Multinational corporations have spread their operations around the full universe and are often go againsting the most basic human rights. This paper will discourse the negative impact of multinational corporations ( hereinafter: TNCs ) on the natural environment in host states. It will concentrate on corporations runing in developing states. Environmental debasement is closely interlinked to wellness, but due to limitations, the paper will merely concentrate on the environmental facet.
As a consequence of the planetary impact of TNCs ‘ operations and the negative consequence on the environment they may do, environmental protection is a really relevant subject. It is really refering that there are merely a few international legal paperss which lay down TNCs ‘ duties sing this affair. Due to the voluntary nature of those, TNCs can really frequently operate in their ain manner, without any respect to the environment and what is more, in many instances the host provinces are loath to take any steps to forestall pollution done by TNCs.
The working hypothesis of this paper is as follows: TNCs and host states have certain duties sing environmental protection. However, they are loath to take steps to forestall environmental pollution, the former because they are driven by net income and the latter because of a deficiency of will or agencies. Developing states where TNCs run often lack sufficient financess for environmental direction or are unwilling to set force per unit area on TNCs because they do non desire to lose TNCs ‘ investing.
The paper will be divided into three subdivisions. In the first one, the acknowledgment of the right to a healthy environment will be examined. This subdivision will include some planetary and regional paperss which recognize that right and it will briefly present how the right to environment is recognized at the national degree of provinces. The 2nd portion will incorporate an overview of TNCs ‘ impact on the environment and research their legal and moral duties with respect to environmental protection. In the 3rd portion, duty of provinces to protect people ‘s right to the environment from being violated by TNCs will be examined. Throughout the paper, instances of environmental pollution by TNCs will be presented. Good patterns will be mentioned every bit good.
The paper will among others, look into the undermentioned paperss: UDHR, ICESCR, Declaration of the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment, Rio Declaration on Environment and Development, OECD Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises, UN Norms on the Responsibilities of Transnational Corporations and other Business Enterprises with respect to Human Rights. Furthermore, fundamental laws of some states sing the environment will be mentioned. As illustrations of certain claims, instances will be presented and statistical informations used to back up some statements.
The Right to a Healthy Environment
Consequences of environmental debasement have progressively started to pull international attending in the 2nd portion of the twentieth century. Many efforts to develop ordinances for environmental protection were made, but at first, environmental protection was non straight linked to human rights. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights for illustration recognizes the right “ to a criterion of life adequate for the wellness and wellbeing of himself and of his household ” [ 1 ] which emphasizes more the societal attention. The Declaration of the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment, adopted in 1972 in Stockholm ( hereinafter: Stockholm Declaration ) made a important measure towards environmental protection by saying: “ Man has the cardinal right to freedom, equality and equal conditions of life, in an environment of a quality that permits a life of self-respect and wellbeing, and he bears a grave duty to protect and better the environment for present and future coevalss. “ [ 2 ] From this preparation it can be understood that environmental protection is a stipulation to the enjoyment of human rights. In other words, human rights are seen as a end and environmental protection as agencies to accomplish it.
The Stockholm Declaration influenced the development of a figure of paperss and organisations concerned with the environmental protection. Important to reference is the Rio Declaration on Environment and Development which proclaims the right of human existences to “ a healthy and productive life in harmoniousness with nature ” [ 3 ] and states further that the environmental demand of future coevalss is a basic human right: “ The right to development must be fulfilled so as to equitably run into developmental and environmental demands of nowadays and future coevalss. “ [ 4 ]
There exist a figure of international and regional paperss, rules and norms associating to the construct of the environment [ 5 ] . However, no planetary homo rights pact which includes the “ right to environment ” has been adopted so far. There are several regional paperss which explicitly recognize the human right to a healthy environment, for case African Charter of Human and People ‘s Rights [ 6 ] and American Convention on Human Rights in the Area of Economic, Social and Cultural Rights [ 7 ] . It is deserving adverting that the European Convention on Human Rights does non include the right to a healthy environment but this might alter – in October 2009 the Parliamentary Assembly issued a recommendation that this right be included in an extra protocol to the convention.
On the national degree, the right to a healthy environment is today codified in legion fundamental laws [ 8 ] and national Torahs. The preparations of the right vary but in general they include the rule that the human right to a healthy/clean/secure/safe environment provides each person a right to an environment that enables him/her wellbeing and development. [ 9 ]
Environmental debasement is closely linked to some other human rights. Pollution of resources such as H2O, air or dirt is go againsting the right to wellness and can hold an impact on the right to life. Forced evictions caused by effects of corporations ‘ undertakings for illustration are connected to the misdemeanor of the right to the belongings, merely to call a few. As stated above, this paper will merely concentrate on the environmental facet.
The impact of TNCs on the environment
In the past century, multinational corporations have expanded their activities throughout the full universe. They operate in many sectors such as extractive industries, footwear and textile production, fabrication, electronics, building etc. Most TNCs are registered in developed states [ 10 ] but normally move their operations to developing states. They are attracted by less rigorous environmental ordinances and bigger tolerance to the pollution they cause, which is closely connected to tolerance to other human rights misdemeanors originating from the environmental debasement. [ 11 ]
Corporations are capable of lending to better local life conditions by increasing the criterion of life and some certainly do. They stimulate development by for illustration supplying occupations, preparation or modern proficient equipment. There are instances where corporations runing in a host state which has lower environmental criterions compared to those in their place state, run under stricter criterions.
This, nevertheless, is non a cosmopolitan pattern. TNCs frequently move their operations to developing states exactly because they can acquire off with the bad behavior prohibited elsewhere. In developing states corporations often use potentially unsafe engineerings and outdated machinery which are extremely pollutant. In 1985 for case the Westinghouse Electric Corporation from U.S. sold a atomic reactor to Philippines which did non run into U.S. safety criterions. [ 12 ] What is more, illustrations can be found of TNCs which do non run into neither the criterions of the place nor the host state. Such was the out-of-date equipment in the pesticide works in Bhopal which was the ground for the worst industrial accident in history.
Mining and oil industries are lending to large-scale environmental pollution. Those, along with other industries cause dirt debasement, deforestation, pollution of the ambiance, contaminate H2O supplies and have a heavy impact on biodiversity every bit good. Such debasement is long-run and to a great extent impacts wellness. Among other diseases it causes respiratory and lung jobs, skin roseolas, allergic reactions, tumours and can even ensue in decease. Environmental harm is frequently irreversible or it takes long clip for the nature to regenerate. As it has been recognized in the Rio Declaration, it has an impact on future coevalss as good.
Legal duties of TNCs
The international system for protection of human rights is a state-based system. That means that provinces are primary duty-holders of human rights duties but they are non sole duty-holders. A inquiry arises if TNCs have any duties [ 13 ] to follow with these Torahs. The International Covenant of Economic, Social and Cultural Rights [ 14 ] for illustration refers to “ any State, group or individual ” [ 15 ] as holding responsibilities so from this statement it can be deducted that TNCs have responsibilities as good and should therefore chorus from go againsting human rights through their activities. The job arises with the answerability. Under current international jurisprudence viz. , provinces are the 1s which are required to enforce criterions that TNCs must adhere to and provinces are the 1s which will be held apt for human rights misdemeanors by corporations. [ 16 ]
In the 1970s several codifications of behavior refering the responsibilities of TNCs have been developed, such as OECD-Declaration on International Investments and Multinational Enterprises ( 1976 ) , which includes Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises. In respect to environmental protection, the guidelines province that enterprises should take due history of the demand to protect the environment and avoid making environmentally related wellness jobs. They should furthermore supply timely information sing the possible impacts on the environment and wellness, take steps to minimise the hazard of accidents and harm to wellness and environment and cooperate in extenuating inauspicious effects of their operations. [ 17 ] The guidelines can be used as recommendation to TNCs but they are non lawfully adhering. Today there are 42 states which have signed the papers. [ 18 ]
A more recent voluntary criterion developed for publicity of human rights by corporations is the United Nations Global Compact, an inaugural “ for concerns that are committed to alining their operations and schemes with 10 universally accepted rules in the countries of human rights, labour, environment and anti-corruption. “ [ 19 ]
The abovementioned enterprises are both voluntary and it is true that they are a measure into the right way but due to the fact that they are voluntary and non lawfully adhering they have proven non to be effectual, which can be seen in instances mentioned throughout the paper.
In 2003 a important papers was adopted: the UN Norms on the Responsibilities of Transnational Corporations and other Business Enterprises with respect to Human Rights ( hereinafter: the Norms ) . The Norms are the first international legal instrument to acknowledge the duties of TNCs sing the protection of human rights. With respect to the environmental protection, it is clearly stated that TNCs “ shall transport out their activities in conformity with national Torahs, ordinances, administrative patterns and policies associating to the saving of the environment of the states in which they operate. “ [ 20 ] The commentary of that clause states that corporations “ shall esteem the right to a clean and healthy environment in the visible radiation of the relationship between the environment and human rights. “ [ 21 ] The Norms impose duties on TNCs to measure the impact of their activities and present studies to competent organic structures. [ 22 ] TNCs are moreover to follow internal regulations of operation which are in conformity with the Norms [ 23 ] and regard and protect human rights within their domains of their activity. However, as it is stated in the text, the primary duty still lies within the provinces. [ 24 ] As can be seen from the manner the Norms are formed, they are non strictly voluntary. They viz. foresee a monitoring and describing mechanism to find if TNCs comply with the duties they have under the Norms. What is more, harmonizing to the text TNCs shall supply equal reparation to communities which have been affected by TNC ‘s failures to follow with the Norms. [ 25 ] In April 2004 though, the Commission on Human Rights affirmed that Norms have no legal standing and that Sub-Commission should non execute any monitoring. [ 26 ] That means that Norms are merely a advisory papers. The same as the abovementioned ordinances, the Norms are of voluntary nature and therefore its commissariats can non be enforced upon TNCs. It can be concluded that merely as any other voluntary papers, they will merely be observed by a few corporations – and these tend to be the 1s which are already runing in a positive mode.
The international community has so far been unable to make an understanding on a lawfully binding papers acknowledging the right to environment which is purely directed at TNCs. That, nevertheless, does non intend that there are no environmental criterions TNCs must adhere to while carry oning their patterns. TNCs must esteem national Torahs of host states sing those criterions.
Moral duties of TNCs
There is an progressively strong position that TNCs have ethical or moral responsibilities to esteem cardinal human rights in the states in which they do concern. The NGO sector expects TNCs to prosecute more in their environmental duty and that they act to guarantee that their impact is positive, non negative. [ 27 ]
If companies are observed from the position that they are created to do net income and that net income maximization is the lone force that drives them, so it is contradictory for them to hold any extra disbursals which are non purely necessary. Milton Friedman in his article on societal duty of concerns argues that “ the duty is to carry on concern in conformity with their desires, which by and large will be to do as much money possible. “ [ 28 ] He points out that a company engages in certain activities which are good for the community merely for its ain intents and net income. [ 29 ] Can it be deduced that ethical behavior is merely in the economic involvement of a corporation? From that position it would intend that TNCs put money into something that is non purely necessary for concern, but they do it merely because they believe they will hold some economic benefits from the investing. And if ethical behavior would non be good, would TNCs still see it?
Not all corporations can be blamed for fouling the environment. Many are runing in positive manners but as already mentioned above, due to the limitations, this paper is merely concentrating on those which have a negative impact on the environment. From the latter group, there is a figure of TNCs which have improved their policies. The inquiry that arises in this regard is if they do that because they realized that due to new patterns they would hold a greater economic benefit. Is the alteration genuine or are the attempts being made merely for the interest of deriving competitory advantage?
In times of globalisation, companies can non get away the examination of media for their misconduct even if it is taking topographic point at the other side of the universe. There are many runs naming for consumers ‘ attending to irresponsible operations of TNCs which give them bad promotion that may accordingly cut down the gross revenues. [ 30 ] Organizations like Corporate Watch, Global Exchange or CorpWatch are invariably exposing TNCs for the environmental harm they cause. TNCs do non desire consumers to believe of their trade name as a “ bad trade name ” because of their negative patterns and may alter their behavior for that ground. The importance of public examination is turning. What is more, this might be the chief tool for coercing TNCs to go more responsible towards the environment since they may desire to avoid negative promotion which can impact their gross revenues.
On the other manus, what they might make is to publicize their good patterns when in fact they continue to work in environmentally destructive patterns. Unilever for illustration portrays itself as a concern which “ exercises the same concern for the environment wherever it operates ” and whose policy is to guarantee safety of “ its operations for the environment ” . [ 31 ] Greenpeace on the other manus has accused Unilever of dual criterions because the company had allowed its Indian subordinate to dump several tones of extremely toxic quicksilver waste in a surrounding protected nature modesty. [ 32 ] Another instance worth mentioning is Royal-Dutch Shell which now portrays itself as a good corporate citizen by denoting it operates in “ environmentally and socially responsible ways ” . [ 33 ] Harmonizing to Corporate Watch nevertheless, the corporation “ continues, behind the greenwash, with many of its old ways. “ [ 34 ]
As already mentioned above, provinces are primary duty-bearers of human rights and have duties to esteem, protect and carry through the human rights of their citizens in conformity with their national Torahs and with international paperss they are parties to. States are the 1s who set up pacts, they are the 1s who sign them and must play the cardinal regulative function over activities within their district. [ 35 ] With respect to the topic of this paper that means that provinces should hold an overview of TNCs operations on their district and do certain that corporations respect national environmental ordinances.
The execution of environmental Torahs mostly depends on each state ‘s attempts to implement them. Frequently when covering with TNCs, host states on one manus lack the capacity or on the other manus, the political will to implement the Torahs and accordingly fail to react to menaces of TNCs to the environment.
As mentioned above, many TNCs operate in Third World states and these frequently do non hold sufficient agencies for environmental direction. There might be a deficiency of support and deficiency of mechanisms needed to supervise conformity with Torahs. Therefore provinces are often unable to supercharge TNCs into adhering to their environmental Torahs.
Operationss of the U.S. corporation Newmont Mining and Peruvian house Buenaventura in Yanacocha in Peru can be given as an illustration. Mining activities have resulted in depletion and pollution of H2O supplies, which led the local community to form legion protests. In 2006, with the alteration of authorities, an understanding between the TNC, community ‘s representatives and the authorities was concluded. The three parties agreed that the TNC would construct a H2O purification works and transport out surveies of the local H2O supply. Upon that, a local NGO insisted that the authorities must move to halt the environmental pollution and got a response of the Minister of Energy who claimed that authorities would take stairss to guarantee that the rights are respected, but he pointed to the deficiency of financess for puting up an independent inadvertence organic structure. [ 36 ] Some truth decidedly lies behind the fact that developing states are restricted in their financess and therefore may non be able to execute certain activities. Still it has to be taken into history that the state net incomes from TNC activities every bit good so the deficiency of capacities can in many instances be connected to the deficiency of will.
The 2nd facet of non-enforcement of environmental Torahs is, as mentioned in the preceding paragraphs, that states might be unwilling to set force per unit area on TNCs. One of the grounds is because of the fright that corporations might reassign their investings to other states. Less rigorous environmental Torahs or failure of provinces to implement the Torahs might be more attractive to TNCs. States viz. have economic benefits from TNCs ‘ investings and some put precedence on those over environmental issues and accordingly over their citizens ‘ rights.
It is non rare that states give out grants to TNCs even though they are cognizant of the environmental pollution the TNCs cause. What is more, authoritiess often even actively assist TNCs, sometimes with usage of force against their ain citizens. This has been the instance in the illustration that follows. Freeport Indonesia has been runing a gold and Cu mine in West Papua since 1970s and fouling irresponsibly about without any liability. At the clip when Freeport started its excavation operation this was the basis of the state ‘s economic system. In order to take the state towards economic stableness, the authorities had given the corporation generous grants. In exchange, the company provided employment, substructure and engineering. The excavation company, runing in the manner it chose, with small respect for environmental effects, and the authorities have therefore both benefited from the activities. While operating, Freeport has been disposing risky waste into the nearby rivers, fouling the H2O and the surrounding environment which has caused terrible wellness jobs of the local population. When resistance to the TNC started deriving power, Freeport relied on the province military for security. It was claimed that Freeport financed Indonesian military to violently quash protests against its environmental offenses. [ 37 ] This instance is really complex and it is apparent that Freeport is involved in the political issues as good. Both parties net income from the state of affairs to the hurt of the environment and local communities. The authorities with its power is able to quash any resistance and it seems that it has no purpose to halt the environmental debasement because the net incomes it has from Freeport ‘s operations are excessively important. The environmental injury caused does non look to be of much importance and the same holds true for the wellness of the population.
As can be seen from the instances mentioned throughout the paper, execution of Torahs on the sate degree in many instances proves to be deficient. Some authoritiess take the exact opposite function to what they are supposed to be making – alternatively of forestalling TNCs ‘ environmental pollution and protecting their citizens they take an active function and support TNCs misconducts. Laws are excessively frequently non enforced and TNCs can go on working the resources and fouling the environment without any restrictions.
In the past few decennaries the enterprise to acknowledge the right to a healthy environment has become stronger. The advancement can be seen from the increasing figure of paperss acknowledging the importance of environmental protection. At the regional degree, there are a few pacts acknowledging the right to a healthy environment, nevertheless no planetary pact exists yet which recognizes this right. The international jurisprudence is in this position dawdling behind some national Torahs – many provinces have viz. recognized the right to a healthy environment in their fundamental laws.
Activities of multinational corporations around the universe have become ineluctable. TNCs are largely registered in developed states and frequently operate with harmful concern patterns in the Third World. There is no planetary binding pact directed at TNCs sing their behavior towards the environment and this proves to be a failing of current international jurisprudence. TNCs can therefore frequently acquire away with the pollution they cause. Many voluntary ordinances exist but these can non be lawfully enforced. They can merely be seen as guidelines which TNCs are non obliged to follow. Lone corporations that want to adhere to them will make so and it can be expected that those will likely be the 1s which already operate in ethical ways. Voluntary guidelines will therefore non impact corporations which are responsible for the worst maltreatments. The importance of media in this respect is turning. Criticism of TNCs ‘ behaviour might be the chief arm against their misconduct since they may desire to avoid negative promotion which can impact their gross revenues.
It remains the cardinal function of each authorities to implement environmental Torahs. It is up to each province to guarantee that TNCs runing under its legal power do non run in an environmentally harmful mode. In the instance of developing states these frequently lack sufficient financess for environmental ordinance or mechanisms to supervise TNCs public presentation. At the same clip, they are frequently loath to move because of the fright of losing TNCs ‘ investing. States often place precedence on economic benefits over environmental protection and it is non rare that they even help TNCs in their environmental development by violently quashing opposition of their citizens. It can hence be concluded that national authoritiess of developing states can in many instances non be relied upon to play their function in environmental protection.
- African Charter of Human and People ‘s Rights
- American Convention on Human Rights in the Area of Economic, Social and Cultural Rights
- Buttefield, Fox: “ Philippines Expected to File Suit Against Westinghouse ” New York Times, 1 Dec. , 1988. hypertext transfer protocol: //www.nytimes.com/1988/12/01/business/philippines-expected-to-file-suit-against-westinghouse.html? pagewanted=1 ( accessed 5 Dec. 2009 ) .
- Business and Human Rights Resource Center. Freeport Indonesia. Several Articles. hypertext transfer protocol: //www.business-humanrights.org/Categories/Individualcompanies/F/FreeportIndonesiapartofFreeport-McMoRan ( accessed 10 Dec. 2009 ) .
- Cleaver, Harry. “ Freeport McMoRan And Human Rights Violations In West Papua. ” UT Watch. hypertext transfer protocol: //www.utwatch.org/corporations/freeportfiles/cleaver.html ( accessed 10 Dec. 2009 ) .
- Commentary on the Norms on the Responsibilities of Transnational Corporations and Other Business Enterprises with Regard to Human Rights, U.N. Doc. E/CN.4/Sub.2/2003/38/Rev.2 ( 2003 ) . hypertext transfer protocol: //www1.umn.edu/humanrts/links/commentary-Aug2003.html ( accessed 10 Dec. 2009 ) .
- Corporate Watch. Royal-Dutch Shell Group. hypertext transfer protocol: //www.corporatewatch.org/ ? lid=302 ( accessed 12 Dec. 2009 ) .
- Declaration of the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment ( Stockholm, 16 June 1972 ) UN Doc. A/Conf.48/14, reprinted in 11 ILM 1416 ( 1972 ) hypertext transfer protocol: //www.unep.org/Documents.Multilingual/Default.asp? DocumentID=97 & A ; ArticleID=1503 ( accessed 9 Dec. 2009 ) .
- Forsythe, David P. The Political Economy of Human Rights: Multinational Corporations. Lincoln, University of Nebraska, 2001.
- Fortune. “ Global 500 ” . 2009 Annual Ranking of the World ‘s Largest Corporations. hypertext transfer protocol: //money.cnn.com/magazines/fortune/global500/2009/full_list/ ( accessed 11 Dec. 2009 ) .
- Friedman, Milton “ The Social Responsibility of Business is to Increase its Net incomes ” . New York Times Magazine, 13 September 1970, 32. hypertext transfer protocol: //www.colorado.edu/studentgroups/libertarians/issues/friedman-soc-resp-business.html ( accessed 10 Dec. 2009 ) .
- Gallagher, Kevin P. and Lyuba Zarsky. Rethinking Foreign Investment for Development, 2006. hypertext transfer protocol: //www.paecon.net/PAEReview/issue37/GallagherZarsky37.htm ( accessed 10 Dec. 2009 ) .
- Greenpeace. Several Articles on Unilever. hypertext transfer protocol: //www.greenpeace.org.uk/tags/unilever? page=1 ( accessed 10 Dec. 2009 ) .
- Grow, Brian “ Social Responsibility: “ Basically Insurgent? ” Business Week, 15 August 2005. hypertext transfer protocol: //www.businessweek.com/magazine/content/05_33/b3947115_mz017.htm ( accessed 10 Dec. 2009 ) .
- International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights ( New York, 16 Dec. 1966 ) 993 U.N.T.S. 3, entered into force 3 Jan. 1976.
- International Law Programme Discussion Group. Norms on the Human Rights Responsibilities of Transnational Corporations: where next? 17 June 2004. hypertext transfer protocol: //www.chathamhouse.org.uk/files/3244_ilp170604.pdf ( accessed 10 Dec. 2009 ) .
- J & A ; auml ; gers, Nicola “ The Legal Status of the Multinational Corporation Under International Law. ” In Linking Human Rights and the Environment, erectile dysfunction. Romina Picolotti and Jorge Daniel Taillant, 31-56. Tuscon, The University of Arizona Press, 2003.
- Kiss, Alexandre “ The Right to the Conservation of the Environment. ” In Linking Human Rights and the Environment, erectile dysfunction. Romina Picolotti and Jorge Daniel Taillant, 31-56. Tuscon, The University of Arizona Press, 2003.
- Maggio, Greg and Owen J. Lynch Human Rights, Environment, and Economic Development. Existing and Emerging Standards in International Law and Global Society. CIEL Home Page, 15 Nov. 1997. hypertext transfer protocol: //www.ciel.org/Publications/olpaper3.html ( accessed 11 Dec. 2009 ) .
- Marsden, Chris “ In Defence of Corporate Responsibility. ” URL ( accessed 8 Dec. 2009 ) .
- OECD-Declaration on International Investments and Multinational Enterprises ( 21 June 1976 ) OECD Press Release A ( 76 ) , 20. hypertext transfer protocol: //www.oecd.org/dataoecd/56/36/1922428.pdf ( accessed 9 Dec. 2009 ) .
- O’Reilly, Paddy and Sophia Tickell “ TNCs and Social Issues in the Developing World. ” In Human Rights Standards and the Responsibility of Transnational Corporations, ed. Michael K. Addo, 273-287. The Hague: Kluwer Law International, 1999.
- Rio Declaration on Environment and Development ( 14 June 1992 ) UN Doc. A/Conf.151/5/Rev.1, reprinted in 31 ILM 874 ( 1992 ) . hypertext transfer protocol: //www.unep.org/Documents.Multilingual/Default.asp? DocumentID=78 & A ; ArticleID=1163 ( accessed 9 Dec. 2009 ) .
- Salazar, Milagros »PERU: Leaching Out the Water with the Gold« . Inter Press Service. CorpWatch web page. hypertext transfer protocol: //www.corpwatch.org/article.php? id=14157 ( accessed 14 Dec. 2009 ) .
- Sende, Analia Marcella “ The Responsibilities of States for Actions of Transnational Corporations Affecting Social and Economic Rights: A Comparative Analysis of the Duty to Protect ” . 15 Colum. J. Eur. L. Online 33 ( 2009 ) hypertext transfer protocol: //www.cjel.net/online/15_2-marsella-sende/ ( accessed 14 Dec. 2009 ) .
- Shell. Webpage. hypertext transfer protocol: //www.shell.com/ ( accessed 12 Dec. 2009 ) .
- Tonkin, David. “ The Complex Story of Freeport. ” Inside Indonesia. Dec. 2004 hypertext transfer protocol: //www.insideindonesia.org/content/view/219/29/ ( accessed 13 Dec. 2009 ) .
- UN Commission on Human Rights, Round-up of 60th Session, U.N. Doc. HR/CN/1099 ( 26 April 2004 ) . hypertext transfer protocol: //www.unis.unvienna.org/unis/pressrels/2004/hrcn1099.html ( accessed 10 Dec. 2009 ) .
- UN Human Rights Commission Resolution 2004/11, U.N. Doc. E/CN.4/2004/L.73/Rev.1 ( 20 April 2004 ) . Uniform resource locator
- UN Norms on the Responsibilities of Transnational Corporations and other Business Enterprises with respect to Human Rights ( 13 Aug. 2003 ) U.N. Doc. E/CN.4/Sub.2/2003/12/Rev.2 ( 2003 ) hypertext transfer protocol: //www1.umn.edu/humanrts/links/norms-Aug2003.html ( accessed 10 Dec. 2009 ) .
- Unilever. Unilever Environment Policy. hypertext transfer protocol: //www.unilever.com/images/sd_Environment-Policy_tcm13-173498.pdf ( accessed 12 Dec. 2009 ) .
- United Nations Organization. UN Global Compact, The Ten Principles. 2000. hypertext transfer protocol: //www.unglobalcompact.org/AboutTheGC/TheTenPrinciples/index.html ( accessed 9 Dec. 2009 ) .
- Universal Declaration of Human Rights ( 10 Dec. 1948 ) , U.N.G.A. Res. 217 A ( III ) ( 10 Dec. 1948 ) . hypertext transfer protocol: //www.un.org/Overview/rights.html ( accessed 13 Dec. 2009 ) .
- University of Michigan. The Curse of Oil in Ogoniland. hypertext transfer protocol: //www.umich.edu/~snre492/cases_03-04/Ogoni/Ogoni_case_study.htm ( accessed 20 Dec. 2009 ) .
- Zarsky, Lyuba ( 1997 ) : Stuck In the Mud? Nation-States, Globalization and the Environment. The Hague. OECD.
- Woodroffe, Jessica “ Regulating Multinational Corporations. ” In Human Rights Standards and the Responsibility of Transnational Corporations, ed. Michael K. Addo, 131-142. The Hague: Kluwer Law International, 1999.
- Article 25 of UDHR, 10 Dec. 1948
- Principle 1 of Stockholm Declaration ( 1972 )
- Principle 1 of Rio Declaration on Environment and Development
- Principle 3, Rio Declaration on Environment and Development ( 1992 ) .
- Article 24 of the Convention on the Rights of the Child provides that State parties shall take appropriate steps to battle disease and malnutrition through the proviso of equal alimentary nutrients and clean imbibing H2O, taking into consideration the dangers and hazards of environmental pollution. Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women provinces in Article 24.2.h that States parties should guarantee that adult females enjoy equal life conditions, peculiarly in relation to lodging, sanitation, electricity and H2O supply.
- Article 24 declares that all peoples shall hold the right to a general satisfactory environment favorable to their development.
- Article 11 of the Additional protocol ( San Salvador protocol ) states that everyone shall hold the right to populate in a healthy environment and to hold entree to basic public services.
- Among others: South African Republic, Ecuador, Argentina, Paraguay
- Maggio and Lynch 1997
- 140 of 500 universe ‘s largest corporations are from U.S. , 68 from Japan and 40 from France. Beginning: Luck 2009
- There are other grounds why TNCs travel their operations to developing states but here merely the 1s relevant for the subject of the paper are mentioned.
- Butterfield 1988
- For the intent of this paper I will merely concentrate on responsibilities and non rights.
- ICESCR recognizes in Article 12 that as a portion of the right to wellness stairss are to be taken for the betterment of all facets of environmental and industrial hygiene.
- Article 5, ICESCR
- Marsella Sende, Analia 2009 hypertext transfer protocol: //www.cjel.net/online/15_2-marsella-sende/
- OECD Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises, 21
- 30 OECD member states and 12 non-member states. hypertext transfer protocol: //www.oecd.org/about/0,3347, en_2649_34889_1_1_1_1_1,00.html
- hypertext transfer protocol: //www.unglobalcompact.org/AboutTheGC
- UN Norms on the Responsibilities of Transnational Corporations and other Business Enterprises with respect to Human Rights, Article 14
- UN Norms on the Responsibilities of Transnational Corporations and other Business Enterprises with respect to Human Rights, Commentary of Article 14
- UN Norms on the Responsibilities of Transnational Corporations and other Business Enterprises with respect to Human Rights, Article 14
- UN Norms on the Responsibilities of Transnational Corporations and other Business Enterprises with respect to Human Rights, Article 15
- UN Norms on the Responsibilities of Transnational Corporations and other Business Enterprises with respect to Human Rights, A, General duties
- UN Norms on the Responsibilities of Transnational Corporations and other Business Enterprises with respect to Human Rights, Article 18
- O’Reilly and Tickell 1999, 279, 286
- Friedman 1970
- Turn 2005
- Due to limitations of this paper I will non look into to what extent the bad promotion can impact the gross revenues.
- Unilever Environment Policy
- Greenpeace Webpage
- Shell web page
- Royal-Dutch/Shell Group Overview
- International Law Programme Discussion Group
- Milagros, Salazar “ Leaching out the Water with the Gold ” 2006.
- Tonkin, The Complex Story of Freeport