder-The rings shall be supported on a brass pealing holder ;
Assemble the setup with the rings, thermometer, and ball ushers in place, and make full the bath to a deepness of 100 to 108 millimeter ( or 4.0 to 4.25 in. ) with ethene ethanediol ;
Keep the bath temperature at 4 A± 1 C for 15 proceedingss ( Note 4 ) and utilizing forceps, topographic point a ball antecedently cooled to the bath temperature in each ball usher.
Heat the bath from below so that the temperature rises at a unvarying rate of 5 A± 0.5 C per minute. Avoid bill of exchange, utilize a shield if necessary
Do non average the rate of temperature rise over the trial period. Reject any finding in which the rate of temperature rise does non fall within the specified bounds after the first 3 proceedingss ;
Record for each ring and ball, the temperature shown by the thermometer at the instant the stuff environing the ball touches the bottom home base. Make no rectification for the emergent root of the thermometer. If the difference between values obtained in the extra findings exceed 1 C, repeat the trial. Image ( 302 )
Figure 3.3: Picture Show Ball and Ring Apparatus
3.5.2 Penetration Test
The aim of Penetration trial is to mensurate the hardness or softness of bitumen ( AASHTO T 49-80 )
A H2O bath maintained at a temperature changing non more than 0.1 C from the temperature of the trial shall be used
Transfer Dish for Container-When used, the transportation dish for the container shall be a cylinder with a level underside made of glass, metal, or plastic.
Thermometers for Water Bath.
An oven or hot home base.
Put the 50 g weight above the needle, doing the nominal entire burden of 100 g for the needle and fond regard. If trials are made with the incursion setup mounted in the bath, place the sample container straight on the submersed base of the incursion setup. If trials are made with the sample in the bath and the incursion setup outside the bath, place the container on the shelf provided in the bath. Using the above procedures the container shall be kept wholly submerged during the full trial. If trials are made utilizing the transportation dish with the incursion setup outside the bath, place the sample in a dish filled with H2O from the bath to a deepness to wholly cover the sample container. Then place the transportation dish incorporating the sample on the base of the incursion setup and penetrate instantly. In each instance, adjust the acerate leaf loaded with the specified mass to merely do contact with the surface of the sample. Carry through this by doing contact of the existent needle point with its image reflected by the surface of the sample from a decently placed beginning of visible radiation. Bring the arrow on the dial to read nothing. Then rapidly let go of the acerate leaf for the specified period of clip and adjust the instrument to mensurate the distance penetrated.
Make at least three incursions at points on the surface of the sample non less than 10 millimeter ( or 3/8 in. ) from the side of the container and non less than 10 millimeter ( or 3/8 in. ) apart. If the transportation dish is used, return the dish and sample to the H2O bath after each incursion. Before each trial, clean the acerate leaf with a clean fabric moistened with methylbenzene or other suited dissolver to take all adhering bitumen, and so pass over with a clean dry fabric. For incursion values greater than 200, usage at least three acerate leafs, go forthing them in the sample until completion of the incursions.
Image ( 306 )
Figure 3.4: Picture Show Standard Penetrometer
3.5.3 Ductility Test
The aim of this trial is to mensurate the ductileness of bitumen by utilizing ductilometer. ( AASHTO T51 )
Fill the 20 gallon capacity trough with H2O until the degree reaches a point where it will cover the trial specimen by at least 2.5 cm both above and below.
Bringing the H2O to the coveted trial temperature. During the trial the H2O should be kept at the specii¬?ed temperature within A±0.9A°F ( A±0.5A°C ) .
To set the velocity of the passenger car, move the knurled boss at the terminal of the skiding cogwheel all the manner in for 1/4 centimeters per minute, half manner out for 1 centimeters per minute and all the manner out for 5 centimeters per minute. Be certain to turn up the placement lever in the proper slot. This will non merely turn up, but will besides lock the cogwheels in their exact alliance.
Topographic point the specimen in place by puting one terminal of the specimen mold into one of the three mounting pins on the terminal home base. Put the other terminal of the cast into the corresponding pin on the movable passenger car.
Travel the length index to the zero place on the graduated table located on the upper side of the armored combat vehicle by loosening the adjusting prison guard.
The length index will so read the distance the specimen has been pulled apart in centimetres. At the completion of the trial return the passenger car to the get downing place.
Figure 3.5: Picture Show Ductilometer
3.6 Data analysis and Discussion
The consequences obtain from assorted trials done for modified and unmodified bitumen are analyzed. Consequence from both samples been compared to cognize the consequence of fly ash add-on on the rheology belongingss of bitumen. The decision is based on the comparing made on samples.
3.7 Conclusion and Recommendation
The last portion of this survey is decision and recommendation phase. Conclusion is a summarisation of the consequence obtained from the full survey. Conclusion besides based on the information analysis and treatment phase. Recommendation and suggestion related to this survey made for betterment. Recommendation from this undertaking will be used every bit much as can to bring forth better results.