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The fortified of soft wheat flour with Cowpea flour in staff of life devising was investigated. The Soft wheat flour ( SWF ) was substituted by Cowpea four at degrees of 5, 10, 15 and 20 % . The protein content of composite staff of lifes ranged from 6.1 – 9.9 % . No important difference was observed in the food

contents of control ( wheat staff of life ) and composite staff of life at 5 % add-on of Cowpea. Water and oil soaking up capacities of composite flours increased with increasing degrees of Cowpea flour in the blend. The specific loaf volume decreased significantly with increased Cowpea content of blends.

Centripetal panel evaluation ( 80.3 % ) of the 10 % Cowpea flour content of composite staff of life was non significantly different from the mark ( 83.5 % ) of the 5 % degree of SWF permutation but was significantly different from a mark of 88.3 % for the control ( Soft Wheat-bread ) .

Cardinal words:

Plantain, composite, dough staff of life and biscuit.



Six kg grama ( 6kg ) of Cowpea was kindly provided from Sebha University, Libya. The Soft wheat flour used was obtained from Azda Supermarket in Edinburgh City.

Bread doing

Flour samples incorporating wheat and black-eyed pea flours were formulated at 0, 5, 15 and 20 % ( w/w ) degree of cowpea flour permutations for staff of life devising

Proximate Composition

Proximate analyses of the samples were carried out utilizing official AOAC methods [ 8 ] for wet ( 14.004 ) , rough fat ( 14.081 ) , rough fibre ( 7.0006 ) , ash ( 14.006 ) and rough protein ( 47.021 ) . A N to protein transition factor of 6.25 was used. Carbohydrate was calculated by difference.

Functional Properties

Water and oil soaking up capacity:

Water and oil soaking up belongingss of the composite flour were determined following methods of Sathe et Al. [ 9 ] . Briefly, flour sample ( 2 g ) was assorted with 20 milliliters distilled H2O for H2O soaking up and 20 milliliter of oil for oil soaking up in a Kitchen liquidizer ( Model dePC 3, France ) at high velocity for 30 ( s ) . Samples were so allowed to stand at 30°C for 30 min so centrifriged at 10,000rpm for 30 min.

The volume of supernatant in a calibrated cylinder was noted. Density of H2O was taken to be 1g/ml and that of oil was determined to be 0.93 g/ml. Means of triplicate findings were reported. Foaming capacity and stableness were studied harmonizing to the methods described by

Desphande et Al. [ 10 ] . For stableness, the flour sample ( 0.5g ) was blended for 30 min in distilled H2O ( 40 milliliter ) at top seed in a Moulinex liquidizer. The whipped mixture was transferred into a 100 milliliter graduated cylinder. The liquidizer was rinsed with 10 milliliters distilled H2O which was so gently added to the graduated cylinder. Foam volume in the cylinder were recorded per sample after 30 min standing. Triplicate measurings were made for each sample and average values recorded.

Preparation of Bread

AACC method 10-lOB ( 1983 ) was used to bake staff of life, doughs were prepared from wheat flour with and with out the add-on of different additives of cowpea flour. The ingredients were assorted for five proceedingss by Breville SHM2 Food Mixer. The dough was baked at 200°C for 20 min. , in a pan loaf in Russell Hobbs 14552 Mini Oven.

Evaluation of Bread Characteristics

Bread features or baking qualities were evaluated by mensurating the loaf volume, specific loaf volume and the organoleptic features.

The rapeseed supplanting method as described by Giami et Al. ( Giami et al, 2004 ) was used to find the loaf volume of the staff of life. Briefly, loaf volume was measured by seed supplanting utilizing Sesame in topographic point of rapeseed. A 2 L mensurating cup box was filled with Sesame seeds and the surface leveled with a swayer. The loaf whose volume was to be determined was weighed and the loaf placed in the 2 L cup. The Sesame from the mensurating cylinder was poured over the loaf in the box and leveled. The volume of the spilled Sesame was noted as the volume of the loaf. The specific loaf volume ( SLV ) of the loaf was calculated as the loaf volume per weight of the loaf ( cm3/g ) .

Specific volume of loaf = V/wt ( cm3/g )

All finding was in three replicate.

Centripetal rating was performed 24 hours after baking to measure loaf visual aspect, crust coloring material, crumb coloring material, taste/flavour and overall acceptableness of the bread sample.

The staff of life samples were sliced into pieces of unvarying thickness and served with H2O. Twenty panel members ( familiar with quality properties of local staff of life ) were indiscriminately selected from pupils and staff of the Department of Food Science and Technology, to execute the rating. Panelists evaluated bread samples on a 9 point hedonistic graduated table quality analysis [ 17 ] with 9 = liked highly, 8 = liked really much, 7 = liked, 6 = liked mildly, 5 = neither liked nor disliked, 4 = disliked mildly, 3 = disliked, 2 = disliked really much and 1 = disliked highly.

Statistical Analysis

Analysis for important differences in the consequences obtained were performed by utilizing the F-test and the least important Difference Test ( LSD ) [ 19 ] .


Blanching of plantain pieces in hot 1.25 % NaHSO3 solution resulted in bleaching of plantain pieces with decreased Browning of dehydrated merchandises and stableness of packaged flour.

The proximate contents of plantain flour, wheat flour and wheat-plantain composite staff of life are presented in Table 2. The protein contents of wheat and plantain flours were 12.86 % and 2.30 % severally. Differences in the alimentary contents of 0 ( wheat staff of life ) , the control, and 5 % degree of wheat flour permutation by plantain flour were non important ( P & gt ; 0.05 ) . The protein contents of the composite staff of lifes ranged from 5.6 – 10.2 % . Protein contents decreased significantly while carbohydrate contents increased with increasing degrees of plantain flour in the composite flours. The petroleum fiber and ash contents of composite staff of lifes differ significantly p?0.05 at higher degrees of dilution of wheat with plantain.

The functional belongingss of wheat plantain composite flours are presented in Table 3. Both H2O and oil soaking up increased with increasing contents of plantain flour in

the blends. Differences in H2O soaking up capacities of flours increased significantly from the 90:10 to 100:0 ( w/w ) % wheat to plantain flour. Differences in the values for oil soaking up from the 100:0 to 50:50 ( w/w ) % wheat: plantain flour blends were non important ( P & gt ; 0.05 ) . Similarly, differences in the values for majority denseness and emulsion activity were non important ( P & gt ; 0.05 ) . However, the emulsion activity and stableness decreased with increased content of plantain in flour blends. Foam capacity increased from the 100:0 to 80:20 ( w/w ) % wheat: plantain flour blend. Differences in the values obtained for foam stableness were non important. However, the froth volume on whole plantain flour sample was undistinguished and stable.

Datas on the baking features of wheat and plantain composite staff of life are given in Table 5. The oven spring and specific volume of plantain composite staff of lifes decreased significantly with increasing plantain flour content of the composite flour. Beyond 5 % degree of wheat flour permutation the oven spring and specific loaf volume were significantly less than the value for control. Further addition up to 30 % degree of wheat flour permutation produced a poorer loaf.

Presented in Table 6 are the centripetal properties of wheat-plantain composite staff of life. Taste panel evaluations of centripetal belongingss of the staff of life samples increased significantly ( P?0.05 ) with increased contents of wheat flour in the complex. For mixtures up to 30 % of plantain flour, the tonss for loaf visual aspect, crust coloring material, crumb coloring material, taste/flavour and overall acceptableness were significantly ( P?0.05 ) lower than the 20, 10, and 5 % mixtures. Differences in panel tonss for the control staff of life and the 5 % dilution were nonsignificant.

Tonss obtained at 30 % degree of permutation were less acceptable. At 10 % degree of permutation of plantain flour for wheat flour, acceptable loaves of staff of life were obtained. However, staff of life produced with 10 % plantain flour in the mixture had entire mark of 80.2 % which was non significantly different from the 5 % degree of permutation with a entire mark of 83.8 % . However, the control had a entire mark of 88.4 % and significantly different from staff of life with 10 % plantain flour in the mixtures. These tonss which represent cumulative centripetal panel tonss for the staff of lifes represent fractions of the entire mark ( 100 % ) for the tried properties and demonstrate high degree of acceptableness of the staff of lifes up to 10 % degree of permutation of wheat flour by plantain flour.


The protein content of wheat/plantain composite staff of lifes ranged from 5.6 – 10.2 % . Water and oil soaking up capacities of the flour blends increased with increasing plantain flour contents while emulsion belongingss decreased at the same time. The add-on of plantain flour to wheat flour decreased the opposition of dough to extension ( R ) , extensibility of dough ( L ) and mechanical work of dough distortion ( W ) . Substitution of wheat flour with plantain flour depressed loaf volume, centripetal acceptableness of staff of lifes every bit good as biscuit flow and break strength. Technically, organoleptically acceptable staff of lifes and biscuits were formulated from wheat/plantain composite flours utilizing up to 80:20 ( w/w ) % and 60:40 ( w/w ) % ratios of wheat: plantain flour as maximal acceptable degrees of permutation for staff of lifes and biscuits severally. However crispness of composite biscuits was compromised at high degrees of plantain flour dilution when compared with non-blended wheat flour biscuits


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